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“ True to his charge — he comes, the Herald of a noisy world; News from all nations, lumb'ritig at his back.' ' 



J. CUNNINGHAM, Editor. 



LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY, THURSDAY, DECEMBER n,',1840. 



NO. n— VOLUME 66. 



PRINTED EVIiRY THURSDAY, 

w4t Nos. 6 7, Hunt's Row, Water Street, 

BY J. CUNNINGHAM, 

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Prom the State Capitol Cazette. 

HE.\T S UP DEMOCRATS! NO W’-AR! 

Let every democrat bo firm. We have 
nothing to 'fear from tlie temporary ascen- 
dancy of a party composed of all the po-si- 
ble factions tmder lieaven. 'I'here is not 
adhesive powor enough in tlie universe to 
Qiold such a heterogeneous mass together- 
White spirits and grey, black spirits and 
green, malignant spirits and liquid spirits 
have mingled, mingled in the contest which 
has resulted in a short-lived depression of 
the great principles of democracy. The 
■elements of disunion, destruction and disso- 
lution, which, for a day liave been drowned 
thy hard-cider, and hushed by the insanity 
of debauchery, will soon begin to stir in the 
swollen mass and dissolve it to its original 
atoms. Can abolitionists and anti-aboli 
lionists, bank men and anti-bank men, men 
who are in favor of internal improvements 
among the States by the general govern- 
ment, and men opposed to such a jiolicy; 
elate rights and anti-state rights men, turifl' 
«ien and anti-tarifl' men; men in favor of 
assuming the State debts, and men opposed, 
all, with interests jarring, principles adverse, 
and politics clashing, expect, hope to live 
together one short year? No. We have 
mnly to give the devil rope enough to see 
him bang himself. 

Great and momentous rjuestions of Na- 
tional policy are to bo setllcd. We shall 
see how hard-cider will settle them. The 
most sagacious and w isc statesmen of the 
■age, have seen a fearful crisis a|)proaching 
in the history of our government. 'I’he 
"democracy arc relieved from meeting that 
crisis. We shall sec how federalism will 
meet it. Questions are in agitation involv- 
ing the perpetuity of the Union. We shall 
see if those questions can be settled by coon 
skin powows and log cabin debaucheries. 
An important "clement, abolitionism, which 
has conduced to the election of Gen. Harri- 
son, and which is eating, like a slow fire, 
into the vitals of the Union, must be grap- 
pled with now. We shall see if there be 
sorcery enough, withal, in “hurrah for Old 
Tip!” to bid it down! We shall see if “Tip 
and Ty” can ride upon the whirlwind and 
direct the storm, whose mighty roar may be 
heard like the sound of many waters, liowl- 
ng among the hills and vallies of the North; 
jathering strength to rush forth, with an 
rresistible force, upon the constitutional 
rights of the South. We shall see if the 
“powers that be” have the strength in their 
right arm, to sustain the constitution in its 
hour of peril. Wc shall see when the Un 
ion “totters to its fall,” and the hell-hounds 
of tyranny are howling with savage joy be- 
neath its crumbling and undermined walls, 
whether the people have trusted its sanctity 
and preservation to the most skilful hands. 
Wc shall see if Iheij do not call for Ihe re- 
turn of Rienzi! 

Wo repeat, let every democrat stand firm. 
Now is the lime to try your nerve. Now is 
the time to test your love for and devotion 
to the great principles of JefTerson, which 
in this melee have been desecrated and de- 
filed. Now is the time to see if you will 
stand by the constitution, defeated, insulted 
and abused. Remember that the glorious 
litlle band which hid the foundation of our 
Republic, wandered, for years, among the 
dens and caves of the oarili, hungry, dry, 
naked. Remember that they suffered de- 
feat, privation, death, and let your checks 
redden with shame, if you hesitate or waver 
in the support you give to sustain the proud 
fabric wbich they reared. This is the Val- 
ley Forge of the democratic army. Rut, 
be of good cheer! The sky will brighten, 
and after a day of clouds and darkness, the 
calm and the sun-shine will come again. 
Cheer up! A democrat never surrenders. 
Wc will not march out even with h.anors of 
war. VVe will not yield our own good 
.blade while one spark of the life that God 
has given ns remains. Strike the flag of 
democracy ! 'Vho says that? Where is the 
craven who dare ?o(i/.' it? Nowhere! lie 
is not to be found! He does not breathe! 
Thank God, we know you do not mean to 
falter. Wo know you never will fdter. 
Courage! Courage! 'i'lie Republic has seen 
darker days! It will take us but a moment 
to rally. It will take us but a day to re- 
gain ail wc have lo.st. Stand by your flig! 
The argns eyes of the diimocracy arc on 
tbc enemy. Only be firm and there is no 
fear. Heads up, Dcmecrais! 



experience the wondrous change that such 
a result would produce. If there are any 
who have been led to believe that these 
promises were to be redeemed, they will be 
likely to remain in anticipation until disap- 
pointment becomes sad reality, when they 
will in all probability receive in justification 
some such doctrine as was promulgated 
through one of the Federal morning papers 
of this city last week, relative to the redemp- 
tion of “promises to pay” by the Philadel- 
phia banks. 

'I’liat the election of Gen. Harrison will 
retard rather than promote the business of 
the country, we sincerely believe; and our 
reasons for .such belief are based upon the 
fact alone, that he will come into power 
with no settled principles of government, 
and no definite views as to the management 
of the financial aflaiis of this groat nation. 
I.s it to be .‘"Opposed that at such a period 
men of capital will venture to make invest- 
ments, when they know not what a day may 
bring forth? Is it to be believed that men 
of business will embark in any transactions 
except those of actual necessity, when they 
are aware that a complete change in the 
measures of government may take place? 

It was to iliis “lack of confidence” that 
Ihe Opposition attributed the dullness of the 
limes before the election; and it will be to 
this “lack of confidence,” in reality, that no 
change for the belter will take place, for a 
length of time, under the new Administra- 
tion. Previous to the election, the business 
of the country was slowly recovering from 
the distresses caused from excessive specu- 
lations and over-banking, and accommoda- 
ting itself to the wise measures of the Ad- 
miiiislration under the Independent Treasu- 
ry Law. Confidence "was about being re- 
stored; and, had it not been for the influ- 
ence exercised by that portion of the coun- 
try who mainly produced the evils under 
Avhich wc have labored, that Administration 
would have been fully sustained in its 
course, and the nation have reaped the ben 
efits arising therefrom. But the reverse is 
the case, and we are now told that these 
promises can only be redeemed by over- 
turning all the piescnt monetary arrange- 
ments of the Administration — t.hal we must 
have a National Bank — an extended tarilf, 
&.C. &c., and then all will work well. The 
end of the “change” to bo brought about, 
wc will not undertake to find at this time; 
our object being only to keep fresh in the 
memory of the public Ihe great benefits 
promised to the nation by Federal orators 
and Federal presses. — N, Y. Standard. 



Irons. He retires from the exalted sta- 
tion which he has so nobly filled, with Ihe 
unanimous and cordial approbation of the 
true Ucinocr.Tcy throught the Union, and 
the applauses of all impartial men. He 
has done his duty to his country — has re- 
deemed the pledges which won for him the 
crowning honors of the nation; and if this 
people — if his own ago and generation will 
not do hiinjusticc, posterity will. History, 
while she enumerates the temptations and 
dangers which tried his firmness, will pour 
her glory of the noblest cnlogium on the re- 
cord. 



“r’i!o:'iisKs TO Bay.” — The numerous pro- 
mises of Federal presses and Federal ora- 
tors, made previous to the 1 ilo election, all 
of which were to bo rcdecineil il' Gen. Har- 
rism was chosen Bresi.h'til, are naturally 
bc'itiining to excite the attention of the pub- 
lic. 'I'ho farmer was to have heller mar- 
ko's aivl IxI'rr prices— the niechaiiic and 
bil-.in r hriter work and hcller wtioes, and 
th ■ whole comuiunity was miincdiatcly to 



From the Mohawk Courier 

MARTIN VAN BUREN. 

The name of this distinguished slate.sman 
and patriot is destined to grace one of the 
proudest pages of American history. Ri. 
sing from the humblest station — not by any 
whim of fortune, but by the constant and 
regular application of his own powers — to 
the first honors in a Republic of twenty 
millions of Freemen — preserving through' 
out his whole career, a fidelity to his priii 
ciples never yet impeached — an integrity, a 
moral purity which not even the tongue of 
slander itselfhns ever traduced — he will go 
down to posterity as one of the most perfect 
exemplars of ability and worth, which 
can be found in the annals of this or any 
other country. 

Superficial observers may indeed imagine 
that the defeat he has sustained in the Presi 
dentiul contest now nearly closed, is tanta- 
mount to a condemnation for incompctency, 
or dereliction of principles; but the cautious 
and impailial analyzer of motives will ne 
ver arrive at such an unjust conclusion. 
Such an observer will not fail to notice 
that in every contest where the great mea- 
sures of his Administration have been op- 
posed only by fair and manly arguments 
lliev have invariably been successfully and 
triumphantly defended. 

Take for instance, the Independent Trea- 
sury law, which most strongly marks now, 
as it will in all future time, the epoch of Mr. 
V^iii Buren’s Presidency. This measure 
was di.-"cussed for years in the Congress of 
the United States. It was met by an op|)o- 
silion more severe and unsparing — backed 
by an airay of talents and learning greater, 
perhaps, than had ever before united a- 
gainst ri/iy measure', and yet its intrinsic 
merit was such — its basis was shown to be 
so solid — Its principles so perfectly adapted 
to the wants of the community, that il could 
not longer be successfully opposed. 

Tlie opponents of Mr. Van Buren saw, 
after the passage of this bill, that to over- 
throw his administiation by appeals to the 
reason, intelligence, and virtue of the peo- 
ple, would be utterly impossible. From 
that hour they abandoiided all manly argu- 
ments, and by common consent addressed 
themselves to the cupidity, the fears, the 
prejudices, and the lowest and basest of 
animal propensities. Il was the pungent 
wit of caricatures — the severe logic of dog- 
gerel rhymes — the resistless persuasion of 
cold victuals and hard cider, joined* with 
the all subduing process of PIPE LAYING, 
that lurnf-.d the scales against our worthy 
and patriotic First Magistrate. 

Wc hazard nothing in the assertion, that 
a strong majorly, both of the intelligence 
and virtue of the country, are, at this mo- 
ment, in favor of those very measures, for 
the support of which Mr. Van Buren has 
been apparently condemned. Wc make 
this assorsion with a full persuasion, and 
perfect confidence, that lire history of the 
next succeeding four years will inoro than 
.sustain its truth. It is to our country, not 
to Mr. Van Buren, that the result of th s el- 
ection will prove unfortunate and disar- 



INTERESTING ANECDOTE. 

An officer in the United States Navy, re- 
lates the following interesting anecdote, in 
a volume just published ; 

One of our lieutenants told me a story of 
a sailor attached to a ship, that interested 
me much. “He was an excellent seaman, 
and so religious and peaceful, that he was 
called, par excellence, the quaker. He was 
religious in all his doings, and, with few 
companions, seemed to stand apart from 
the majority of his shipmates, as one who 
had little sympathy with them: but every 
officer and sailor respected him, for he was 
intelligent and faithful — as brave as he was 
religious, as generous as he was reserved. 
Ho devoted his leisure to mental improve- 
ment and the Bible; but if a daring work of 
duty was to be done — a deed of danger and 
of skill — there was none so prompt and firm 
as the Quaker to undertake it. Once a 
storm .arose suddenly at night, and (though 
1 have forgotten the peculiar nautical cir- 
cumstances,) it carried away a mast, the 
ship broached to, and a heavy sea broke 
over the quarter; when as she heeled and 
the decks filled, it was discovered that all 
the lea ports had been closed, and the scup- 
pers were not enough to release the accu- 
mulating flood. 'J'he flapping of the loose 
sails against the rigging — the moaning of 
the winds and waters, quite drowned the 
voice of the trumpet, and there was great 
danger of the shqr’s going suddenly down 
in the trough of Ihe billows. Then, ns the 
lurid lightnings for a moment illuminated 
the dock, confusion and consternation were 
revealed in every direction — the men were 
rushing for Ihe boats, the binnacle lights 
were out, and the weather helmsman had 
deserted his post: when, at that critical mo- 
ment, the voice of one, touching his hat at 
the time, said firmly to the officer of Ihe 
deck: “Sir, shall I take the helm? no one 
is there.” 

‘Who speaks?’ said the officer. 

‘It is Iho (iuakcr, i-ii .’ 

‘Yes, take the helm, my good lad, and be 
quick, but first knock out a Ice port, while I 
hold the helm, and let out the water. The 
ship lays like a log, while these cursed fools 
are crazy.’ 

The Quaker sprang, with prompt al.icrity 
down the half sunken deck, up to his waist 
in water — a vent was soon made, and the 
whirling currents, hurrying to escape, al- 
most took the dauntless mariner with them; 
but in a moment he was at Ihe helm. Si- 
lence and obedience were restored among 
the crew, and the broken mast was cut 
away. The Quaker fixed his steady eye 
upon the breaking sea, headed the faltering 
prow to the wave, and the ship, once more 
being relieved soon righted — the sails secu- 
red were closely reefed, and safety reas 
sured. 

But had not the (iuakcr been there, 
where might have been the slop and its 
trembling spirits? And what was it that 
armed this man with such fearless- self-pos- 
session in the midst of | eril? It wassurely 
more than natural courage — yes, it was a 
firm reliance on the providence of God, a 
submis.sion to the decrees of duty, whatever 
or wherever they might be; it was the 
courage of a religious faith — a faith that 
“casleth out all fear.” 



most ruthless and uncrupulous actors in 
them. It has been wittily remarked, how- 
ever, that French nature is one nature, and 
human nature another, and we cannot ap- 
prehend that such outrages will ever stain 
the fair daughters of America. But it is 
the first step which co'inis, and should be 
rebuked. On the contrary, however, we 
find it applauded by writers of both parties, 
and we can scarcely rc.ad an exchange pa- 
iwr containing an account of a political 
asse.mblagc, whic!i docs not inform us that 
it wis cheered by “the approving smiles 
of tie fair,” &.c. &c. It is confined to 
neitier political party. We repeat it is all 
wroig. Let woman calm, not rouSe the 
feverish spirit; extinguish, not stir the em- 
bers of contention. It is natural that in- 
tellectual ladies by reading or conversation, 
shoi?.d form some opinions on political top- 
ics,”!! is natural, and it is riglit. But our 
laws confer on them no political power, and 
therefore,  *)art from all considerations of 
social propriev', they should take no politi- 
cal action . — Ve should not limit the scope 
of the fcmalemind, but surely it has scope 
enough wilhoit straying into patty poll 
tics . The WQ-Id of letters spreads its trea- 
sures. The (harms of poetry, the melody 
of song, the bight dreams of romance, the 
illuminations of philosophy, (he sober les 
sons of histor , all invite her; and all their 
paths are path of pleasantness and peace. 

We claim li be among the devoted wor- 
shippers at tic shrine of womanhood, but 
cannot bow vith a blind idolatary. Chop 
off our heads — N Carolina Standard. 



Woman. 

The empire of woman is the fireside: 
her dominion is that of the affections, and 
it is broad enough. To train the young 
idea, to implant virtuous principles, to cul- 
tivate the social charities, to diliuse cheer- 
fulness and content around the domestic 
altar, to watch and to soothe the couch of 
pain, to smooth the little asperities of life 
and its daily annoyances, to feed the lamp 
of love with frequent ministrations; these 
arc the duties of woman, and they are nu- 
merous enough. For the rough collision 
of the outer world, her nature is unfitted ; 
her more appropriate s|ihcrc is to assuage 
its violence, and heal its wounds. For the 
vulgar strife of politics, her sensibilities are 
loo refined, and for its fierce contention, 
her nerves are too celicate. Her weakness 
is her surest protection, and her sofincss is 
her best ornament. Wo have been pained, 
therefore, during the pending struggle for 
the Presidency, which has been distinguish- 
ed for its billerncs.', to see our fair country 
women unsex themselves, and stepping a- 
cross the threshold to mingle in the fight. 
This is all wrong, utterly and radically 
wrong. In the daysof chivalry, the fail- 
hand of woman frequently wove the ban 
ners of Iho brave, and buckled on • the 
steel of her champion, but we believe she 
never went forth to the war. She adorned 
the bower, whilst her knight kept the field. 
She tuned her lute to songs of love, and 
piety and gladness, or perchance gathered 
garlands to greet the return of her lord. 
In reading the history of the French Revo- 
lution. ‘‘the bloodiest picture in the book of 
time,” the intelligent reader is shocked to 
find its worst enormities were cheered by 
the approving presence of the French wo- 
men; nay, that they were frequently the 



STAsD TO YOUR ARMS. 

The fedcnl presses and partisans are ex- 
ceedingly hdignant at the suggestions 
thrown out If us a few days since, in which 
we called upn the democratic electors of 
this State tokeep up their organizations — 
to adhere steadfastly to the principles and 
measures forwhich they have contended— 
and to be prepared to resist the encroach- 
ments of federal authority. This advice is 
considered b; tbese puissant pclriols as lit- 
tle short of tnason- They have all at once 
become wonicrfully enamoured of peace 
and quietncsi. “What,” say they, “conti- 
nue the coiiUst after you arc beaten? Ad- 
here to vour principles after your are in the 
minority? ii.xcite popular prejudice against 
ouradininis-'ration before it is fairly installed 
in powei ?’’ 

The truth is, the fear of rctalliation “sits 
heavily on the souls” of the federalists, and 
I'.ence liieir deprecating tones. They just 
begin to realize that the course which they 
liave jiui.,,.od towards tlie jirescnt adminis- 
tration is a game at which two can play; 
and there is nothing they so mucli dread as 
tie application of their own policy to the 
administration of their choice. The histo- 
ry of the past will hear us out in the asser- 
tion that since the first organization of the 
government noadniinislration has been pur 
s«ed with such rancorous hostility as that of 
President Van Buren. Every measure has 
bocn denounced from its inception; nay 
hs very footsteps have been dogged, and his 
kilchcn and beeicliambcr ransacked, to fur 
nsh the means of rendering him odious in 
t!io popular estimation. Compelled to face 
ia Ills single term the difficulties incident 
to two suspensions of specie payments on 
tae part of llie banks, his administration lias 
been forced to shoulder not only the einbar 
rtssments growing out of such a state of 
tilings, so far as the government Wits con- 
cerned; but all the real and fancied evils 
and .-nconvcnienccs of the community, were 
by political malice and misrepresentation 
laid at the door of the party in power. So 
also in respect to the sliipwreckcd hopes 
and shattered fortunes which the retreating 
wave of speculation boro upon its ample 
bosom — tbc reduction in the price of agri- 
cultural products resulting from previous in- 
flation and copious supply — the stagnation 
of business and consequent reduction of wa- 
ges incident to a period of pecuniary re- 
vulsion — all, all, were fruitful themes wbicli 
federal mendacity has not failed to wield to 
the uttermost, against the present democrat 
tic administration. Indeed it is a matter of 
universal notoriety that Ihe whole campaign 
on the part of the Federalists lias been an 
unbroken scries of denunciations and mis- 
representations as to the measures, inten- 
tions and course of those to whom the Gov- 
ernment has been intrusted. 

