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OBSERYEU 



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VOLUME 49 



LOUISVILLE, KY.. WEDNESDAY. JANUARY 19, 1870. 



NUMBER 3 



Ofi'^^iriAN OBSERVER 

AND 

PRKB CHKISTIAN COMMONWEALTH, 

OFKICES : 
No. 74 FOURTH STREKT, Louisville, Ky 
Mo. ISU MAIN ^ruKKT, nest 



Editobs. 



A. (JONVii,.-;:, 1. D., I 

KEV. F. B. CON' V ERSE, 5 
Wire toe t'o-opcratlon of miny Pastors and 
otber»l i5 Writers in tlie I'resbytcrian C'liurch. 
KOR TERMS.- Sse xooT or Tbibd Paoe. 



• It' (rue, jour Saviour was aD impns- 
That tlien, 30U are the deluded 



F. . Observer aoi CominonwealttL 

 K THE JEWS RIGHT? 

.iy the Jews were " the procuring 
j' of the death of Jeans of Naza- 
reth : fur whilst the great Sanbedrim 
jade out the indictment for Lis trial be- 
• ire the Roman authorities, the common 
pie, with one voice cried out, Cru- 
ify him, his blood be upon us and on 
our children !" They had charged him 
falsely with blasphemy— that '"He being 
man made himself God, and calling God 
his fatbsr, IT himself equal with God." 

Was thi  -irge a falbc one? No, if 
Jesus but a man, a model man, or 

»; on '. ilivinely incpired prophet, as some 
w 'ess and call themselves Chris- 

-fv he was! llive you ever 
fJllouglit, bi.''evers in Christ as the adora- 
ble (jod-njan, tliat if the doctrine of 
Liiitarikuism tuui IiiDg the divinity of Je- 
sus ' 
lor! 

victims of a blasphemous deceiver ! Th it 
the Jews were right in procuriug Lis 
death ! That the darkness of the tun 
was his frowning upon thi) victim, and 
smiling upon the executioners ! And, 
that tho uoise ')f tha eartliqu ike was but 
the grand amen-chorus to the glorious 
deed of the day ! If so, ought not every 
OU9, d iiiyia^ Christ's eq I ility with the 
Fatht^r, be ashamed to bec:illed a Chris 
lian Au'f, iusteid of condemning the 
Jews fur killing Jesus, bail them as 
brethren in the faith, and as executors 
of law! Away with this most 
Christ-insulting heresy, whose very ab- 
surdities send a chill to the heart ihat 
beats iu sympathy with the suffering Sa 
viour, and whose legitimate conclusions 
m the verdict of condemnation against 
ord of glory ! hand him ove. to the 
oldiery for execution, and forge 
r and spike that pierce his sa- 

believing Jesus to be man 
Iso charged him with bias- 
secured Lis coudemna- 
to death under the 
■nalty f.)r that 
nji departed 
■e Ro- 



leccnie the di- 
he death ot Christ, 
and Gentiles were all 
the representatives of a 
d u lited ag.^inst the Lord and 
His Anointed; and, therefore, 
they were tmnedinltli/ concerned 
e death of Jesus, rri/iB/e/i/ ipe all 
part in that most wicked execution 
Calvary ! Yes, reader, you and I, 
though here honoring the Sa\ iuur in "the 
new man,'' were present there in "the 
old man" of guilt ! Our »ih», as well 
as tuoso of Jews and Romans, nailed the 
blessed Jesus to the accnrsed tree. As 
it is written ; " Ho was wounded for our 
transgressioas, he was bruited for our in- 
iquities." 

- - It id important to reulizi^ this fac', in 
order to appreciate the s'ory of the 
Cross; especially, i i the-e perilous times 
when tragedies *are so fr^ qusnt ; they 
shock the finer sensibilities of our nature 
as they are reported day by day, but how 
^v  ' iocs the iffect thereof pass away 
and the feelings subside until aroused by 
another only to bee imo calm again ! Let 
a man be indicted for tho murder of his 
fellow mortal and then, by tLe ingenuity 
of his counsel, or by the sacrifice of jus- 
tice bo declared " Nut guilty ;" yet 
let hira have been connected with the 
tragedy, and all his life lung the. blood 
of bis victim will haunt the guilty con- 
science I He will uot easily forget the 
spot where his victim lay weltering in 
bis gore, nor the sound of the djing 
groan, nor the prison cell, nor tbe clank- 
ing chains, nor the judge upon bis bhrone, 
nor the gaping, su-