Now ihatllirough such means the rela- 
tive positions of parties has been changed, 
and the res[)onsibility of action is to be 
thrown upon the new dynasty, its supporters 
are beginning to tremble lest that the poi- 
soned chalice may be commended to their 
own lips. They are therefore suddenly 
changed from ruthless belligerents into ar- 
dent advocates for a cessation ol iiostililies. 
Their arms are extended wide to embrace 
those who but recently were characteri- 
zed as the veriest political outcasts. Peace 
and repose within the piecincis of federal 
power arc vouchsafed to such of the democ- 
racy as will consent to ground their arms, 
forego the future advocacy of tlie measures 
which they have heretofore deemed essen. 
lial to tbc welfare of the country. But we 
have mistaken tlie cliaiacler of oiir demo- 
cratic bretbern if Ibey can be beguiled by 
such manoeuvres of the old enemy. '1 heir 
principles are too dear to be bartered for 
any mess of pottage wliicb tbc lederiilists 
can bold out, nor will they forego the advan- 
tage of position which they arc hereafter to 
hold, simply liecaiiso their so doing may not 
suit the convenience of their adversaries. 

In the meantime, wc repeat, lei our demo 
cratic friends stand firm. Tbc triumph ol 
federalism must of necessity bo short. 



Falsehood, it is true, has outstripped Truth 
in the outset, but the end of the race will 
demonstrate that though the latter is slow 
in getting on lier“bools,” sho amends for 
the delay in the steadiness of her pace, and 
the unerring certainly with which she ulti- 
mately reaches the goal . — Albany Argus. 

DEMOCRACY AND FEDERALISM. 

All eloquent writer in the Richmond En- 
quirer says: 

“I glory in the name and in the cause 
of a Democrat. This cause must triumph 
in the long run. It is the great error, the 
besetting sin, the infamous distinctive fea- 
ture of federalism, that it hath no sympa- 
thy with the UNIVERSAL HEART! In- 
deed, itsgrand characteristic is NARROW 
MINDEDNESS! Ityeexrnsnot towards, it 
feels not for, the MANY! In petty and par- 
tial ubjtvto, p/  ej7 and nnrtini leirislntinn. 

are all its energies spcntl — Hence its ani-T““J'''t‘-' ’ 
ance with every meretricious interest; 
hence its ministering to local piejudicc; and 
hence its contempt for the behests of our 
constitutional Charter, in order to oppress 
one. class at the expense of another. Its 
great tools are PERVERSION OF GRAN- 
TED POWERS and PARTIAL and PER- 
VERTED LAWS. With equal boldness, 
it has allied itself at times with the fiendish 
Abolitionist, the Northern Manufacturer, 
and the bloated moneyed interest. Down, 
down, down with such a party! and me 
thinks I hear the American Democracy an 
swer in chorus. But nothing shall daunt 
us in the chase. The cause of Democracy 
is not to be put down, because forsooth of 
this or that partial trifle — this or that defal- 
cation by a Conservative Whig. We will 
fight Federalism to the last; wc will fight 
it with water and with fire — by day and 
by night', wc will battle with it in the skir- 
mish and in the tented field; we will not 
leave it a nook or a corner wherein to bide 
its hideous front. There will be no truce; 
no partial reverses shall daunt or make our 
hearts quail. Treachery and political Ar- 
nolds may raise their beads in our ranks, 
but even Ibis shall not avail it! And fight 
it we will, in spite of every art, while 
there is a shot in llio locker, or a man to 
tread the deck.” 



and republicans; whigs and lories; treacher- 
ous friends and open enemies; that it was 
indeed a very curious show; but utterly un- 
safe to touch and unsure to stand on. The 
colleagues whom he had a.'-'sorted at the 
same boards, stared at each other, and 
were obliged to ask, “Sir your name? — Sir 
you liave the advantage of me — Mr. Such- 
a-one — I beg a thousand pardons — 1 
venture to say, it did so liappen, that per- 
sons had a single office divided between 
them, who had never spoke to each other 
in their lives, until they found themselves, 
they knew not how, pigging together, heads 
and points, in the same truckle beds.” 

Gen . John Armstrong . — This venerable 
gentleman, now in his 84ili year and still 
in the full possession of his uncommon 
faculties, is in the city on a visit to his son- 
in-law, VVm. B. Astor, Esq. One of his 
xiDjtvw I- ,w ,i.„ proof sheets of the 

concluding volume, now about to appear, 
of bis History of the late vrai. 

General Armstrong is one of the few re- 
maining links that connect us with the men 
of the other days, with tlie heroic race of 
Ihe Revolution. He has, loo, in our days, 
filled high and responsible offices. Senator 
in Congress, Minister to France, Major 
General of our armies, Secretary at War — 
he has occupied a space allotted to few 
men — and now, in vigorous old age, has 
become the historian of a part, and not tho 
least eventful part, of the scenes in which 
he was a prominent actor . — New York Am-  
crican. 



IMPORT DUTIES OF GREAT BRI- 
TAIN. — A Report from a Select Committee 
of the House of Commons, upon the im- 
port duties of the kinsdom, has been laid 
before the British Parliament. It states 
that 1150 different articles are subject to 



W. L. MACKENZIE. 

The Rochester Daily Advertiser of No- 
ember 20tb, gives several columns of an 
examination that has taken place before one 
of the Justices of Rochester, in seference 
to a conspiracy, which, it is alleged, has 
been formed to kidnap VVm. Lyon Macken- 
r. nnd narry him foixiblv to Canada, where 
a reward of a thousand pounds has been 
offered for bis apprehension. It appears 
from the report of tins examination, that a 
Mr. Cameron, late of tlie Commercial Bank 
of Toronto, has been for some time in Ro 
Chester, seeking an opportunity to execute 
the plan . This Mr. Cameron made a coh- 
fidontof Mr. Wells, one of the publishers 
of llic Daily Wliig, who he liad learned was 
on terms of enmity with Mackenzie. To 
him bo divulged the detail of a conspiracy 
wbich had been entered into between him- 
self and others, among whom was an ofticcr 
of the 93d regiment, a iMr. Perry, of Co 
burg, and tlie conniiandcr of the steamboat 
Gore. The plan was to decoy Mackenzie 
to the lower part of the town, where be was 
to be seized and then taken on board of the 
steamboat, which should be in readiness to 
pusli oft’. 

Mr. Wells, by a note, communicated the 
conspiracy to Mackenzie, who after making 
himself certain by minute inquiry that tbc 
fiicls stated by Mr. Wells were correct, com- 
plained to the civil authorities, and after an 
examination of witnesses, Ird the British 
officer Cameron arrested. Cameron is held 
to bail in the sum of 100 dollars, with two 
sureties, each in 200 dollars. 

The Privileged Classes — We have, in 
the United States, say the journals of the 
day. 89 colleges, 12 law schools, 90 medical 
seminaries, 30 divinity schools, nnd some 
where about 1000 academies, more or less 
sustained by legislative bounty, for tlie al 
most exclusive benefit of the learned pro 
fessions, which do not comprise, probably, 
one twentieth part of the population. We 
have not a single college, seminary, or 

ScIlOol foe tl\0 irr»p***Nirr'mont rxl 

llie other nineteen iwenliellis of our |X)pula' 
lion— the farmers and mechanics— who 
create our wealth, i ay our taxes, and fight 
our battles— nllhougli, (wc speak it in the 
spirit of truth,) the country would be more 
benefited, in its morals and in its politics- 
far more benefited- by extending to the la- 
boring classes a higher standard of learning, 
in what especially concerns their business, 
than it is from the aid which it now gives 
to the non-producing classes. It is a repub' 
lican inaxiin, that all should participate alike 
in the public bounty. But tbc maxim t.as 
not as yet been adopted by our legislators 
Albany Cultivator. 



Tiif, ILvnuisoN Caiunet. — A Baltimore 
paper, speaking of the diversified materi- 
als of wbich tbc whig parly is composed 
conjectures the character of the Harrison 
Cabinet, and in the course of his remarks 
cites as an :q)pro|iriale description, the pic 
lute drawn by Edmund Burke, of tlie first 
cabinet of Loid Clmtbam . It is as follows: 
“He made an administration, .so checker 
cd and speckled; be jwt together a piece 
of joincrv, so crossly indented and whim- 
sically dovetailed; a cabinet so variously in- 
laid; 'such a piece of diversified mosaic; 
such a tessclated pavement without cement, 
liere a bit of black stone, and llicre a bit ot 
white; patriots and courtiers, king’s friends 



m])ort duly, besides some not enumerated. 
The total amount of revenue from tliesa 
1150 articles is £22,962,610; and out of 
this amount, nine articles alone produced 
in 1838, sometliing over eighteen millions 
and a half pounds sterling; ten articles 
more produced nearly two millions. Tho 
rest of tlie amount of tlie revenue was deri- 
ved from the aggregate of insignificant i- 
Icms. 

Among the articles yielding the greatest 
amount of revenue, Tobacco is prominent 
in the list. The duties from this article in 
1839 amounted to £3,495,689, or to near- 
ly seventeen millions of dollars. This 
large revenue is derived from an inconsid- 
erable quantity of tobacco, the duty being 
in the proportion of about thirty six pence 
on six pence worth of tobacco. 

7'hc commiUoo orj^prp«(4 rr nv1r.rloi) 
that prohibitory duties are comparatively 
unproductive to the revenue, and operate 
as a heavy tax upon the country al large. 
A revision of the whole system of Custom 
House legislation is recomended, nnd a 
eradual amelioration of the restrictive poli- 
cy, in such a manner that existing inter- 
ests may suffer as little as ]xissible in the 
transition to a more liberal and equitable 
state of thing?. 

We find these statements relative to the 
Report in Ihe New York Commercial Ad- 
vertiser. They indicate a change in the 
commercial policy of Great Britain which 
bespeaks a degree of liberality rather 
unusual for that country. We cannot but 
hope lliat the proposed alterations will bo 
carried into eff’eci — although it is not to be 
expected tliat tlie system now in force will 
be materially changed. — Ball American . 

The Phraseology of the W est. — I t is 
really believed that an unsophisticated Phil- 
adelphian could not travel comfortably in 
the West without an interpreter, any more 
than in China. It was the boast of a Lon- 
don cockney, that he travelled tlirougli 
France and Italy, being better provided with 
cash than lingo, with only one word — ‘Com- 
hien?' In Iowa, and parts adjacent, if you 

asked a man, ‘Do you know Colonel S ?’ 

Tho answer would be i ‘Know him? Why 
stranger, I don’t know any one else!' If 
the native was describing the large eating 
propensities of a neighbor, he would observe 
— ‘the way tliat settler hides turnips, and 
puts baked beans into the shade, is a caution 
to tlie patriarchs.’ A liundred similar ex- 
pressions, extravagant, but full of originali- 

t}7. a ro oi'orji _ jw lio 1-0 onfronl in ttin Wo**, 

and taken without their verbal contexts, 
would scarcely be understood without a 
guide. Altogether, they would make a 
volume. 

An Irishman, in crossing a river in a 
boat, witli his mare and colt, was tlirown in- 
to the river, and clung to llie coil’s tail. 
Tlie colt sliowed signs of exiiaustion, and 
a man on shore tojel liim to leave the colt 
and cling to llie mare’s tail, tfeh faith 
honey! 'an this is no time to be swappin' 
horses,' was the reply. 

A Whig Heroine. — Tho Baltimore Re- 
publican says: ‘‘We liave iieard of many 
singular feats iierformed by whig ladies du- 
ring the late campaign, but the following, 
winch we find in an Indiana paper, goes 
a lectio above any thing yet, and is enough 
lomakc even tlic vulgar sVorc." — 

“A young lady lately clambered up tho 
Hickory tree at Bolivar, and cut the rope 
to prevent the democrats from hoisting tho 



A President. — “Pal, do you know what 
is tliat tliey call a President?” “Indade, 
nnd don’t 1 sure? It’s a fellow that they 
set up to blackguard and call names, and if 
he can stand beirg called a rascal, a fexil, 
and a tyrant , why then they just put him 
in President — that’s all.” 



LEXINGTON, TIIUUSDAY, DEC. 17. 



PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE. 

A single copy of the Presidont’s Messnge 

yesterday evening, directed to our amiable 

and obliging Postmaster, to whose politeness 
we are indebted for it. By great e.xertions 
we are enabled to lay it before our readers, 
but have no time for comments. 

DEMOCRATIC MEETING. 

In consequence of the extreme inclem- 
ency of the weather, the meeting which 
was appointed for Saturday last, was post- 
poned until Saturday next, the 19th inst. at 
2 o’clock, P. M., on which day it will be held 
at the Court House, in the city of Lexing' 
ton. A general attendance is requested, 
as matters of importance will be offered for 
consideration. 



Alabam.v. — The vote of this State, ac- 
cording to the official returns, is as follows: 
Van Buren 33,991, Harrison 28,471— Van 
Buren’s majority 5,520. 

Mississippi. — The official vote of Mis- 
sissippi is, for. Van Duren 10,995, Harrison 
10,518. Harrison’s maioritv 2.623. 

■I’liE GOVERNOR’S MESSAGE. 

This is the most curious document, prob- 
ably, which was ever issued by the Chief 
Magistrate of any Slate. The Governor 
had, undoubtedly, a very difficult part to 
perform, and has played it most sadly. The 
State Treasury is bankrupt. This fact is 
well known. Sho has also commenced an 
extensive system of Internal Improvements 
upon which several millions of dollars have 
been expended, but which is incomplete 
and unproductive. And in addition to this 
her credit has sunk so low that her bonds 
cannot bo disposed of, except at a sacrifice 
so ruinous, that her rulers have shrunk from 
incurring it. And to make the matter still 
worse, the Sinking Fund, established for the 
purpose of providing for the payment of the 
interest of our public debt, is also bankrupt 
and the Commissioners have been forced to 
retort to loans to meet the accruing interest 
upon tho debt. 

These are the naked facts, and this is the 
condition to which whig rule has reduced 
Kentucky. How does the Governor meet 
the case? Does he march boldly up to the 
evil — look it steadfastly in the face, and 
point out the proper remedies? Not at all. 
The whole .Message is a poor attempt to 
mystify the real condition of aflairs, and to 
shuffie off upon others the responsibility of 
providing proper remedies. The Governor 

insinuates that sufHciont jravonv » •l.oulU 

provided to meet the current expenses of 
the State; that the Sinking Fund should be 
placed in a situation to enable it to pay the 
interest on the public debt, and that the 
system of Internal Improvements should be 
so far completed as to render it in some de- 
gree a source of revenue; but he hesitates 
to recommend the only measure which could 
accomplish all these ends — efficient and 
vigorous taxation. There were but two 
modes in which the Governor could honor- 
ably have met the crisis in our financial nf. 
fairs — tho prompt abandonment of the sys 
tern of Internal Improvements, or a suffi- 
cient imposition of taxes to carry them to 
a successful e.ompletion. He has done nei- 
ther — ho has shrunk from his duty, and 
failed to discharge tho functions of his 
office. 

Tho Governor first states the amount of 
the public debt, for Internal Improvement 
purposes, at $3,710,500, but says that the 
sum of 8917,500 held by the Board of Edu- 
cation, and $20,000 held by the Commis- 
sioners of tho Sinking Fund, should be de- 
ducted, because "these are debts duo from 
tho State to itself.” And in another part 
of tho Message informs us that the Com- 
missioners of the Sinking Fund “have 
deemed it most prudent to suspend the pay- 
ment of ilie interest due upon the bonds 
held by the Board of Education.” What 

ff btrt — vr 

conduct. Tho State first sets apart, and 
pledges for tho purposes of Education, a 
certain fund — that fund is invested in the 
stocks of the Slate for the purpose of ren- 
dering if profitable, and then the Governor 
claims it as a debt due from the State to itself, 
and for tho same reason the Commi.ssioners 
of the Sinking Fund neglect to provide for 
the payment of the interest. What splendid 
financeering, and how gloriously the cause 
of Education must prosper under such 
guardianship. If the Legislature should 
follow tho lead of tho Governor and the 
Commis.sioncrs, tho Education Fund will 
never be heard of again, and Kentucky will 
present tho ludicrous spectacle of employ- 
ing a lecturer at a high salary, to explain 
and recommend a system of Common 
Schools, after she has squandered every 
cent of the fund appropriated for its sup- 
port. But what of that, tho State will still 
“owe the debt to herself,” and that should 
bo sufficient consolation to the future gene- 
rations who ara permitted to grow up in ig- 
norance of tho common rudiments of edu*. 
cation. 



Tho State has been making a snug little 
addition to her debt during the past year— 
the Treasurer has borrowed $30,000 of the 
Kentucky Branch Bunk at Frankfort, to de- 
fray tho expenses of tl e E.xtra Session of 
the Legislature — the Commissioners of the 
Sinking Fund hate borrowed .$10,000 from 
the same Bank, and $20,000 from the Bank 
of Louisville — the bonds of the btate, pay- 
able in thirty years, have been issued for 
$439,000, and for $560,000 payable in six 
years— and in addition to this, the Commis- 
sioners have "effected a conditional arrange- 
ment with the Bank of Kentucky, for an 
amount sufficient to meet the January in- 
stalment of interest due to foreign holdeis 
of State stock.” How much has been bor- 
rowed for this purpose we are left to guess: 
it cannot be less than 8100,000. Ihe ac 
count will then stand thus: — 

To pay expenses of Extra Session, 

Borrowed by Comers of Sinking Fund* 

Thirty year Bonds, 

Six year Bonds, 

Probable amount borrowed to pay in- 
terest on State debt, 



defenceless portion of llie whig aspirants, 
and shall try to liold the whig editors bad; 
until all can have a fair start. 



$30,000 

30,000 

439.000 

560.000 



100,000 
$1,159,000 

And after all this borrowing— after all 
these efforts ‘to make both ends meet, the 
result is. in the language of the Governor, 
“a deficit in the Sinkina Fund.” “» Hnfidt 
in the ordinary revenue of the State,” and 
a prospect of utter bankruptcy, or an enor- 
mous increase of taxation. And what has 
the State to show for all- this mass of in 
debtedness? — an incomplete and almost use 
less system of Internal Improvements, and 
a number of ruined contractors of her public- 
works. Yes, she can show another thing 
which we had nearly forgotten, a host of 
well paid Commissioners, Engineers, &c. 
who have made fine pickings by enormous 
charges for extra services, travelling expen 
ses, &c.  tc. 

The Governor makes a de.sperate effort 
to clear the skirls of his parly from the 
odium, of giossly mismanaging the affairs of 
the Stafe, and' travels as far bnck ns the 
year 1833 to find an excuse. He thinks 
tliat Kentucky’s share of the proceeds of 
the sales of the public lands, up to 1838 
if General Jackson had signed the bill for 
their distribution, "would have been amply 
sufficient to extinguish the whole amount of 
the actual debt of the State.” And is it 
now, for the first time, that the whigs have 
discovered that General Jackson did not 
sign that bill? lias not the whole of our 
State debt been contracted since that peri- 
od? How ineffably ridiculous is it, then, 
for the Governor to attempt to throw the 
blame of our indebtedness on Gen’I. Jack- 
son. 

But the Governor intimates that the dis 
itibiiiioii, “so long unjustly delayed,” can- 
not "now be much longer delayed,” and 
with this delusive hope attempts to soothe 
the public mind, and coax the people to 
submit patiently to an increase of the ir bur- 
den.s, under the idea that- it will bo quite 
temporary. 

We dismiss the Mcss.age for the present 
with a single additional remark. The Gov- 
rnor terms Gen. Jackson's omission to .sign 
the bill an '‘unwarranlabte exercise of Ex- 
ecutive power.” The bill was presented to 
the President for his signature, three days 
before the adjournmetit of Congress. The 
Constitution alllowcd him ten days for its 
consideration. He neither signed it nor 
returned it, and it failed to become a law. 
The President pursued Ihe strict legal line 
of duty, and Ihe assertion that he acted in 
an “unwarrantable manner” is unfounded 
and untrue. 



South Carolina, by an iiranimous vote 
of her Legislature, has chosen an Electoral 
ticket pledged to vote for Martin Van Hu- 
ron for President, and L. VV. Tazewell, of 
Virginia, for Vice President. 



The editor of the Intelligencer denies 
that he is an applicant for the appointment 
of Post Master of this city, but says that 
cur “joke” may pass, if it was only intended 
as a “joke.” Of course wo are not in his 

crnrtWrTTvc ujiuii tills sTXbrjccf, nor hnvc we- 

had an opportunity of inspecting the book 
in which he surmises that Gen. Harrison 
records tlie names of applicants for office; 
but one thing wo do know, and tliat is, that 
we have always heard the senior Editor’s 
name included whenever an ennmeration 
of tho list of applicants was attempted, and 
the opinion has appeared universal that he 
was very desirous to obtain the office. — 
However, we gladly stand corrected by the 
Editor himself, and take pleasure in inform- 
ing Ihe other expectants that he is not a 
competitor, does not desire the Post Office, 
and would not have it if it were offered to 
him. 

As ho does not appear to appreciate the 
point of our “joke,” we explain it. Believ- 
ing that he was on applicant for tho office, 
we thought it “the best joke of the season” 
for him to attempt to cuff others out ot Ihe 
way, and thereby open n clear path for him- 
self. Tins id a very pretty business, in 
which the editor of tho Cincinnati Gazette, 
and other whig editors are quite busily en- 
gaged at present. Now “fair play is a jew- 
el,” and we intend to take the pait of the 



MR. WICKLIFFE. 

In n debate in the Senate on the 14th, 
upon a resolution to instruct our Senators 
and Representatives to vote for the charter- 
ing of a .National Bank, this gentleman is 
rejiorled, by the Intelligencer, to have made 
the following remarks ; 

“Mr. WicKLiFFE arose and said ho was 
sorry this preamble and resolution had been 
introduced by Ihe gentleman from Louis- 
ville; they were unnecessary; it looked too 
much like dictation. It were better that 
we should wait untd the present administra 
tion goes out; he was unwilling to send this 
vexed question there to be rt-jecicd; ho was 
opposed to working before cI.it; he did not 
wish to erubanrass tlie new E.xccutivo in 
the selection of his cabinet; send these 
things there, and he would have to select a 
cabinet in favor of a United States Bank. 
He believed such a bank constitutional; that 
Congress had full power over it, &.c. Mr 
W. said he believed a National Bask and 
State Banks could not exist togeller; but 
give me, said he, such a United States Bink 
as I -want, and 1 would willingly sec all the 
State Banks sunk. He said that le was 
willing to destroy them; that a ^ational 
Bank was necessary to the operalions of 
tlie General Govermncnl, but Stall Banks 
lire not neccessary to tile operations of 
State Governments- Mr. VV. in the next 
breath said that the credit our State de- 
pends upon the credit oj nr State Banks. 
Charter a United States lank, said he, and 
our State Banks will linge, undergo a grad 
ual consumption, and findly will be exiin 
guished, and the interes of the Slate in 
tliem be lost. 

“Mr. W. expressed hispreference for the 
Sub-Treasury over a U. . Bank, in which 
one half of the slock is hdd by the Govern- 
ment and one half by he people and if 
such a bank were to be poposed, he would 
raise his voice against it feeble though it 
might be, for said he, litli such a bank 
where are your liberties? where your State 
rights, dec.? Mr. W. contnued some time 
in a strain similar to the aborc.” 

There are only two poins in this that we 
design noticing — That oir State Banks 
and a National Bank canno exist together 
and that the credit of tliii State depends 
upon the credit of its baiks. During the 
existence of the late Natonal Bank it is 
well known that it prostrited all the State 
banks in Kentucky, Indhna, Illinois and 
Missouri, with the exceftion of two very 
small affairs, one at Shawiectown, Illinois, 
and the other at Madison Indiana. This 
is pretty good proof, even i( Mr. Biddle had 
not confes.-^ed it, that a N:t:onal Bank can 
destroy a State bank whenever it wishes t  
do so, and the fact that they vero destroyed 
indicates sufficiently what the wishes of 
that institution were. If another great 
bank be put in operation by the General 

OvjTci ijiiiciii) it must provide a i«olAj of opo- 

rations for itself- There are now nore 
State banks than the business wants of the 
country require, and they will be forced to 
give place to the mammoth. If Kenticky 
desires another New Court contest, she 
should advocate the chartering of a big 
bank, to destroy her little ones, and vhen 
they begin to wind up, and collect their 
debts through the constables nnd sheriffs, 
it will not be long until we have two years 
replevin laws, &.C. &c. 

If any one is disposed to deny that the 
credit of Kentucky depends upon the credit 
of her banks, let them read Gov. Letcier’s 
mess.-ige. Our Slate is absolutely depend- 
ent upon the banks, not only for the means 
of preserving her credit abroad, but of car- 
rying on her government at home. Witness 
the 830,600 borrowed by the Treasurer to 
pay the expenses of the Extra SessioB, the 
sum borrow ed by the Commis.sioners of the 
Sinking Fund, and the Governor’s confes- 
sion- that the deficit in that Fund was o-:ca- 
sioned by the failure of tho Bank of Keii 
lucky, to declare her regular dividends. 

The State owns nearly three millions of 
Slock ill her banks, upon which the annual 
dividends will not foil much short of J'JCO,- 
000. Cut off this source of her revenue, 
and from what quarter is the deficiency to 
be supplied? M ill the gentlemen who so 
keenly advocate a National Bank, answer 
the question? Are they prepared to Impose 
additional taxes to that extent? and if they 
are, will the people bear them? 

With our Senator’s opinions upon the 
subject of a National Bank wo have now 
nothing to do — we are opposed to such an 
institution in every form that it can possibly 
assume, and no possible modification could 
render it palateable to us. 

Holding One's Own. — At the Congres- 
sional election in Georgia on the 5ili of Oc- 
tober, both parties received 496 votes in 
Jasper county; nnd at the Presidential elec- 
tion on the 2d ultimo, in the same coimiy, 
Harrison and Van Buren received 496 voles 
each, being also a tic. — Ani. hit. 



PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE 



The New York Er.i mentions the fact, 
that mechanics wages in iliat City have 
been reduced tico shillings in the days al- 
lowance, as one of tho fruits of the “change” 
for which the friends of Harrison clamo- 
red boisteronsly. The proprietors of the 
factories at Steubenville, Ohio, have also 
reduced tho wages of those employed in 
their establishments to so low a rate, that 
they are scarcely sufficient to procure the 
common np.cessaries of life. This is what 
wo would call a “change” with a vengcnce. 

AJatjsrillc Monitor. 



Gentlemen of the Senate 

and House of lleprescntativcs: 

Our devout gratitude is duo to the Su- 
preme Being for having graciously con- 
liiiued to our beloved country, tliroigh 
the vicissitudes of another year, Ihe in- 
valuable blessings of health, plenty, nnd 
peace, Se'd-uii has ihi.s lavored land been 
so generally exempted iVom the ravages 
of disease, or the labor ol the hiishaiid- 
man more amply rewarded : and never be- 
fore have our rcinlions with other coun- 
tries been placed on a more favorable ba- 
sis than tliat whi  h they so happily occu- 
py at this critical conjuiiclnre in the af- 
fairs of the world. A rigid and perse 
vering ahstinence from all interference 
with the domestic and political relations ol 
other Sia'es, alike due to the genius and 
disiinclivc character of our Govenimcnl 
and to Ihe principles by wliich it is direct 
e I; a faithful observance, in the manage 
menlof our foreign relations, ol the prac- 
tice of speaking plainly, dealing justly, 
and requiring truth nnd j islico in return, 
as the best c -nservalives ol the peace ol 
nations; a strict impartiality in our mani- 
festations of friendship, in tho commer- 
cial privilciics wo concede, and those we 
require frdm others: these, accompanied 
by a di.sposiiion as prompt to maintain, in 
every emergency, our own rights, as we 
are from principle nverso to the invasion 
of those of others, have given to our conn 
try and Government a standing iii Ihe 
great family of nations, of which we liave 
just cause to bo proud, nnd the advanta- 
gesof wliich arc experienced by our ciii 
•zens throughout every portion of tlie 
earth to wliich their enterprising and ad- 
venturous spirit may carry them. Few, if 
anv, remain insensible to the value of our 
friendship, or ignorant of the terms on 
which it can be acquired, and by which it 
can alone be preserved. 

A series of questions of long standing 
difficult in their adjustineiit, and important 
in their consequences, in which the rights 
of our citizens and the honor of the coun- 
try were deeply involved, have, in the 
course ot a few years, (the most of them 
during the successful administration of my 
immediate predecessor,) been brought to a 
satisfactory conclusion; and the most im- 
portant of those rein.-iiniiig arc, I am happy 
to believe, in a fair way of being speedily 
and satisfactorily adjusted. 

With all the powers of the world, oar 
reralioiis are tliose of honorable peace 
Since your adjournment, nothing serious 
li is oicurrod to internipt or Ibrcaten this 
desirable harmony. If clouds have lower 
ed above the other hemisphere, they have 
not cast their portent.ous shadows on our 
happy shores. Bound by no entangled al- 
liances, yet linked by a com-oon natiin; 
and interest with the other nations of man- 
kind, our aspirations are for the preserva- 
tion of pe.ice, in whose solid and civilizing 
triuii.plis all may participate w't'i a gen- 
erous emulation. Yet, it behooves tis to 
be prep-ireil lor any event, ami to bo a! 
vay- re.-idy to n-aiotain tho.-e just and eii- 
‘ligit Mied principles of national intercourse 
fur wbicii t.i a government has ever in- 
tended. Ill the shock of contending cm- 
piree, it is only by assuming .a resolute 
bearing, and clofliing tliemscTvea with dc 
fcnsivc armor, that neutral nations cat 
maintain their independent rights. 

The excitement which grew out of the 
lerrit'irial coni rover.sy between the United 
Stales and Great Britain having in a great 
ineasiue siih-ided, it is hoped that a favor- 
able period is approaching for its final set- 
tlement. B.ilh Govornnienls must now be 
convinced of the dangers with which the 
question i.» fiauglil ; and it must be their 
desire, as it is their interest, that this per- 
petual cause of irritation should l o remov- 
ed as speedily us practiuhale. In my Iasi 
annual message you were informed that 
the proposition for a commission of explo- 
ration and survey promised by Great Brit 
ain had been received, and that a counter- 
project, including also a provision for the 
certain and final adjustment of the limits in 
di.spiile, was then before the British Gov- 
eiiimcnt for its consideration. The an 
swer of that Goveniniciir.accompanied by 
additional propositions of its own, was re 
ceived, through its minister here, since 
your separation. These were promptly 
considered ; such as were deemed correct 
in principal nnd consistent with a due re- 
gard to the just rights of the United States 
and of the S aieot Maine, concurred in 
and the reasons for dissenting from the 
esidiie, w ith an additional suggestion on 
our part, cominiinici t:d by the Secretary 
ol Slate to Mr. Fox. That minister, not 
feeling himself sufficiently instructed upon 
some of tlie points raised in tho discussion, 
felt it to he his duty to refer the matter to 
his own Government for its further deci- 
sion. Having now been lor some lime 
under its advisement, a speedy answer 
may do confulently expected. From tlic 
character of the points still in difference, 
and the undoublod disposition of hoih par- 
lies to bring the matter to an early conclu 
sion, I look with entire confidence to a 
prompt and satisfactory Icrmmation of the 
negotiation. 

Three commissioners were appointed 
shertly aficr the adjbiiruincnt of Congre..»s, 
under the act of the last session providing 
for the exploration and survey of the 
ine which separates the States of Maine 
aad New Hampshire from Ihe British Pro- 
vinces; they have been actively employed 
until their progress was interrupted by 
the iiiclenieiicy of tho season, nnd will 
resume their labors as soon ns practicable 
in the ensuing year. 

It is understood that their respective 
exainiunlions will throw now light on- the 
subject ill (V niroversy, and serve to re- 
move any erronei.us impressions which 
may have been made elsewhere prejui'i- 
cial to the interests of the United Stales. 
It was, among oih- r r.-:isous, wiiii a view 
of prcveniiiig the etnbarras.smciils which, 
111 our peculiar system of government, 
impede and complicate ncgolialii'rrs in- 
volving the lerri'oiial rights of a Slate, 
that I ill ought it my duly, as yon have 
hcKii informed on a previous occasion, to 
propose to the British Government, thro’ 
its Ministers at Washington, that early 
steps should bo taken to adjust the points 



of difference on the line ofTioundary from 
the entrance of Lake Superior to lire most 
north western point of the Lalio of the 
Woods, by the arbitration of a friendly 
Power, in conformity with the 7lh article 
of the treaty of Ghent. No answer has 
yet been reluniol by the British govern- 
ment to this propositi  n. 

Willi Austria, France, Prussia, Russia 
and the remaining powers of Europe, I am 
happy to inform you our relations continue 
1,0 be of the most friendly character. M ith 
Belgium, a treaty of emnmerce and navi 
gation, based upon liberal principles of re- 
ciprocity and cqnalHy, was concluded in 
.March last, and liaviiig been ratified by the 
Bolgian tiovernment.vvill be duly laid be- 
fore the Sen.ite. It is a sntiject ot con 
gralulation that it provides for the satis- 
factory adjustment ofa long stand ing ques- 
tion of controversy, thus removing the on- 
ly obstacle which could obstruct the friend- 
ly and mutually advantageous intercourse 
between the two nations. A messenger 
has been despatched with the Hanoverian 
treaty to Berlin, where, according to stip- 
ulation, tlic ratifications are to bo excliang 
ed. I am li.appy to announce to you that, 
after many delays and diinciili ies. a treaty 
of commerce and navigation, between the 
United States and Portugal, was conclud 
ed and signed at Lisbon, on the 26lli ol 
August last, by the Plenipotentiaries of the 
two Governments. Its stipulations aro 
founded upon those principles of mutual 
liberality and advantage wliicli the United 
States have always sought lo make the ba- 
sis of their intercourse witli foreign Pow- 
ers, and it is hoped they will tend to foster 
and strengthen the commercial iiUerconrso 
of the- two countries. 

Under the appropriation of the last sess 
ion of Congress, an agent has beeu sent to 
Germany, for the purpose of promoting the 
interests of our tobacco trade- 

The commissioners appointed under the 
convention for the adjustment of claims of 
citizens ofthc United .States upon Mexico 
having met and organized at Washington, 
in August last, the papers in the possession 
of the Government, relating to those claims 
were communicated to the board. The 
claims not embraced by tliat convention 
are now tlie subject of negotiation between 
the two Governments, through the medium 
of our .Minister at Mexico. 

Nothing has occurred to disturb the har- 
mony of our relations with the different 
Governments of South .\merica. 1 regret, 
hovvever, to be obliged to inform you that 
the claims of our citizens upon the late 
re;iublic of Columbia have not yet been 
satisfied by the separate Governments into 
which it has been resolved. 

The charge d’affairs of Brazil having ex- 
pressed the intention of his Government 
not to prolong the treaty of 1829, it will 
cease to be obligatory upon either party on 
ibe 12th day of December, 1841, when the 
extensive commercial intercourse between 
tlie United States and that vast empire wilt 
no longer be regulated by express stipula- 
tions. 

It affords me pleasure to communicate to 
you that the Government of Chili has en- 
tered into an agreement to indemnify the 
claimants in the case of the -Macedonian, 
for American property seized in 1819; and 
to add, that information has also been re- 
ceived which justifies the hopo of an early 
adjustment of tho remaining claims upon 
that Government. 

Tho commissioners appointed in pursu- 
ance of tho convention between the United 
States and Texas, for making the boundary 
between them, have, according to the last 
report received from our commissioner, sur 
veyed and established tho whole extent of 
the boundary north along the whole wes- 
tern bank of the Sabine river, from its en- 
trance into the Gulf of Mexico to the thir- 
ty-second degree of north latitude- The 
commission adjourned on the 16th of June 
last, to re-assemble on tlie 1st of Novem- 
ber, for the purpose of establishing accu- 
rately the intersection of the thirty-second 
degree of latitude with the western bank 
of the Sabine, and the meridian thence to 
Red River. It is presumed that tho work 
will be concluded in the present season 

The present sound condition of their 
finances and the success whh which em- 
barrassments in regard to' them, at times 
apparently insurmountable, have been 
overcome, are matters upon which tho 
people nnd Government of the U. Stales, 
may well congratulate themselves. An 
overflowing traasnry, however it may bo 
regarded ns an evidence of public pros- 
perity, is seldom conducive lo the welfare 
of any people; and experience has de- 
monstrated its incompatibility with the 
salutary action of political institutions like 
Uiose of the United States. Our safest 
reliance for financial efficiency and inde- 
pendence has, on the contrary, been found 
to oonsist in ample resources unencumber- 
ed with debt; and, in this respect, the Fed 
eral Government occupies a singularly for- 
tunate and truly enviable posiiiou. 

When I entered upon tlio discharge of 
my official duties in March, 1837, the act 
for the distribution of tho surplus reven- 
ue was in a course of rapid execution. — 
■Nearly twenty-eight millions of dollars of 
the public moneys were, in pursuance of 
its provisions, deposited with the Stales in 
the nr mils of January, April, and July of 
ih.il year. In May there occurred n gen- 
eral .suspension of specie payments by the 
hanks, including, with very few excep- 
tions, those in which the public moneys 
were dciiosiled, and upon whose fidelity 
the Government had unforlunaloly mada 
itself dependent for the revonucs which 
had been collected from the people, and 
were indispensable to the public service. 
This suspensioii,and the excesses in hank- 
ing and commerce out of which it arose, 
and were greatly aggravated by its occur- 
rence, made, to a great extent, unavailable 
the principal part of the public money 
then on hand; suspended Ihe collection of 
many millions accruing on merchants’ 
bonds; and greatly reduced the revenue 
arising from customs and the public lands. 
These eft’ccl.s have continued lo operate, 
in v.arious degree.®, lo the present period; 
and, in addition to tho decrease in the re- 
venue thus pioduccd, two nnd a half mil- 
lions of duties have been relinquished by 
two biennial reductions under the act ol 
1833, r.iid probably as much more upon 
the importation of iron for railroads, by 
special legislation. 

Whilst such has been our condition for 
the last four years in relation to revenue, 
we have, during the same period, been sub- 
jected to an unavoidable continuance of 
largo extraordinary expenses necessarily 



growing out of past transactions, ana which 
could not be immediately arrested without 
great prejudice to the public interest. W 
these, the charge upon the Treasury, iit 
consequence of tho Cherokee treaty alone, 
without adverting to others arising out of 
Indian treaties, lias already exceeded five 
millions ot dollars; that for the prosecution 
of measures for the removal of the Semi- 
nole Indians, which were found in progress, 
has been nearly fourteen millions; and tho 
public buildings have required the unusual 
sum of nearly three millions. 

It affords me, Ijowever, great pleasure to 
be able t) say, that, from the commence- 
ment of this period to the present day, eve- 
ry demand upon the Government, at home- 
or abroad, has been promptly met. This 
has been done, not only without creating® 
permanent debt, or a resort to additional 
taxation in any form, but in the midst of 
a steadily progressive reduction of existing 
burdens upon the people, leaving still a. 
considerable balance of available funds 
which will remain in the Treasury at the 
end of the year. The small amount of 
Treasury notes, not exceeding four and a 
half iiiillions of dollars, still outstanding, 
and less by twenty-three millions than the 
United Slates have in deposile with the 
.Stales, is composed of such only as are not 
yet due, or have not been presented for' 
payment. They may be redeemed out oC 
the accruing revenue, if the expenditures 
do not exceed the amount williin which 
they may, it is thought, be kept without 
prejudice to the public interest, and the 
revenue shall prove to be as large as may 
justly be anticipated. 

.4rnong the reflections arising from tlie 
contemplation ol these circnmstinces. ona 
not the least gratifying, is the conscious- 
ness that the Government ha^l the resolu- 
tion and the ability to adhere, in every e- 
nicrgency.lo the sacred obligations of law; 
to execute all its contracts according to the 
requirements of the constitution; and thus 
to present, when most needed, a rallying- 
point by which the business of the whele-- 
country might be brought back lo a safa 
and unvarying standard — a result vitally 
imj'ortant as well to the interests as to the. 
morals of tho people. There can surely 
now be no difference of opinion in regard' 
to the incalculable evils ’that would have 
arisen if the Government, at that critical 
moment, had suffered itself to be dfeterred 
Irom upholding the only true standard of 
value, either by tho pressure of adverse 
circuni8tance.s or the violence of unmerited 
denunciation. The manner in wliicii tlie 
people sustained the performance of this du- 
ly was highly honorable to their fortitude. 
and patriotism. It cannot fail to stimu^ 
late their agents to adhere, under all cir- 
cumstances, to the line of duty: nnd to sat- 
isfy them oirthe safety with whieh a cause 
really right, and demanded by a financial 
crisis, may, in a community like ours, be 
pursued, liowever apparently severe its im- 
mediate operation. 

The policy of the federal government, 
in extinguishing as rapidly ns possible, the; 
National debt, and, subsequently, in re- 
sisting every temptation to create a new 
cne, deserves to be regarded in the same 
favorable light. Among the many objec- 
tions lo a national debt, the certain ten- 
dency of public securities lo concentrate 
ultimately in the coffers of foreign stock- 
holders, is one which is every day gather- 
ing strength: Already have the resources 

of many of the States, and the future in- 
dustry of their citizens, been indefinitely 
mortgaged to the subjects of European 
Governments,*lo the amount of twelve mil- 
lions annually* to pay the constintly in- 
creasing interest on borrowed money— a 
sum exceeding half the ordinary revenues 
of the whole United States. The pretext 
which this relation affords to foreigners to 
scrutinize the management of our domes- 
tic affaire, if not actuilly ti intermeddle 
willi them, presents a subject for earnest 
attention, not to say of serious alarm. For- 
tunately, the Federal Government, with 
the exception of an obligation entered in- 
to, in behalf of the District of Columbia, 
which must soon be discharged, is wholly 
exempt from any such embarrassment. It 
is also, as is believed, the only Govern- 
ment which, having fully and faithfully 
paid all its creditors, has also relieved it- 
self entirely from debt. To maintain a 
dislinct'on so desirable, and so honorable 
to our national character, should be an ob- 
joct of earnest solicitude. 

Never should a free people, if it be pos- 
sible to avoid it, expose themselves to the 
necessity of having to treat of the peace,- 
Iho honor, or the safety of the Republic;- 
with the Governments of foreign creditors 
who, however well disposed they may be 
to cultivate with us in general friendly re- 
lations, are nevertheless, by the law. of 
their own condition, mado hostile to the- 
success and permanency of political insti- 
tutions like ours Most humiliating may 
be the embarrassments consequent upon 
such a condition. Another objection, 
scarcely less formidable to the commence- 
ment of a new debt, is its inevitable ten- 
dency to increase in magnitude, and to fos- 
ter national extravagauce. He Uas-been- 
an iinprovitable observer of evenlSr who- 
needs at this day to be admonished of the 
difficulties which a Government, habitual- 
ly dependent on loans to sustain its ordi- 
nary expenditures, has lo encounter in re- 
sisting the influences constantly exerted in 
favor of additional loans, by capalalists,. 
who enrieh themselves by Government se- 
curities for amounts mucli exceeding the 
money they actually advance — a prolific 
source of individual aggrandizement in all 
borrowing countries; by stockholders, whoi 
seek their gains in the rise and fall of pub- 
lic stocks; and by the selfish importunitiea 
of applicants for appropriations for works- 
avowcdly for the accommodation, of tha 
public, but the real objects of wliich are-, 
too frequently, tho advancement of private; 
interests. 

'I'he known ncces.city which so meny of 
the Slates will be under to imjiose taxes 
for the payment of the interest on their 
debts, furnishes an additional nnd very co- 
gent reason wliv the Federal Government 
slimild refrain from creating a national 
debt, by which the people would be expos- 
ed loadoublo taxation for a similar object. 
We possess within ourselves ample resour- 
ces for every emergency; nnd wc may be 
(pii'e sure that onr citizens, in no future 
exigency, will he unwilling lo supply tho 
Governmeiil with all tho means asked for 
the defence of tho country. In time of 
pcaco there can, at all evonis, be no justi- 
ficalion for the creation of a permanent 
debt by the Federal Government. Its 
limited range of constitutional duties may 
cerl.iinly, under such circumstances, be 
performed without such a resort. It has, 
it is seen, been avoided during four years 



■'■ontcr fiscal (ntlicuitics itian have ox- 
'I in n aiiiiilnr period since tlie ndoplion 
«( ilio constiiulion, nnd one also remarka- 
ble for (lie occurrence of cxlraordinarv 
causes of cxpendiiure. 

But, to accomplish so desirable an object, 
two things are indispensable; first, that ihe 
action ol the Federal Government be kept 
within the boundaries prescribed by ils 
fonnders; and, secondly, that all appropri- 

•ons for objects admitted to be constitu- 
tional, and the expenditure of them also, be 
subjected toa standard of rigid but well- 
considered nnd practical economy. The 
first depends chiefly on the ptojile them- 
selves, the opinions they form of the true 
construction ol the constitution, nnd the 
confidence they repose in the political sen- 
timents of those they select as their rep- 
resentatives in the Federal Legislature; 
the second rests upon the fidelity with 
whicn their more immediate representa- 
tives, nnd other public functionaries, rlis- 
chargo the trusts committed tothem. The 
duty of economizing the expenses of ih 
public service is admitted on all hands; 
yat there aro few subjects upon which 
there exists a wider difference of opinion 
than is constantly manifested in regard to 
the fidelity with which that duly is dis- 
charged. Neither diversity of sentiment, 
nor even mutual recriminations, upon a 
point in respect to which the public mind 
is so justly senlitive, can well be entirely 
avoided; and least so at periods of great 
political excitement. An intelligent poo 
die, however, seldom fail to arrive, in the 
end, at correct conclusions in such a mat- 
ter. 

I’ractical economy in the management of 
- -• hlic affairs can have no adverse influ- 
ence to 'i^lend with more powerful tliaa 
large surplus reveaue; and the unusually 
large appropriations of 1837 may, without 
doubt, independent of the extraordinary 
requisitions for the public service, grow- 
ing out of the state of our Indian relations, 
be, in a incons-derablo degree, traced to 
this source. The sudden and rapid distri- 
bution of the large surplus then in the 
Treasury, and the equally sudden and un^ 
precedentedly severe revulsion in the com 
merce and business of the country, point 
ing with unerring certainty to a great and 
piotracted reduction of the revenue, 
strengthened tbo propriety of the earliest 
practicable reduction of the public e.xpcn 
ditures. 

But, to cliango a system operating upon 
eo large a surface, and application to such 
numerous and diversified interests and sub- 
jects, was more than the work of a day — 
The attention of every department of the 
Government was immediately, and in good 
faith, directed to that end; and lias been so 
continued to the present moment. Tliees 
timates and appropriations for the year 
1838 (tlie first over which I had any con- 
trol) were sowevvliat diminished. The ex- 
penditures of 1839 were reduced six mil 
lions of dollars. Those of 1840, exclu- 
sive of disbursements for. public debt and 
trust claims, will probably not exceed 
twenty-two and a half millions; being be- 
tween two and three millions less than 
those of the preceding year, and nine 
or ten millions less than those of 1837. — 
Nor has it been found necessary, in or- 
der to produce this icsult, to resort to 
the power conferred by Congress, of post- 
poning corlain classes of the public works, 
except by deferring expenditures for 
short period upon n limited portion of 
them; and which postponement terminated 
some time since, at the moment the Treas- 
nry Department, by further receipts from 
the indebted banks, became fully assured 
of its ability to meet them without preju- 
dice to the public service in other respects. 
Causes aro in operation vvliich will, it is 
believed, justify a still further reduction, 
without injury to any important national 
interest. The expense of sustaining the 
troops employed in Florida have been gra- 
dually and greatly reduced, through the 
persevering efforts of the War Department; 
nnd a reasonable Hope may be entertained 
that the necessity for military operations 
in that quarter will soon cease. The re- 
moval of the Indians from within our set- 
tled borders is nearly completed. The 
pension list, one of the heaviest charges 
upon the Tro.asury, is rapidly diniinisliing 
by death. The most costly of our public 
buildings arc either finished, or nearly so; 
and we may, 1 think, safely promise oiir- 
nelves a continued e.xemplion from border 
difficulties. 

The available balance in the Treasury on 
the first of January next is estimated at one 
million and a half of dollars. This sum 
with the expected receipts from all sources 
during the naxt year, will, it is believed, 
be sufficient to enable tlie Government to 
meet every engagement, nnd le.ave a suit- 
able balance in the Treasury at the end of 
the year, if the remedial measures connec- 
ted with tlie customs nnd the public land.s 
theretofore recommended, sliall be adopted, 
and the new appropriations by Congress 
shall not carry the expenditures beyond 
the official estimates. 

Tlie new system eslahllshcd by Congress 
for the safekeeping of the public money, 
prescribing the kind of currency to bo re- 
ceived for the public revenue, and provid 
ing additional guards and securities against 
losses, has now been several months in op 
cralion. Altliough it might be ^premature 
upon an experience of sueh limited dura- 
tion, to form a definite opinion in regard to 
the extent of its influences in correcting 
many evils under which the Federal (Jov- 
ernment and the country liave hitherto suf- 
fered— especially those that have grown 
out of banking expansions, a dep. ieciiitod 
currency, and official defalcations; yet it is 
but right to say that nothing has occurred 
in tlie practical opciation ol tlie system to 
weaken in the slightest degree, hut much 
to strengthen the confident aulicipalions 
of its friend.s. Tim grounds of these have 
been heretofore so fully explained as to re- 
quire no recapitulation. In resiiect to the 
facility and convenioMCJ it affords in con 
ducting the public service, and the ability 
rf ihn government to disrhargo ihrongn 
its .agency every duty ntfendant on tlie 
collection, transfer, nnd disbursement of 
the public money witli prom|itiiude and 
J can s'lV willi confidence. 



loli^o WHICH iiioy'iiiay, oTf e.xamniation, 
be found to be entitled. 

I have deemed this brief sninniary of 
our fiscal aftairs necessary to the due jicr- 
formance of a duty specially enjoined 
upon me by the constilulioii. It wi 
serve, also, to jlliisirale more fully the 
principles by which I liiivcbeen guided in 
reference to two contested points in oiir 
public policy, which were earliest in their 
devciopiiieiit, nnd iiuve been more impor- 
tant in their consequences, than any llial 
have arisen under our complicated 
and difiiciill, yet admirable system of gov- 
ernment: I allude to a national debt and a 
national hank. It was in these that the 
political contests by which the country has 
been agitated ever since the adoptiim of the 
coiisliluliori, in a great mensiirr, origina- 
ted; and lliore is too much reason to upfiie- 
hend that the conflicting interests nndo; - 
posing principles thus marshalled, will 
continue as heretofore, to produce similar, 
if not aggravated, consequences. 

Coming inloollicc the declared cneniv 
of hoih, 1 have earnestly endeavored to 
prevent a resort to eitiier. 

The consideration that a large public 
debt alfords an apology, and produces, in 
son.c degree, a necessity also, for resorting 
to a system and extant of taxation win'h 
is net only oppressive throughout, but like- 
wise BO apt to lead in the end, to the com- 
mission of that most odious of all olfences 
against the principles of republican gov- 
erninenta. the prostitution of political pow- 
er, conferred for the general benefit, to the 
"ggf 'ud z “ment of particular classes, and 
the gratification of individual cupidity — 
is alone sufficient, iiidepeiidei.tlv of t'le 
weighty objections wliich have already 
been urged, t  render its creation and ex- 
istence the sources of bitter and unappeas- 
able discord. If we add to this, its inev- 
itable tendency to produce and fost“r ex- 
travagant expenditures of the public mo- 
ney, by which a necessity is created for 
new loans and new burdens on the people; 
and finally, if we refer to the examples of 
every goverument which has existed, for 
proof, how seldom is it that the system, 
when once adopted and implanted in the 
policy of a country, has failed to expand 
itself, until public credit was exhausted, 
and the people were no longer able to en- 
dure its increising weight, it seems iiiipoa- 
sihle to resist the conclusion, that no ben- 
efits resulting from its career, no extent of 
conquest, no accession ,pf wealth to partic- 
ular classes, nor any, nor all ils eombi ,ed 
advantages, can count rbalance its ulti- 
mate but certain results — a splendid gov- 
ernment and an impoverished people. 

If a national hank was, ns i.s undenia- 
ble, ropudiiiled by the framers of the con- 
stitution as iiicompatihle with the righisl 
of the Slates and the liberties of the peo- 
ple; if, from the beginning, it has been 



SUCCC6.S, 



that 



the apprehensions ot tiiosc who felt it to 



he their duty to oppe 
proved to he unloundcil. 
this brancli of the fi-'cnl 
erpment lias been, and 
nl'.vays bo. thus carried 
sirablc facility mill seenri'y 
g's ami iinoroveineiits i:i llic details ol the 
F-.i.'in. « :t'i"ii!, afTe-cliiig any principlesin- 
' I ill .1, will be submitted to you ,by 
t « .S.vr 111 I’v fie Treasury, end will, 
1 am sure, reeciic at your hands that allen- 



its adoption have 
( )ri tho contrary, 
ifi'iiri of tlie Gov- 
t is believed may 
on with every de 
.-\ few chan- 



egardod by large portions of our citi- 
zens as coming in direct collision with 
tliat great and vital amendment of the 
constitution, which declares that all pow- 
ers not conferred by that instrument on 
tho General Government are reserved to 
the Stales nnd to Ihe people; if it has 
been viewed by them as the first great 
step in the march] of lutiliidiiious con- 
struction, whicli, unchecked, would render 
that sacred instrument of ns little value 
as an unwritten coiisliliilion, dependent, 
ns it would alone be, for its meaning, on 
the interested interpretation of a dominant 
party, and aflbrding no security to the 
rights of the minority; if such is undeni- 
ably the case, what rational gronnds could 
have been conceived for anticipating 
aught hut determined opposition to su;h 
an institution at the present day? 

Gould a dififereiit result have been expec- 
ted, when the consequences which have 
flowed from its creation, and particularly 
from its struggles to perpetuate its exis- 
tence, had confirmed, in so striking a man- 
ner, the apprehensions of its earliest oppo- 
nents, when it, had been so clearly demon- 
strated that a concentrated money power, 
wielding so vast a capital, and comidiiiiig 
such incalculable means of influence, may. 
in those peculiar conjunctures to whicli 
this Government is unavoidably exposed, 
prove an overmatch for the political power 
of tho people themselves; when the true 
character of its capaci'y to regulate, aeeor 
ding to its will and its interest, and the 
iiit tresis of its favorites, the value ami 
proiluclior of the labor and properly ot ev- 
ery man in this extended country , had beer, 
so fully and fearfully developeil; when it 
was notorious that all classss of this great 
community liad, by means of the power ami 
influence it thus ’mssesses, been infected to 
madness with a spirit of heedless specula- 
tion; when it had been seen that, secure in 
the support of tho combination of influen- 
ces by which it was surrounded, it could 
violate its charter, and set the laws at de- 
fiance with impunity; and when too, it had 
become most apparent that to believe that 
sucli an accumulation of powers can ever 
be granted without the certainty of being 
ahu-sed, w.as to indulge in a f.ital delusion. 
To avoid ilin necessity of parinanent 
1)1, ils iiieviliililo conscq umcos, I h we 
advocalod, and endeavored to carry inlo 
cffecl, ihe policy of cmifitiing the appm- 
pri.ili'ins for (he p-iblic service to such oh- 
jec.ls onic as are clearly within tho consli- 
tnlioiial authority of tho Fedcr.il Govern 
iiieni: of excluding from ils expenses lho.se 
improvident nnd unaiitliorized grants of 
itihlic money for works of internal iui 
provemont, which were so wisely arrest- 
ed by the constitutional intcr|)Osition of my 
predecessor, mid wliicli, if they had not 
been so checked, would long licfore this 
time have involved the finances of the 
General Government in omharrassmcnls 
far greater than ih  sc which arc now ex- 
perienced by anv of the Slates; of limiting 
of all oiir cxpcnditiire.s to that simple, iin- 
oslcnlalioiis, and economical adminislra- 
lioii of public afiliir.', which is alone con- 
sistent with the character of our instilii- 
tious;of collecting annually from the c 
tom-i, and the sales of public lands, a reve- 
nue fully a !e iualc to delVav all the ex- 
penses thus incurred , hut, tinder nu [irc- 
lence, whatsoever, to impose taxes upon 
the people to a greater amount than actual- 
ly necessary to ilio public service, con- 
ducted upon llio pr nciplcs I have staled. 

|-i lieu of a national hank, or tlcpen- 
dciiec upon hanks cf any description, for 
llie management of our fiscal affair.--, I 
r.icommoiided the adoption of tlie system 
which is now in successful operation. — 
'I’liat system athirds every requisite facil- 
ity for the transactions of the pecuniary 



concerns ot tho UoverifnienT; wifl, it is 
confidently anticipated, produce in other 
respects many of the benefits which have 
been from timo to time expected from the 
creation of a national hank, hut wliit-li 
liavc never been realized, avoid the niaiii- 
Ibld evils inseparahio lioin such an inslil- 
utioii; diminish, ton greater extent than 
could he accomplished by any other meas- 
ure of reform, the patronage of the Fed- 
eral Government — n wise policy in all 
governments, hut more especially so in 
one like ours, which works well only in 
proportion as it is made to rely for ils sup- 
port noon the unbiassed and unadulterated 
opinion-s of iisconstilucnls; do away, for- 
ever, all dependence on corporate bodies, 
either in the raising, collecting, safekeep- 
ing, or disbursing the public revenues; and 
place the Govcriimonl cqiinlly above the 
temptation of fi Slering a dangerous and 
uncunstiltilional institution at home, or the 
necessity of adapting its policy to the 
views and interests oi a still more lormid- 
ahlc inoncv-powcr abroad. 

It is by iulo|)liiig and carrying' out these 
principles, under circu nsiances the most 
arduous and discouraging, lliai the at- 
tempt has been made, ibtis far succcssfol' 
I' , to demonsirato to the people of the 
United Stales that a national hank at all 
times, and a national debt, except it he 
incurred at a period when the Iwnor ami 
-•aiciv of the nation demands the tempo- 
rarv saciificc of a policy, which should on- 
ly he ucandoned in such exigencies, are 
not merely unnecessary, but m direct and 
deadly llostiJily to the principles of their 
Government, and to their own permanent 
welfare. 

The progress made in the devclopemcnt 
of t-iese positions, appear.^ in the preced- 
ing sketch of the past lii«roi'y and present 
state of tho financial coiiceri.-s of the Fed- 
eral Government. The facts th.are stated 
fully authorize the assertion, that all the 
purposes fur which this Government was 
instituted have been accomplished during 
fbur years of greater pecuniary embarrass- 
ment than were ever before experienced in 
time of peace, ane in the face of opposition 
as formidahlo as any that was ever before 
arrayed against the policy of an adminis- 
tration; that this has been done when the 
ordinary revenues of the Government were 
generally decreasing, ns well from the op- 
eration of the laws, as the condition of 
tlie country, without the creation of a per- 
manent public debt, or incurring any lia- 
iii'ity, other than such ns the ordinary re- 
seurces ot the Government will speedily 
discharge, and without the agenoy of a 
national bank. 

If this view of the proceedings of the 
Government, for the period it embraces, be 
warranted by the facts as they are known 
to exist; if the army and navy have been 
stisinined to the full extent authorized by 
law, andjwliich congress deemed sufficient, 
for the defence of the country and the iro- 
tection of its rights and ils honor; if its 
civil and diplomatic service has been equal- 
ly sustained; if ample provision has been 
made for the administration of justice and 
the execution of the law; if the claims up- 
on public gratitude in behalf of tiie sol- 
dier of the Uevnhition have been promptly 
met, and fuitlirnlly discharged; if there 
have been no failures in defraying the very 
large expenditures growing out of that 
long continued nnd salutary policy of 
peacefully removing the Indians to regions 
of comparative saftty and prosperity; if 
the public faith has at all times, and 
every where, been most scrupulously main- 
tained. by a prom; t discharge oftlie numer- 
ous, extended and diversified claims on 
the Treasury; — if ell these great and per- 
manent objcits, with many others that 
might he stated, have, for a series of years 
marked by peculiar olislacles and difficul- 
ties; been successfully accomplished willi- 
o it a resort to a permanent debt, or the 
aid of a national hank; have vve not a right 
1 1 expect lliat a policy, the object of which 
lia.-t been to sustain the public service in- 
dependently of cillicr ol these fruitful 
sources of discord, will receive the final 
sanction of a people whose iinbia.'.«cd nnd 
fairly elicited j idgmeiil upon public iif- 
fnirs is never ultimately wrong? 

That cmbnrr.aBsments in the pecuniary enn 
cerns of individuals, of uio-xamplcd extent and 
duration, Iiave recently c.visied in this as in 
other commercial r.atioiis, is undoubtedly true. 
I'o supp ISC it necessary now to tr.ico these re- 
verses to their sources, vvoiiid lie a icfloctioii on 
the intelligence of my fellow citizeens. Wh.-it- 
ever may have been the ob.s urity in which the 
subject is involved during the c.irlier stages of 
the revulsion, there cannot now bo m iny by 
whom the whole question is net fully under, 
stood. 

Not deeming it H-itliin the ronstitutional 
powers of the General Government to repair 
private losses sustained by reverses in business 
liaving no connection witli the public sfrviee, 
eitlicr by direct appropriations from tile Trea 
sury, or by special legislation designed to sc- 
cure exclusive pi ivilcges and iininiimties to in. 
dividuals or classes in preference to, aod at the 
expense of, tho great ir.ujority nc'-cssarily de- 
barred from any participation in ibein, no at- 
tempt to do so has been either made, recommen- 
ded, or encouraged, by tlie present K.vccutivc. 

It is believed, however, that the great pur- 
poses for the attainment of which the Federal 
Govcrninciit was instituted have not been lost 
sight of. Intrusted only with certain limited 
powers, cautiously enumerated, distinctly spc. 
cificd, and defined with a prccison and clear- 
ness wiiicli would seem to defy misconstruction, 
it has been iny con.stant aim to coniine myself 
within tho limits so clearly marked out, and so 
carefully guarded. Having always been of o- 
pinion that the best preservatives of the union 
of the Slates is to be found in a total abstin- 
ence from the exercise of all doubtful powers 
on tho part of the Federal Government, rather 
than in attempts to assume ihcin !»y a lotisc con- 
struction of tho constitution, or an ingenious 
perversion of its words, I have endeavored io 
avoid rccoinincnding any measure which 1 had 
reason to apprehend would, in the opinion even 
of a considerable majority of my fellow citi- 
zens, be regarded as trenching i n the rights of 
tlio States, or the provisions of the liallowcd in- 
strument of our I'nion. View ing the aggregate 
pow-ors of the Federal Government as a vol- 
unir.yy concession of the Stales, it seemed to 
me that such only should bo exercised os were 
at the lime intended to bo given. 

I have been strcngtheiu-d, too, in the propri- 
ety of this course, by the conviction lliat all 
ortbrts Io go beyond this, tend only to produce 
ili.s.sati.sfaction nnd distrust, to excite jealousies 
and to provoke resistance. Instead of adding 
strength to the Federal Government, even 
when snsecssfni, they must ever prove a sonrec 
of incurable weakness, by alineuthic: a portion 
of those wliosc adlie»ion is indispcn.sable to the 
great aggregate of united strength, and w Ik*sc 
voluntary attachment is, in my esiimalion, far 
more essential to the cilicacy of a government 
strong in the best of all possible sircnglh — the 
confidence and attaclirricnt of all those who 
make up its constituent elements. 

Thus believing, it has been my purpose to sc- 



ciirc 10 uic wnoio peop.u, ^iiulb every menroer' 
of the confederacy by general, salutary, and 
equal laws alone, tlie benefit of those republican 
in.-titutinns whicli it was the end and aim of the 
constitution to establish, and the impartial 
flueuccof which is, in iny judgment, iiidispcn- 
sable to their preservation. I cannot bring my 
self to believe tliat tlie lasting fiappinessof tlie 
people, llio prosperity of llic State, or the per- 
manency of their Union, can bo maintained by 
giving preference or priority to any class of 
citizens in the distribution of benefits or privi- 
leges, or by the adoption of mcarurcs w-hich en- 
rich one portion of the Union at the expense of 
another; nor can I see in tlie interference of the 
Federal Government with tlie local legi-latiot 
and reserved rights of tlie States a remedy for 
present ora security against future danger. 

The fit St, and asrnredly not the least, impor- 
tant )lcp towards relieving thccountry from tlie 
condition into which it hud been plunged by ex- 
cesses in trade, banking, and credits of all 
kinds, was to place the butinees transactions of 
Ihe Government itself on a solid basis; giving 
and receiving in all cases value for value, and 
neither countenancing nor encouraging in oth- 
er) that delusive sysiems of credits from which 
it has been found so dilTicuIt to escape, and 
which has left nothing behind it but the wrecks 
that inaik its fatal career. 

'I liat tlic financial alTuirs of (he Government 
arc now, and have been during the whole peri- 
d of these wide sprcad-ng ditiicultics, condiie- 
ted with a strict »ii)l invariable regard to this 
great fundamental principle, nnd that by the 
assumption and maintenance of the stand thus 
iaken on the very threshold of the approaching 
crisis, more tlian by any other cause or causes 
whatever, tlie community at large bus been 
shielded frcm the incalculable evils of a gener- 
al and indi finite suspension of specie payments, 
and a canreqncnt anndiilation, for the whole 
period it might havo lasted, of a just and inva- 
riable standard of vaiite, wi'.l. it is believed, at 
this period, scarcely be quCstionCn. 

A steady adherence, on the pgrt of theGov- 
eminent, to the policy which has prOuUced ^uch 
salutary results, aided by judicious Stats' legis- 
lation, nnd, and wliat IS not less important, i ” 
tho industry, enterprise, pcrscvercnec, nnd 
economy of the American people, cannot fail 
to raise the whoir country, at an early period, 
toa state of solidand enduring prosperity, not 
subject to be agrin overthrow n by the suspen- 
sion of banks or Ue explosion of a bloated cred- 
it system. It is lor the people, and thei r repre- 
sentatives, to dreido whether or not the per- 
manet welfare o tire country (which all good 
citizens equally desire, however widely ihey 
may difTer, as to the means of its accomplish- 
inent,) shall be ii this way secured; or whether 
the m.inagcment of the pecuniary concerns of 
the Governmi'n', and, by consequence, to a 
great extent tliost individuals aiso, shall be car- 
ried back toa coidii.'onof things wiiicb fostered 
those contractiuis .ind expan.sions of the cur- 
rency, and those icckless abuses of credit, from 
tho palelul circctiof wliich the country has so 
deeply sufferi d — i return that can promise, in 
the ci'd, no beltei results than to produce the 
embarrassments tie Government lias experienc- 
ed; and to remove from the shoulders of the 
present, to those of fresh victims, the bitter 
fruits of that spirit of speculative enterprise 
to which our countrymen arc so liable, nnd upon 
which the lessons of experience are so unnvail 
ing. 7 he choice is an important one, and I 
s nuerc! hope that it may be wisely made. 

A report from the Secretary of \' ar, pre- 
senting a detailed view of the affairs of that de- 
partment, accompanies this communication. 

The desultory duljes connected with the re- 
moval of the Indians, in w’liich ^rmy has 



proved la ilaciuos, and libsTiiiiics 
nowed throughout the whole Territory. That 
this contest has chdured so long, is to be attrib- 
uted to causes beyond the control of llio Gov- 
ernment, Experienced Generals havo had com- 
mand of the troops; officers and soldiers have 
alike distlnguishcil tliemselvcs for their activi- 
ty, patience, and enduring courage; tlie army 
h.as been constantly furnished with supplies of 
every description, and we must look for tlie 
causes which have so long procrastinuled the 
i^suc of the contest, in the vast extent of the 
theatre of hostilities, the almost insurmounta- 
ble ob-tacles presented by the nature of the 
country, the climate, and the wily character 
of the savages. 

The sites for marine hospitals, on the rivers 
and lakes, wliich I was autliorizcd to select and 
enu-e to be purchased, have all been designat- 
ed; but the appropriation not proving sufficient, 
conditional arrangements only have been made 
for their acquisition. It is for Congress to de- 
cide wlu'lliir those conditional pnrcliascs tliall 
be sanctioned, and the humane intentions uf 
the law carried into lull effect. 

'J’liR navy, :is will iippcar from the ac- 



iiavy, :is vvi)| appear 
conipanving repot t of the Secretary, has 
been usefully anti honorably euiployod in 
llic protection of our coniinorco and citi- 
zens on Ihe Mediterranean, the Pacific, 
on the coast of Brazil, and in tho Gulf of 
Mexico. A small sqnadion, consisting of 
the frigate Constellation, nnd the sloop-uf- 
war Boston, under Commodore Kearney, 
is now on its way to tho Chinn and Indian 
sens, for the purfiose of unending to our 
interests in that quarter; and Commander 
Aulick, in the sloop-of-war Yorktown, has 
been instructed to visit tho Sandwich and 
Society Islands, the coasts of New Zea- 
land and Japan, together with ports nnd 
islands frequented by our whale ships, for 
the purpose of giving them countenance 
n.'?d protection, should they ho lequired. — 
Ollier t 'milar vessels have been, and still 
are employe.'' in prosecuting Ihe surveys 
of the coast of ih.s U. Stales, directed by 
various acts of Cong."es.'; and those which 
have been completed vvill Sihorlly ho laid 
before you. 

The exploring expedition, at the latest 
date, was preparing to leave the Bay of 
Islands, New Zeland, in fuither prosecu- 
tion of objects which have, thus far, been 
successfully accoinplislicd. The discovery 
of a new continent, which was first seen 
in latitude OG deg. 22 min. south, longi- 
tude 1.74 deg. 40 min. east, and alterwarJs 
in latitude 66 deg. 31 min. south, longitude 
153 deg. 40 min. east , by Lieutenants 
Wilkes and Hudson, for an extent of 
eighteen hundred miles, but on which they 
were prevented from landing by vast bo- 
dies of ice which e-compassed it, is one of 
tlie honorable results of the enterprize. — 
Lieutenant Wilkes bears tcstiinouy to the 
zeal and good conduct of his officers and 
men; and it is but justice to that officer to 
state that he appears to have performed the 
duties assigned him with an ardor, ahiiity, 
and persevejance, which give every assu- 
rance of ail honorable issue to the undeiti- 
king. 

The report of the Postmaster General, here- 
with transmitted, will exhibit tho service ol 



the most effoctivo rosulls in breaking up those 
dens of iniquity. 

M. VAN BUREN. 
Washington, Docembor 5, 1810. 



.11*. CUN.MNClUli: 

You arc requested to announce the following 
gentlemen as candidates for Councilraen in their 
respective Wards, at the approaching election 
in January next: 

In Ward I. Ward 2. 

Joseph Bruen, James Searics, 

James Loeuc, R, T. ,S. Cloud, 

Robt. S. Todd, Jerc. T. Fiazier, 

Ward 3. Ward 4. 

M. R. Downing, Thomas floss,. 

Alex’r. Moore, John Brennan, 

J. R. Sloan, Ben. F. Graves, 

FREE CITIZEN.S. 

Doc. 10, 1840-td. 

lulolligenccr and Observer insert till election. 



content to 



Will R. henry GATEWOOD 
serve, if elected, as Councilman In 

WARD No. 3. 



New Cabinet Ware Room. 

J UST received and for sale low, at ray Furni- 
turc Ware Room, opposite tlio back end of 
the Northern Bank, 15u PIECES CF ROYAL 
WILSON, BRUSSELS, and IMPERIAL 

CD 3 

Also, Venetian Carpets, for passages and stairs, 
of different wid'hs ; also 6 pieces of OIL 
CLO'I HS, for halls, that can be cut to suit any 
passage or entry: also, RUGS, DOOR- .MATS, 
Sic. &.C. The above articles arc the best and 
largest us.sortment ever offered for sale in (his 
market, and worth the attention of the public. 

JA.MES MARCH. 

Dee. 17. 1840. tf 



been constantly engaged on the Northern and| department the past year, and its present 

conditio.-,. Thy transportklion has been main- 



NOTICE. 

A ll persons bolding City Bonds, or Drafts 
on tho City Treasury, being tho amount 
of their subscription for constructing Cisterns, 
will prc.scnt tlicin to Capt JOHN W. FORBES, 
Chairman of the Committee on the Fire Depart- 
ment, on or before the 23d inst. , as it is necessary 
those Drafts should be countersigned by the 
treasurer. Also, all claims against llio Fire 
Department, so as to enable the Comniittcc to 
make a full report. 



December 



CHAS. II. WICKLIFFE, Mayor. 
17, 1840. It. * 



STRAYED 

"W jlROM the subscriber on p'ri- 
R’ day last, a tinall red AND 
Wliri E COW. file only par- 
iifuhr mark recollected, by 
which she can be distinguished, 
IS one dry teat, having but three teals which givo 
milk. A liberal reward will be given to any 
one who will return her. 



December 17, 18«40, 3t 



JACOB BLAIN. 



TAKE NOTICE. 



ed it impracticable to carry into full clTcet the 
plan recommended by the Rccretary for improv. 
ing its discipline. In every instance where the 
regiments have been c mcentrated, they have 
mide ^rcat progress; and the best results may 
be anticipated from a continuance of this sys- 
tem. During the last season, a part of the 
troops have been employed in removing Indi* 
ans from the interior to the territory as^igncd 
them in Ihe west — a duty which they have per* 
formed etlicicntly, and with praiseworthy hu 
manity; and that portion of them which has 
been stationed in Florida, continued active opc 
rations (hero throughout tlic hents of summer 

The policy of the United States in regard to 
the Indians, of which a succinct account is 
givjn in my mcs^sagc of 1638, and of (he wis- 
don and e.xpcdicncy of which I am fully sa(isfi- 
cfl, has been continued in active operation 
throughout the whole period of niy adminiflra* 
tier. Since the spring of 1837, more than forty 
thoisand Indians have been removed to their 
new homes west of tho Mississippi; and I am 
hapc'y to add, that all accounts concur in repre- 
senting the result of (his measure as cmintntly 
beneficial to that people. 

llio emigration of the Scminolcs alone has 
beci altcndod w ilh serious difficulty, and occa- 
sioned bloodshed; hostilities having been com- 
menced by the Indians in Florida, under the 
apprehension that (h»*y would be compelled, by 
force, to comply with their treaty stipulations. 
The execution of the treaty of Payne’s Land- 
ing«signcd in 1832, but not ratitied until 1834, 
was po-tponed, at the solicitation of the Indi- 
tns, until 1636, when theyaga n renewed their 
•igrccmcnt to remove peaceably to their new’ 
hontes in tbc west. In the face of ihi» solemn 
and renewed C' mpacl, they broke their faith, 
and commenced hostilities by the mnssacre ot 
Majar Dade’s command, the murder of their 
ager.t. General Thompson, and other acts of 
cruel Irrachcry. When this alarming and un- 
expected inlclligenee reached tho scat of (Gov- 
ernment, every effort appears to have been 
made to reinforce General ('linch, who com- 
manded tho troops then in Florida. General 
Custis was despitched with reinforcements 
from Charleston; troo;“s were called out from 
Alabama, Tennessee and Georgia, and Genera. 
Scott was sent to take the command, with am- 
ple powers and ample means. At tho firsi 
alarm, General Gaines organized a force nt N. 
Orleans, and, without waiting for orders, land- 
ed in Florida, where he delivered over the 
troops ho had brought with him to General 
Scott. 

Governor Call was subsequently appointed 
to conduct a summer campaign, and at the 
close of itt was replaced by General Jessup — 
These events and chrnges took place under th. 
administration of my predecessor. Notwith- 
standing the c.xertions of the experienced offi 
cers wlio had command there for eighlHon 
months, on entering upon (he administration 
of tlio Government, I found the Territory of 
Florida a prey to Indian atrocities. A strenu- 
ous effort Was immediately made to bring these 
hostilities to a close; and the army, under Gen. 
Jessup, was reinforced until it amounted to 
10,000 men, and furnished with abundant 
supplies of every description. In this cam 
paign a great number of the enemy were cap- 
tured and destroyed; but the character of the 
conlcft only was changed. 'I'hc Indians hav- 
ing been defeated in every engagement, dis 
persed in «-ni:ill bands throughout the country, 
and became an enterprising, formidable, and 
rutlih‘-‘s bindilti. Gcncfal Taylor, who sue* 
cceded Genera) Jessup, used his best exertions 
to subdue, them, and was seconded inliiseffotts 
by the officers under his command; but he too, 
failed to protect the territory from their depre 
dat.ons. By an act of signal and cruel trCaehc- 
rvt they broke the Irurc made with them by 
General ^Macomb, who was sent from Washing- 
ton for tho express purpose of carrying into ef- 
fect tile c.vprcssed w ieJtes of Congress, ond have 
continued their dcva«talions ever since. Gen- 
eral A misled, who was in Florida when Gene- 
ral Taylor Icflthcarmy, by permission, aSsiim 
cd the command, and after active summer ope- 
rations, w?is met by proporntions for peace: and 
when the fortunate coincidence of the arrival 
in Florida at the same period, of a delegation 
from the Scminolcs who arc happily settled 
west of the Mississippi, and arc now anxious to 
persuade their countrymen to join them there, 
hopes were for some time entertained that the 
Indians might be induced to leave Iho Territo- 
ry without further difficulty. These hopes have 



tallied during the year to the full extent autho- 
rized by (he existing laws; some improvements 
have been effected, w'hich the public interest 
seemed urgently to demand, but not involving 
any material additional expenditure: the con- 
tractors have generally performed their en- 
gagements with ffdclily ; the postmasters, with 
lew exceptions, have rendered their accounts 
and paid their quarterly balances with promp- 
titude; and the whole service of tho depart- 
ment has maintained the efficiency for which it 
has for several years been distinguished. 

The acts of Congress cstablisiiing new mail 
routes, and requiring more expensive services 
on others, and the increasing wants of the coun- 
try, have, for three years past, carried tlie ex- 
penditures something beyond the accruing re- 
venues; the excess having been met, until the 
past year, by the surplus w Inch had previously 
accumulated. That surplus having been ex- 
hausted, and the anticipated increase in the re- 
venue not having been realized, owing to the 
depression in the commercial business of tlie 
country, the finances of the department exhibit 
a small deficiency at the close of the last fiscal 
year. Its resources, however, are ample, and 
the reduced rates of compensation fer the iraus- 
nortalion sen ice, which may bo expected on 
the future lettings, from the general reduction 
of prices, w ith the increase of revenue that may 
reasonably be anticipated from the revival of 
commercial acllvily, must soon place the fioan- 
ccs of tho department in a prosperous condi- 
tion. 

Considering the unfavorable circumstances 
w hich have existed during the past year, it is a 
gratifying result that the revenue has i.ol de- 
clined, as compared with tlic preceding  ear, 
but on the contrary exhibits a small increase; 
the circumstances referred to having had no 
other effect than to check the expected income. 

It w ill be seen that the Pcslmastcr General 
suggests certain^ improvemenrs iu the cslab- 
liahincnt, designed to icduco the weight of the 
mails, cheapen llic transportation, eiicare great- 
er regularity in (he service, and scenre a con- 
siderable reduction in the rates of letter post- 
age— an object highly desirable. 'J'lic subject 
is one of general interest to the community, 
and is respectfully reconiincndcd to your con- 
siderstioD. 

The supprcs'ion of the African slave trade 
has received the continued attention of the 
Governmeut. 'I'hc brig Dolphin and schooucr 
Grampus have been employed during the past 
season on the coast of Africa for the purbosc of 
prevenliug such portions of that trade as was 
 »aid to be conducted under the American flag. 
After ciuising off those parts of tho coast mcsi 
usually resorted to by slavers, until the com- 
mencement of the rainy season, these vcfscU 
returned to tho United States for supqlics, and 
have since been despatched on a similar ser- 

From ihe reports of tho commanding officers, 
it appears that the trade is now princTa^y car- 
ried on under Portuguese colors; and (hey ex- 
press the opinion that the apprehension of their 
presence on tho slave coast has, in a great de- 
gree, ane^ted the prostitution of the American 
tJag to this inhuman purpose. It is hoped that, 
by continuing to nrainlain this fored^in that 
quarter, nnd bv the exertions of the oflicers in 
command, much will be done to put a stop to 
whatever portion of this traffic may have been 
carried on under the Amcriran flag, and to pre- 
vent its use in a trade wliicIi, wliile it violates 
the law ?, is equally an outrage on the rights of 
other.** and the feelings ol humanity* 1 he ef- 
forts of the scvcr'il Governments who arc anx 
iously seeking to suppress this traffic must, how - 
ever, be directed again-l Uio facilities afforded 

by what arc now recognized as legitimate com- 

incicial pursuits, before that object can bo full) 
uccojuplishod. Supplies of provisions, water 
caiiks, merchandize, and articles connected 
w ith the prosccnlion of the slavo trade, aro, it is 
umJcrslood. frcc*,y carried by vessels of differ- 
ent nations to the slave factories; and the cfl'ecte 
of the factors are transv'ortcd openly from one 
slave station to another, w ithout interruption or 
punishment by ciihcr of the nations lo which 

they bclon?, cn«fa?cd in the commerce of that 
region* 1 submit to your jud rcmcnts whether 
this Government, having been the first to pro 
bibit, by adequate penalties, the slave trade— 
the first to declare it pirac\— hould not be the 
first, also, to forbid to ils citizens all trade w ith 
the slavo factories on tho coast of Africa; giv- 
ing an example to all nations in this respect. 



CITY ELECTION’. 

A n Election for Mayor and three Councilmen 
ineacli Ward of (he City, will be held od 
Saturday, the 2d day of January, 1841, between 
the hours of 9 o’clock, A. M., and 5 o’clock. P, 
m. at tuC tOiiOwmg plajccs, and under the super- 
intendenoo of tho following gentlemen, who 
have been appointed Ward Inspectors, viz: 
WARD No. I. — At Wm. A. Leavy’s vacant 
house adjoining Drear and Berkley’s store, Main- 
street. INSPECTORS — J. P. Bowman, Jesso 
Bayles and Win. Poindexter. * 

WARD No. 2. — At the Mcs.*?rs. Ashton’s 
Dudley House, Broadivay. INSPECTORS — U. 
B. Parker, II. McGuire and W'm. Adorns. 

WARD No. 3.— At llendron & Hamption'a 
Tavern, Upper-street. INSPECTORS— John 

Henry, A. Moore and Peter Higbee. 

WARD No. 4.— At J. Brennan’s Phoenix 
Hotel, Main-street. INSPECTORS— D. War- 
ncr, J. Kirtlcy and Wm. Brasfield. 

R. B. PARKER, Clk, City. 
December 10, I64O. 3t 



A Farm for Rent, 

F or one or more years, on North Elkhorn 
containing 260 odd Acres, all enclosed, 
half in plough land, the balance in blue grass; 
finely watered; houses convenient. For terms, 
apply to the subscriber. 

M. FLOURNOY. 
Fajctle CO. Nov. 19, 1847 tf 

I N Jessamine county, on Hickman Creok. 
near the Union .Mills, containing 

275 Acres. 

TERMS— One third in liand, the balance in one 
and two years. Apply lo the undersigned near 
the premises, who is duly authorised to sell and 
convey. 

JOHN PERRY, Alio. &c. 
October 29. 1840. tf»$l 



T 



$300 REWARD 

▼ ? ^HERE.\S, on the night of tho 17th of 
w November last, a .M URDER was com- 
mitted in this city, upon tho person of JOHN 
HOUSER, of Jessamine county, by a man 
named 

HARRISON JETER, 

By striking him upon the head with a large 
bludgeon, and Jeter having effected his escape, 
I am authorised by the Council of the City of 
Lexington, as Mayor, to oirer TWO HUN DRED 
DOLLARS reward for his apprehension and 
confinement in the Jail of Fayette county, in 
the City of Lc.xington, if taken in the State of 
ICcnlucky;or THREE HUNDRED DOLLARS 
if taken out of the State, and coqiniittcd to 
the Jail of this county. 

The said Jeter is about 6 feet high; 23 or 24 
ycais old: well made; fair complexion; light lisir; 
and carries liiraself erect. He is fond of drink, 
ing and gaming. 

Tho above reward will be given for his appre- 
hension and commitment, in conformity with 
the authority of the Council above cited. 

CHS. II. WICKLIFFE, 
Mayor of the City of hex. 

December 3, 1840. 3t. 



Public Sale. 

be sold, to the highest bidder, on 
▼ V Friday, the 1 Ilh of December next, all 
the personal property of Richard Stanhope, de- 
ceased, near Ebbin Milton’s Factory, consisting 
of Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Farming Utensils, Corn 
and Stock-Foddcr, about twcnly ti''c Acres 
Hemp in the stack, House and Kitchen lurni- 
turc, and other articles too tedious to mention. 

'There w ill, also, he some NEGROES HIRED 
OUT, on the day cf sale. 

TER.M5.— A credit of nino months will be 
given, the purchaser giving bond with approved 
security. The sale will commence at JOo’clock, 
and will be attended to by the person adminis- 

WM. STANHOPE. 

November 26, 1640. 3l 



SALT! SALT!! SALT!!! 

N 'OW receiving on consignment. at iny store 
room, on .Main-Street, adjoining my Sad- 
dler Shop, a large and splendid lot or 

GOOSI'; CREEK SAL'l’, 

From tho works of Gen. White. I wilJ sell at 
fair and steady prices. 

November 19, 1?I0 3t 



J. B. JOHNSON. 



‘ ■' TUK OLD WWTSar; 

H'WIBXflta'WiSlM 

E5TABL!*HMEST, 

Ifo. 1», Hunt’* Rt ,,ofpt!tiU tht Riil R»ai»fitc. 

rf^HE iuk»crib«r rut«rn»hi* 
A inoit jntkful thanki to 
the citii«n« of l-«xii)jt»n and 
tha ^ukliu {suaralljr, for tlia 
T«rr liberal enaouragemeut 
which they kave^xtenJed te 
him tinee ko purekased the ee* 
labUshmaat from H. la. Dim- 
ick» i» April laat, aud wcalcl moet reipactfuUy 
soliait a conliuuatiou af their aappart, f»lso tlie 
calls and patronage of the public at large. At 
the same tiin‘j he would say, that as Mr. Dimick 
had acquired the name of making good if'urni- 
ture, he hns not spared any pains in still re- 
taining the same reputation for his ware-room; 
and that he will still continue to uso every pos- 
sible mo ns in hie power to please in every re- 
spect whatever. 

Although he cannot bra^r of the largest estab- 
lishment in Lexington, yet bis assortment of 
Furniture is very respectable, and is not of an 
inferior quality to that of his neighbors in town. 

ALL KINDS OF FURNITURE, 

Cbairs, Vcuctiau Blinds, ITlatrcsaes, Ac. 

iMADE TO ORDER, 

If not on hand, with the least possible delay 

Everv description of CHAIRS on hand and 
for sale very low; and in fact every thing in the 
Furniture lino will be sold at much lower prices 
than was ever bought at before in Le.xihgton. 
All work sold by him is warranted to be made of 
the best materials and of the best workman- 
ship; ha therefore hopes to receive a share of 
public patronage. 

All Funeral calls attended to in the city or 
country wiih proper attention, and the charges 
shall be Tory low. 

All Furniture delivered in the city, and with- 
in a few miles, free of charge to the purchaser. 

TWO BOYS wanted immediately to learn the 
Cabinet Making business, from 14 tolSyearsof 
ago— Boys from the country would be preferred. 

JAMES ANDREWS. 

Lexington, Nov. 12, 1840 ly 



1 



REMOVAL. 

NEW I-'ALL AND WINTER STOCK 
OF FURNITURE. 

J HAVE removed ray large 



/A®-— 



gClIOOL FOR YOUNG LADIES, 

rpilE REV. EDWARD WINTHROP and 
I LADY would inform their friends and the 
public, that with the view of promoting the 
cause of 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION, 

They havo taken tho largo and commodious 
house, formerly tho residence of Judge Turner, 
on Poplar Row. Tho year will be divided into 
two sessions of fivo months each. The first 
cession will bo from the first lUonday in October 
to tho first Monday in March, the second session 
from the first Monday in March to tho first .Mon 
«lay in August. During tho other tw’o months 
(August and September) there will boa vacation 
TEKMS. 

For board, and tuition in English branch- 

• es, per session of five months, $100 00 
Day scholars, per session of five months, 16 00 
Board and tuition payable in advance. 

There will be an c.xtra charge for Languagesi 
Music nnd Dr-iwing. 

Le.xington, Oct. \% 1840, 3t 



CAPS, MUFFS, F J COLLARS, 
Ac. Ac. • 

r F^IIE subscribers have Ibis day received in 
store, nnd now opening, a large and splen- 
did assortiiMnt of CAPS, cScc. &.c. viz: 
Gcnllcmen’s superfine OTTER CAP 
“ “ ^eal “ 



and Boys “ 



Ladies* 



Nutria “ 

Mnskrat “ 

Seletlu “ 

Plush 

Cloth •• 

Fur Cellars, 

Boas, a superior and 



complete articlo for cold weather. 

Ladies' superfine MUFFS, a superior article. 

The above articles were seloetcd c.vprcssly for 
this market, and are now offered for sale at a 
small advance. 

TAYLOR & McLaughlin. 

Oct. I, 1840. 3m 



Take Notice. 

T his it to forwam all persons from trading 
or taking an assignment on a Note given 
by me to Waller Holloway, of Clarko county, 
fur the sum of 'I'liree Hundred Dollars. Said 
note was obtained from me by fraud, as he never 
complied with any part of the contract, and 1 
am determined not to pay it without being com- 
pelled by law. As witness my hand, this 2d 
day of November, 1840. 

ANTHONY GARTNER. 
Nov. 5, 1840 3t» 



BOARDING HOUSE. 

T n C siibscribcr 18 prepared to aceominodaic 
some 8 or 10 young gontlcincii with board- 
ing and lodging at his residence near the late 
residence of :Mrs. Martha W. Keen, on Mulber- 
ry street; the situation is airy, pleasant and re- 
tired from noise ami .bu*tle, and yet sufficiently 
near tho centre for the convenience of those at- 
tending to businc.sfl in any part of the city; ap- 
plication to be made at my shop a few doors be 
low Brennan's, .Main st Lc.xinglon. 

TliOS. GIBBONS. 

Oct 15-5t 

Observer and Intelligencer insert to the 
amount of $2. 

KENTUCKY STEAM HAT FAC. 
TOUY. 

^ '^OPARTNEIt.Slil P. — The undersigned 
having purchased the entire stock of the 
Kentucky Steam Uat Factory from VVai. F. Ton, 
intend to continue tho manufacturing of ALL 
KINDS OF flATS as usual. Being practical 
workmen, and having been employed in the es- 
tablishment for a number of years, arc conse- 
quently well acquainted with Ike wants of its 
customers, and they arc deteniiined that no ex- 
ertlOITS on iht’lr part shaH—bc •n-antiiig to giro- 
satisfaction both as to the beauty and durability 
of their work. The fuslLonubic public may rest 
assured that partifnilar attention will be paid to 
them. Mr. NV'.m. F. '1’od having located himself 
ut iho East, lias proffered his valuable services 
ill apprising us of every change that may take 
place in the fusliions, and of procuring the neces- 
sary Blocks, &,c. 

Having a large and well arsorted Stock on 
hand, they would offer them at wholesale or 
retail on as rsasonahio terms us they can be pur- 
chased in any section of the country. 

TAYLOR Sl McLaughlin. 

(CTlIaving an overplua of Finishing Blocks, 
Bows and other tools in their line, they would 
offer them at reduced prices to the trade. 

AV ANTED-— 'I'WO BOY'S, as upprontices 
to tho abovo businci s, n mc need apply unless 
they can eomo well recommended. 

T. & McL. 

Lexington, June 18. 3m 



NOTICE. 

f WIIIE subscriber having sold out the Kcntuc- 
.A. ky Steam llut Factory to .Messrs. Taylor 
.& McLal’ghetn, takes this opportunity of tender- 
^ng his sincere thanks to his friends and the 
Public for the very liberal patronage they have 
bestowed on him. He solicits in behalf of his 
"uccessord tho continuance of their generous 
®upport and patronage, believing that their many 
facilities and great practical e.xperiencc, with 
thoir assiduous attention to business, will not 
fail to meet the e.xpectations of their customers. 

WM. F. TOD. 



and splendid stock of 
CUAIKS, 

VENETIAN BUNDS, M. &C 

To my Nbw Ware House, 
oppposite 111© back entl of 
tk* Northern Bank, and ne.xt housa to Combs 
office. My stock on hand, is 

XUc I-nrccst awd Ito*l oTcr otN-red for 
.rtlc ill llri^ inrirKc*. 

And not surpassed by any in the west. My 
friends and the public are respectfully invited to 
call and examine my stock, whether they wish 
to purehase or not, and being comfortably situa- 
ted* in my new quarters, 1 re-embark in the 
business with renewed zeal and a determination 
to present such articles, in my line, to the public 
as will be sure to please, and at prices to suit tho 

times. 

JAMES MARCH. 

N. B. I am prepared with a HEARSE and 
Black Horses to attend Funeral calls at any hour 
or place. 

October 22, 1840. if 



LAAV NOTICE. 

R obert nelson WICKLH’FE has resu- 
med the practice of Law, in conjunction 
with E.MILIUS K. SAYRE. They will prac- 
tice in the Fayette, Jessamine ur.d Woodford 
Circuit Courts, and the Court of Appeals. 

OFFICE — The one now occupied by E. K. 
Sayre, corner of Jordan’s Row. 

April 9, 1840— tf 



Cash for Lard. 

T he subscribers will purchase 
a large quantity of LARD. 
I for which they will pay the highest 
i market price. They iWll furnish 



barrels and kegs gratis to hold it. They have 
( KEGS for sale at 25 i 



500 E.MPTY 



i cents each. 
CORNWALL & BROTHER. 
Nov. 5, 1840. Im 



Cash for Lard. 

f^HE subscribers will purchase 
E. a largo quantity of NEW 
LARD, which they wish to put 

up in Barrels. The Barrels can be 

had upon application to us. 

DEWEES &. GRANT. 
Lex. Nov. 5, 1840. If 



LITERATURE LOTTERY 



Authorised by the State of Kentueiy—For the 
Benefit of Shelby College. 



o 



RDERS from tho Country for Packages 
Single Tickets, or Shares of Tickets, ir 
the different classes of this Lottery, which 

W21511E2 

ENCLOSING THE MONEY, promptly at- 
tended to by 

A. ALDEN, Agent 

For the Jilanagere 

Lexington, October 15. tf 



Bagging Heckles, Sleys, 6tc. Acc 

f BIIIE subscriber has just received and intenuS 
keeping on hand a constant supply of 1 1**- 
ridge’s celebrated Hemp Heckles, also Bagging 
Sleys, Shuttles, Pickers, Males or Eyes, and 
Handle Twine. 

JOSEPH PUTNAM, 

' nov. 12, 1810 3m 22 .Main st. 



Back to the Old Stand 



SADDLE, HARNESS & TRUNK 

MANUFACTORY, 

West corner of Main MuUterry-streets^ hexing- 
 on, Ky.y opposite Brennan's Hotel. 

fflViK subscriber 
M. respect fu y 
announces to his 
old friendaund cus- 
tomers & the pub- 
lic, that he has 
^ ^ got back to his old 

fwK stand, and isbettcr 

arranged for busi- 
ness than he ever 
was before, having 
a spacious and well 
ariangcd house for 
business, where he 
continues the man 
ufactory of SADDLES, BRIDLES, TRUNKS. 
CARRIAGE, BUGGY and BAROUCH HAR- 
NESS, and WAGON GEAR, a good assortment 
generally kept on hand or made to order, to- 
gether with all other articles in his line of busi- 
ness, where he will be pleased that those wish- 
ing to purchase articles in his line of business, 
Will call and examine, both as to quality and 
prices, for themselves, (having a pretty fair as- 
sortment now on hand at fair prices.) 

Grateful fur the very liberal patronage with 
which ho has been favored for the last lourteon 
years, by the citizens of Lexington and Fayette 
county, and tho surrounding country, he lenders 
them tho same fidelity and accommodation on 
his part as heretofore manifested by him, and 
hopes still to merit and receive a share of their 
confidence and patrouage. Call and see my 
establishment even if you do not wi?h to buy! 

J. B. JOHNtiOxN. 
Lexington, Oct, 5, 1810. ly 
N. B. FOR RENT, in a f«w days, two now 
and commodious Brick Business Houses — one on 
each street, adjoining my corner cstoblishmcnt. 



DUDLEY HOUSE, 

GENERAL STAGE OFFICE, 

Corner of Ilroiulwny and Sliort-Strcets, 
LEXINGTON KY. 
jubseribers rcppcctfully inform their 
A friends and the public generally, that they 
have permanently taken that extensive and con 
vcniently arrangeil house on the corner of 
Broadwiiy and Short-Streets, formerly kept by 
John Kbiser, and recently by B. W. 'I'odd — 
to which they have made such additions and im- 
provements, as renders it equal to any other cs 
lublishmcni in the western country. The House 
is now open for the reception of iravellcrs, visiters 
and boarders, and they hope h^' unremitting ex- 
ertions and a desire to coniribute to the comfort, 
an I convenience of those who may favor them 
wiih their company, to render entire satisfac- 
tion. The situation of this House commends it- 
self to those visiting the city. 'J'hcy will not 
now make further promises as to the manner in 
which the House will he kept. They prefer 
tiut judgment shall be passed upon their IIouso 
by those who may visit it, rather than by the 
intcrcftcd promises of themselves. 

JACOB ASHTON. 

WILLIAM ASHTON. 

July 30, 1840 — ly 

N. H. F.AMILIES can be accommodated with 
large and airy r«oms in the private part of the 
establishment, sufficiently removed fmm the 
main 'Pavern building, as to receive no interrup- 
tion therefrom. 



Mr. TVM. H. HENRY' is authorised to settle 
up my butincs, and I carno.stly invito all persons 
who are indebted to me by mto or account to 
make immediate payment to him. 

WM. F* TOD. 

Tune 18. 3m. ** 



.MAHOGANY WAUDUOBES. 

I ^OR S.^LE, three splendid mahogany ward- 
robc9, just finished, and a few dressing bu- 
renus and drc.ssing tables, with and without 
marble top.s. 

april iG-tf JAS. MARCH. 

THOMAS M. HICKEY FUANCIS 
K. HUNT, 

Attorneys at Law and Counsellors, 

W ILL in future practice their profession as 
partners. Their office is at tho corner 
oj Short and Upper Streets, near tho Cknirl 
house. Lexington, June 18, 1840 3m 



300 DOLLARS REWARDS. 

R ANAWAY from the subscriber, living 
near Georgetown, Scott county, Ky*, 
BILL, Jl-VI AND ISAAC. 

BILL )cft 26tli September last. — Said nepo 
is about 45 vears of age, about 5 feet 9 inches 
high, of a dark complexion, walks very lame, 
from his left hip having been dislocated, and is 
so projected outward that it is easily discovered. 
Had on when he left, a blue cloth coat, blue 
jeans pants and white fur hat, with broad rim. 

JIM is about 27 years of oge, about 5 feet 6 
inehes high, heavy built and very black, and 
has a down look when spoken to. Hud on when 
he left, a brown jeans coat, blue jeans pants 
and black hair cap . 

ISAAC is about 24 years of age, very black, 
about 6 feel high, and very stout; had on wheu 
he left, blue clothing and white hut- Jim and 
Isaac left on the morning of the 5tli instant. 

The above reward will be given for the appre- 
hension of the above boys, if taken out of the 
State, or $100 for either of them out of the 
State, or $50 for either, if taken in the State 
and not in this county, or $25 if taken in this 
county, so that I gel them. - 

H. C. GRAVIES. 

Scott county, Feb. 6, 1840 G-tf 

NOTICE. 

T he subscriber returns his thanks to his 
friends and the public generally, for the 
very liberal patronage he has received from 
them; and takes this method to inform them 
that he has this day associated w ith him lii» 
son, John Skillman. 

The business will in future be conducted un- 
der the firm of A. T. SKILLMAN A. SON. 

A. T SKII.L.MAN. 

A. T. SKILLMAN A SON, 
Wholesale and Jictail Booksellers and Stationers, 
Lexingt m, Kentucky, 

U F..8PECTFULLY inform their friends nnd 
the public, that they will continue to keep 
on hand, at tho old stand, a general assortmep 
of Law, Medical, Theological, School and Mis. 
ccllancous Books, stationery, Misic, Musical 
Instruments, &c., at wholesale andrctail, which 






they will sell very low for cash. 

They will receive regularly tic new works 
in the various departments of literature, as they 
issue from the press. 

Lexington, jan. 1, l840-tf 

uncurren'Ubank votes 

WANTED. 

rp^IIE undersigned will purchaic uneurrent 
I Bank Notes, on all the solvent banks of 
the different States, at the lowes* rates of ex- 
change. 

MONTMOLLIN & COhNWALL. 
Oct. 1, 1840. 5t. 



DR. A. M. 3I KINNEY 

R espectfully tenders hs services to 

the citizens of Lexington aid vicinity in 
the practice of MEDICINE, SUIIGERY, &c. 
He will bo found at his residence, No. 8, Jor- 
dan's Row, ready at all times to give prompt 
attention to professional calls. 

July 30, 1840— 3m 



ENTIRELY VEGE'rAHLE. 

'T^HESE PILLS have long been known 

and appreciated for their c.xtraordinary and 
immediate powers of restoring perfect health, 
to persons suffering under nearly every kind of 
disease to w hich the human frame is liable. 

VV^hcri taken according to the directions ac- 
coinjKinyiRg them, they arc higlily beneficial in 
the prevention ami cure of Bilious rcvct'«  Fe- 
ver and Ague, Dyspepsia, Liver complaints, 
Sick Ilead-acbc, Jaundice, Asthma, Dropsy, 
Rheumatism, Enlargement of the Spleen. Piles, 
Cholic, FcmalcUhslructions,Hcarl-burn, Furred 
Tongue, Nausea, Distension of the Stomach and 
Bchwels, Incipient Diurrhoea, Flatulence, Habit- 
ual Cosiivcncss, Loss of Appetite, Blotched or 
Sallow' Complexion, and in all cases of Torpor 
of the Bowels, w here a cathartic or aperient is 
needed. They arc exceedingly mild in their op- 
eration, producing neither nausea, griping nor 
debility. 

Perhaps no article of the kind has ever been 
offered to the public, supported by testimonials 
of a character so decisive, from sources as re- 
spectable, or that has given more universal satis- 
faction. 

Hundreds and thou$aad.s bless the day they 
became acquainted with Peters' Vegetable Pills, 
which, in consequence of their c.xtraordinary 
oodness, have attained a popularity unprccc- 
ciitcd in the history of medicine. 

The very circumstance alone, that PJiysicians 
in every part of the L^nion, (but more c.*!pccially 
in the Southern Flatc.s, w here tliey have lo/ig 
been In use) arc making free use of them in 
their practices, speaks volumes in their praise. 
Add to this, the fact, that all who use, invariably 
recommed them to their friends, and the testi- 
mony in their favor is almost irrcsistitble. As 
an autk-bilious remedy, and to prevent costivo- 
ncss, they have no rival. One twenty-five cent 
ho.x will establish their character, and prove that 
there is truth even in an advertisement. 

More than three millions of boxes of thoscce- 
lebratcd Pills have been sold in the United States, 
since January, 1837. 

Prepared by JOS. PRIESTLY PETERS, M. 
D., at his institution for the cure of obstinate 
diseases, by means of vegetable remedies, No. 
129, Literary-street, New York. 

Tho Pills are neatly put up in tin boxes, 
containing 20 and 45 Fills — Price, 25 and 50 
cents. 

That the public may rest assured the sa- 
lutary effect of these Fills, and the truth of the 
above statements, tho following LETTERS 
FROM MEDICAL GENTLEMEN, of the first 
respectability arc most respectfully submitted, 
Clarksville, Mecklenburg county, Va. ) 
Feb. 7. 1^37. ] 

Dear Sir:— I embrace this opportunity of ex- 
pressing to you, my pleasure ut the unrivalled 
success of your Pills in this section of the coun- 
try. It is a general fo.ult of those wlio vend pa- 
tent medicine.^, ga.y too much in ihcir favor, 
but in regfl'^i iq your Pills, I am firmly per- 
suaded that they deserve far more praise than 
ycu seem inclined to give tliciii. 8ix months 
ago, they were scarcely known here; and yet, 
at present there is no other medicine that can 
compare with them in popularity. In Dyspepsia, 
Sick Ucad-achc, derangement of the Biliary 
organs and obstinate constipation of the bowels, 
I know of no aperient more prompt and cfiica- 
cious, and 1 have had considerable c.xpcricn^c 
in all these complaints. 

I would add that their mildncRs and certain y 
of action render them a safe and efficient purga- 
tive for weaker individuals, and that they may 
be given at all times xvilhoul appreiicnsion of 
any of those injurious consequences which so 
frequently attend the application of calomel or 
blue pill. On the whole, I consider your Vege- 
table Pills an invaluable discovery. 

Very respectfully, 

S. a. HARRIS. M. D 

CiiARixiTTE, N. C. Jan. 1 , 1837 . 
Dear Sir; — I have made frequent use of your 
Pills in the incipient stage of the Bilious Fever, 
and obstinate constipation of the bowels; also in 
the enlargement of the Spleen, Chronic Diseases 

a phial. She had been attended by the best ^ud in all cases have found them to bo very ef- 

has T i  nnvn tt n 



SPRING SEAT SOFAS. 

J UST finished and for sale, 10 spring seat 
sofas, of a very superior quality. Also, 10 
dozc.T mahogany half French chaireand 12.«5pring 
scat racking chairs, w hich 1 will sell cheap, 
april iG-tf JAS. MARCH. 



3IR. RICHARDSON, 

Resident Teacher of Dancing Lex^ 
ington, Ky. 

jj^CIIOLARS taken at any lime, and their 
^9 quarter commenced on the day of entrance. 

0 :;] 7 "Clas 8 CS in the ncigliborhood promptly at- 
tended to. Mav 14, 1840 tf 



SAM’L. A. YOUNG, 

(ATTORNEY & COUNSELLOR AT LAW,) 

W lf/L attend to praclicein the counties of 
FaycUc and Jessamine, and in the Court 
of Appeals, and U. g. District Court. Office, 
the room formerly occupied by Jjarkin B. Smith, 
Esq., Upper-street, 

He will also attend to collection's throughout 
the Stale. 

Lexington, June 11. tf 






G. W. EVENS, 

DENTIST, 

H aving returned, with the intention of 
remaining permanently, he respectfully 
oilers his services to tho citizens of Lexington 
and vicinity, in all the various branches ol his 
profession. IJc occupies tho office of the late Dr 
W.M. Hardman, on Mill-strcct. 

He has been kindly permitted to refer to 
Professor J. I.ocke, Cincinnati. 

“ ,T, C. Cross, Lexington. 

Rev. J. N, 3X.1FFITT, 

Mr. 'I'lios. V* Pavne, Maysvillc.* 

Rev, II. B. Bascom, Augusta, 
aug 20 — tf 



THE BALL ROLLING-STILL THEY 
C03IE. 

F rom the first men throughout 5ur country, 
ore daily received, and may be perused, 
at Depository, No. 188 Washingtor-sireet, Bos- 
ton, exceedingly in»p6rtant, and to tho Invalid 
particularly interesting statements of recoveries 
irom Consumptions, and other obstinate com- 
plaints, having been solely accomplished by tak- 
ing, a short time, according to directions, the 
deservedly celebrated MA’ICHLESS SANA- 
TIVE, the demand for which is unprecedented. 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

ONE OF XIIOCSANDS. 

Post-Office, Stamforo, Ct.) 

March 20, 1840. $ 

Dear Sir: — I want some more Sanative, soon 
as you can sent! it. It is doing wonders in this 
place. A girl who has been an invalid since she 

was three months old, (and is now 16 years old) uie .^p.een, e.i.ro.uc rriscascs 

has beenCURED by takmg about one quarter of ^i^ llcadachc. General Debility, 

a pliial. She had been attended by the best /- 

physicians, and a large amount of money has j jy BOYD M D 

been expended for her, all without cftcct, until ’ ' ' * » • 

she tried the Sanative. I am out of the medi- 
cine — and know of several who want it. 

Verv Respectfully, 

JOHN BROWN, P. M. 

To D.S. Rowland, General Agent, Boston. 



of 



IjOoR Out for EXOS L, FEAAt ICK^ 
Neu York. 

No Pedlar or Travelling Agent has over been 
employed in this country to sell the Sanative, oi 
to leave it with any person to sell on commission. 
Again, every Agent of the True Sanative is 
appointed by the General Agent, and receives 
the medicine directly from the Depository in 
Boston- June 12, 1840. 

The above invaluable Medicine to be had at 
tho office of 

D. BRADFORD, 

No. 28j Main-st 

Lexington, July 16, 1840 tf 



LEXINGTON STEA3I WOOL CARD. 
ING FACTORY. 

J BRUEN is again prepared for Carding 
• Wool, at the above well known stand. 
Having thoroughly repaired his Machinery, he 
intends his w'ork shall be done in a manner not 
excelled by any in the country. Customers 
from a distance always despatched with as little 
delay as practicable. 

TERMS. — For Carding common quality White 
Wool or Coarse Mix, going only once through 
the Machines, 6^: cents per pound. 

For Merino and Fine 3Iix, per pound, and 
for very fine Merino, higher in proportion to 
trouble of Carding* 

Payment required in hand. Wocl, Wood afid 
Buc »n, at niarket price, taken in payment. 

FOUNDRY. 

A ll articlc.s in this line, furnished, or made 
to order on the shortest notice. On hand, 
a good assortment uf all articles common iiitlus 
branch of business, consisting of Hollow Wurr, 
Cornshellcrs, Cob or Bark iVliJls, Cogg Wlicels, 
Mill Gudgeons, Saw-MiII Cranks, Double Refin- 
ed and PitUburgli Wagon Boxes; Tailors, Hat 
ler.s and Flat Irons; Gun Mounting; Tavern and 
House Bells; Horse and Hand Bells; Fan Irons, 
(fee. &.C. An assortment of Franklin and Close 
Stoves, Coal Grates, (fee. 3,000 pounds assorted 
Sheet Copper. J. BRUEN. 



BAR IRON (fe HARD3VARE STORE. 

O N hand, a handsome assortment of Ken- 
tucky ilammercd and Juniata Rolled Iron; 
Cast, Crow'ley, German, English and American 
Steel, all warranted of the very best quality. 
A general assortment of Hardware and Car- 
penters* Tools of the best manufacture. Anvils, 
Vices and Bellows, Wrought and Cut Nails, 
Fairbank's Patent Platform Seales, Brass and 
Iron Patent Balances, warranted correct; Grind 
stones, fee. All offered very low for Cash. 

J. BRUEN*. 

Lexington, May 28, 1840. 3in 



DISSOLL^TION. 

T HIR partnership heretofore existing hetw cen 
. the undersigned, in the Grocery Business, 
w’as this day dissolved by truiiual consent. 'I'liose 
persons indehlod to the firm, will please call at 
tho old stand and settle (he same immcdiafclv. 

JOHN CAR ! Y, Jr,‘ 
ISAAC COOK. 
Lexington, May 5, 1840. 

rBHIEundersignod having purchased the stock 
JL of Groceries of Carty fe Cook, will continue 
the Grocery Business at their old stand. He 
has a general assortment of groceries, and will 
sell them on as good terms as any house in the 
city. JOHN CARTY, Jr. 

may ll-tf 



Mecklenburg county, Va. Feb. 7, 1837. 

Having used Dr. Peters' Pills in iny practice 
for the last twelve montiis, I take pleasure in 
giving my tcslmony of their ffood effects in 
cases of Dyspepsia, Sick Hcad-achc, Billious 
Fever, and other diseases produced by inactivity 
of the liver. They arc a safe and mild aperi- 
ent, being the best article of the kind I have 
ever used. GEO. C. SCOTT, M. D.. 

IC^Bc careful and enquire for Peters' Vegeta- 
hie Pills. They are for sale at all the Drug 
Stores in Lexington, Ky., and also, by B. Nclh- 
crland, in Nicholasvillc, by J. D. Smith, in 
Richmond, by Jno. Aberdeen, in Versailles, by 
Alexander .Vl. Preston, in Winchester, in 3It. 
Sterling, by an authorised Agent; and on en- 
quiry, can bo had in almost every town and vil- 
lagc in the State, 

December 2G, 1839 — 52-ly 



FRANKLIN HOUSE. 

T he subscribers respectfully announce to 
their friends and the public at large, that 
they have taken this well known Tavern Stand, 
formerly kept by Mr. John *McCrackcii, and re- 
cently by Mr. John Candy, corner of Church 
and N. Upper-streets, where they will at all 
times, cheerfully serve, to the best of their abil- 
ities, all those w ho may be disposed to honor 
them with their patronage. The house nnd all 
the buildings attached to it, have been, under 
their own personal instruction, thoroughly ren- 
ovated, and tho public may rest assured llmt no 
pains will be spared to entertain botli man and 
horse in the most comfortable manner. Tiicir 
rooms arc large and commodious, and as well 
nirpEhcd as any house in the city. 'I'heir TA- 
BLE will be cd!?«lantly supplied with the best 
tho market affords, and their B.\R with the 
most choice liquors, both foreign und domestic. 
In short, they arc determined not to be outdone, 
in point of quality, ,by the managers of any 
similar establishment In the wcslern country. 

J. C. HENDREN, 

II. W. HAMPTON. 

N. B. Private families can be accommodated 
wHh comfortable rooms, on the most reasonable 
terms, II . fe H. 

Richmond Ky. Chronicle, and the 
New Albany Gazette, will publish the above 
until forbid. Lexington, Ky. April 23, '40-lf 



SELLING OFF AT COSTl 

For Cash Exclusively^ 

THE LARGE AND VALTL4BLE 

I ATELY' in the possession uf W. II. R.AI- 
J NEV, at his Store on -Main slrcet, is now 
ofi'ered at cost for cash exclusively, in lots to suit 
purchasers. Btrguins may be cxpcclcd. Great 
inducements will be given to persons disposed 
to purchase the entire stock, w hich is extensive 
and well assorted. 'Phe present Stand, which 
is one of the best in the city, can be retained by 
the purchaser. 

HENRY BELL I rr. . 
DAVID A. SAYRE, 5 
July 29, 18411— -If 

PATEXT HECLIXIAG ClIAmS. 

f UST mndo and for sale, G patent reclining 
chairs, the fir.st of the kind ever offered for 
sale in this niirkc t. Also, 12 mahogany nursing 
or sewing cJniir.s. 

april IG-tf JAS. MARCH. 

PIER TABLES. 

O N hand 12 handsome Pier Tables, with 
Egyptian and Italian marble slabs. Also, 
8 marble top wash stands, and 4 marble lop 
sideboards, very superior articles, 
april 16-tf JAS. MARCH. 



XEAV SPKIXG STOCK OF FUltXI. 
TIRE. 

riAIIE subscriber continues 
1 lo carry on tho Chair, So- 
fa, Furniture, Venetian Blind, 
and Uphol.stcring business, in 
an extensive manner, at hisold 
stand on Limestone street, 2d 
door above llic Jail, where he 
will be happy to see liis old 
friends and customers, and furnisli them wiih a 
first rate article, at reduced prices, 

Lexington, apiil 16-tf JAS. MARCH. 

SPECIE CIRCULAR. 

H aving sold my stock of Goods with the 
view of closing my business in this place 
immediately, all persons indebted to the late 
firm of Kennard fe Milton, or to the subscriber, 
arc earnestly requested to make payment im- 
mediately, or in every instance the si/rer w ill be 
demanded on debts due me. 

W. E. .MILTON. 

aug 20— If 

FANCY AND WINDSOR CHAIRS. 

O N hand and for sale at reduced prices, a very 
heavy stock of Fancy and Windsor Cliairs 
of every description. Also, 100 moss and shuck 
mattresses. 

april IG-tf JAS. MARCH 



BLUE LICK SP^GS FOR SALE. 

GREAT BARGAIN!! 



1 AM authorised to offer for sale, on favora- 
ble terms, that well known stand now oc 
cupied by Mrs. C. A. PRIOR at the BLUE 
LICK. It contains 
THIRTY-THREE ACRES OF LAND; 
Of which, about eight are occupied by the Buil- 
ding.s, (Jardens, fee. I’hcrc is a joint interest 
in the TWO SALT WELLS, one on each side 
of the Licking river, anda sole interest in a verv 
valuable WHITE SULPHUR SPRING on the 
Wc.sl side. The 

Contains Eighteen rooms m the large Brick Man- 
sion, besides the Kitchen und Cellar; and four- 
teen comfortable 

COTTAGES. 

A largo Icc-IIousc, Stone Stable and Shed, Cribs, 
Carriage-House, and Brick Smoke-House, com- 
prise the outbuildings. Those who may wish 
to purchase, w ill of course examine the premises. 

The FURNITURE can also be had with the 
house. 

It is unnecessary lo say any thing about the 
value of the property, as it is well known and 
appreciated. O^^Thc title will be clear of all 
dispute. Communications fiom a distance, post 
paid, will be immediately attended to. 

JNO. M, McCALLA, Agent 

For Mrs. C. A. Pryor. 
Lex. Ky., Uct. 8, 1840 tf 



TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY. 

Collegiate Departments 
fTlHE Board of Trustees arc happy to an- 
I nounce to tho public, that this Department 
lias been rc-organized, and will be open for the 
reception of students on the first Monday of No- 
vember next. The ceremony of inauguration 
and the President's address may be expected in 
the C'hapel of Morrison College, on the Satur- 
day previous, (Oct. 31st,) at 11 o'clock, A M. 
FACULTY. 

Rev. Robert Davidson, President, and Morri- 
son Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and Alcntal 
and Moral Philosophy- 
Dr. Louis Mausiiali., Professor of Ancient Lan- 
guages. 

Lieut. Benjamin Alvord, Professor of Mathe- 
matics und Natural Philosophy. 

Dr. Robert Peter, Professor of Chemistry and 
Natural History. 

Hon. Chief Justice Robertson, Lecturer on 
Constitutional Law. 

EXPENSES. 

Good boarding and lodging may bo obtained 
in private families at $2 50 or $3 per week; in 
commons, at $2 00 per week. Expenses will 
vary according to the habits of individuals. 
The following schedule of stated expenses, how- 
ever. is presented, from an examination of which 
a probable ostiinute may be made of the amount 
necessary per annum; 

WINTER SESSION. 

Board for 20 weeks, at $2 00 per week, $10 00 
Tuition, - - - - 20 00 

Room rent, ■ - • .5 00 

Library, - - - - 1 00 

Servant's wages, - - • - ,5 00 

Fuel, - - - - • 15 00 

Washing, • - • - 5 00 



SUMMER SESSION. 
Board, 20 weeks, at $2 00 per week, 

Tuition^ 

Room rent, - 
Library, 

Servant's wages, - 
Washing. • ... 



Total, 



$91 00 

$-10 00 
20 00 
5 00 
1 00 
- 5 00 
5 00 



S7G 00 
91 00 



$167 00 



INSTRUCTION AND MORALS. 

The course of instruction will be thorougli, 
anda salutary discipline will be strictly enforc- 
ed. Religions services will be regularly conduc 
ted on the Sabbath in tho College C’hapel, under 
(he direction of the President. 

The Board of Trustees have only lo add that 
the character of tlic new organization warrants 
the liveliest hopes of success, and tliey are con- 
fident that tlic most sanguine expectations of 
the friends of the Institution will not be dirap- 
pointed. Fully convinced tJiat permanent suc- 
cess can only be obtained by being deserved, (lie 
i Board liavc endeavored, and believe they have 
succeeded in filling the Faculty with men of 
such ability, attainments, energy ami morals, 
as will ensure the highest order of intellectual 
and moral education. 

M. C. JOHNSON, 

Ch'n. B. Trustees T. U 
Lex. Sept. 17, 1840. 7t. 



FASUIONABLE BARBEKING. 

rniHE subscriber respectfully gives notice to 
his friends and the public generally that 
he Las just opened a 

UAllBERIXG ESTABLISHMEXT, 

On Upper-street, in the house recently occupied 
by Messrs. Ross Ai 8cully, 'Failors, u few doors- 
below Norton’s Apothecary shop, where he is 
prepared to wait upon those who may favor liim: 
with their patronage, in a slyle which he is con-- 
iident will be unsurpassed by that of anysimilas 
establishment in the city. Ilia razors will at alS 
times be kept in the most prcrfect order. Har- 
ing learned his business in this city, from his: 
Dither, Samuel Oldham, it is not deemed neces- 
sary to make furtlvcr professions ns to his ability 
or disposition lo serve ih-ose wlio may honor him 
with their visits. Me would merely remark that 
all his cRorls shall be used to render satisfac- 
tion. 

NATHANIEL, OLDHAM. 

Oct. 1, 1840. 2m 

THE GKEAT WESTERN. 

LiDrrty, the Constilutton^ — hnion — The pnnci.- 

pies of ll'ashtnoton^ Jefferson and Jackson. 

l’i;it , ‘ in puul:e-,’i-“ 

_|l ', ,, 1,-dlo 111 , - ,:ii^ 

and .vit-- Ij-e . ■ -j, ihc peopli.- ami 4h 

bb-.in^c f. ■ .d. lie , - tstiindardsliaii iicv - 
er be prostrated, or our Flag furled to tlic foul 
and corrupt powers of Federalism. Humbly, 
but earnestly laboring for the success and eter- 
nal pcrjictuation of those great principles, upon 
which alone, depend the liberty, happiness and 
prosperity of the people and tho salvation of our 
beloved I’nion, the Editor confidently appeals 
to the friends of Democratic principles to sustain 
him in the stand which he has thus taken, in the 
very midst of the battle fury of Federal Aboli- 
tionism, Mhich is threatening to spread ruin and 
dcssolation over the Sonth. 

Tho Great Western is published weekly, on a 
large sheet, and will contain all the general in- 
telligence of the day, both at home and abroad. 
It is designed to make this paper every way suit- 
able and acceptable to tho people of tho country, 
and being located at New Orleans, the great 
commercial Emporium of the South and W est, 
it w ill be found a most useful paper to every cit- 
izen in lire up country, as it will contain all the 
commercial information which they may desire. 
Such a paper is greatly needed in New Orleans, 
as all those which are now publi.shed hero seem 
lo be particulary designed for the use of mer- 
chants alone, we propose and arc now endeavor- 
ing to supply this deficiency, in short, we are de- 
termined lo make our journal, truly 'J'he Great 
Western, und just such a newspaper as every in- 
dividual, residing in the great Valley of tho .Mis- 
sissippi and its tributary streams, can desire or 
wish for, who may feel an interest in the news 
from New Orleans as well as from all other quar- 
ters of the country. 

Terms of subscription, $5 a year in advance. 

Any gentleman who may procure us five sub- 
scribers, shall receive The Great Western free 
of charge. 

E DWARD DEI.ON Y, Editor. 

PROSPECTUS 

OF 

THE CITIZEN SOLDIER, 

C TRCUM.STANCES not only of vast impor- 
tance in themselves, but of tho most vital 
consequence to individuals and to the nation in, 
Ihcir results, have evidently combined to render 
indispcnsible the addition of a new Journal to 
tho almost interminable list of American period- 
icals. * 

It is a matter of deep regret that while the 
feelings of every sect and party whatever, moral, 
religious, political, scientific or literary have 
been c.vcitcd, and their energies enlisted, to ad- 
vance even to iiltraism , their favorite schemes 
and dogmas, and to defend and preserve unchang- 
ed and unscathed the civil institutions of our 
country, — the very corner stone on which the 
whole superetruetiirc is built, and on which all 
depend for t.icir future c.xistcnco, and permanen- 
cy, has been forgotten, neglected, and suftered- 
to dilapidate and moulder back to decay. 

While llie tc.\t book of our political existence 
declares, that ”a well regulated militia is neces- 
sary for the security of a free State,” and that 
“every State shall always keep up a well regula- 
ted, and disciplined militia,” — and while history 
and observation have taught us the utter impro- 
priety and danger of a standing army in a popu- 
lar governmeni, the conviction is fastened upon 
us, that the safety of our common country, both 
against external invasion, and internal commo- 
tion, ns also the enjoyment of those invaluable 
privileges, which our Revolutionary Sires have 
bestowed upon their posterity, must depend alone 
upon her citizen-soldiery. 

With these views the stranger would look with 
astonishment upon the least neglect, or slightest 
indifference of our citizens toward the institu- 
tion on wliich nil our hopes and rights depend, 
without supposing it possible that those, or any 
of those, wiio were enjoying its protection over 
their persons or property, could bo secretly plot- 
ting to paralize or amputate this right arm of our 
common defense. IJut soil is, and tho numbera 
arc not few, who both secretly and publicly put 
forth their utmost exertions, to degrade, die 
grace, and render inefficient the Militia of our 
own country. This spirit is poured forth, from 
our Seminaries of learning; from the Pulpit and 
tho Bai, and not without etFect, for excrescences 
have been fastened upon the system, wliich ha vq 
well nigli caused its dissolution. 

Ill order, therefore, lo rcsusciatc and invigor- 
ate the constitutional defence of our country, to, 
render eft’oelive our citizen-soldier, to elevate, 
and encourage. the .Militia of our own State, of 
each State, and of the whole nation, — wo pro- 
pose to publish 'The Citizen Soldier.’ Thmai' 
lone is our apology. In this, fellow. soMiers, we, 
have a common interest; we will make the effort, 
and if vou sustain us, it will be successful. 

'J'HE CI TIZEN SOLDIER will be publishcdl 
ivK.EKi.Y at Jiorwich. Vermontj on a fine large- 
Itoyal Sheet, and will bo devoted to the intorcsts 
of the IMilitia. It will contain a synopsis of tho 
.Militia Laws of the several States, also quarter- 
ly slalcmcnls of Ihc resignations, discliargcs, 
proniolions, elections, and dates of commissions 
in the dificrcnl States, so far as they may be fur- 
iiislicd ns by the proper officers, — notices, resolu- 
tions and reports of Military conventions. Mili- 
tary biography .and history, ’Revolutionary histo- 
ry and anecdotes — history of ancient and modern. 
Campaigns, .Military science, literary und scien- 
tific matter — foreign and domestic intelligence. 
In relation to jiarty politics. The Citizen Soldier 
will be strictly neutral; but candidates for office, 
whether of the one or the otiicr leading political 
party, will be supported or oppoicd, in propoi tion 
as they shall support, or oppo.'e the Militia, and 
Ibis course will be rigidly adlicrcd to, always 
reserving the riglit to decide, who arc and wbt* 
arc not, the true friends of tho .Militia. As a 
general rule, hut few Advertisements, except 
those of a Military character, will be admitted 
into our columns. 

CX NDri'I()NS. — Two Dollars per annum 
pavtiblc always in advance. Twenty copies, 
done up in one bundle, will he furnished for 530; 
thirteen copies, for $20; and six copies for $10, 
J. S\VE']"I', Jr. Editor. 

August 27, 1840. 




Kentucky gazette (Lexington, Ky. : 1809), 1840-12-17

4 pages, edition 01

 Persistent Link: https://kentuckynewspapers.org/catalog/xt7jsx64578p
 Local Identifier: keg1840121701
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Location
  Published in [Lexington, Ky.], Kentucky by Daniel Bradford
   Fayette County (The Bluegrass Region)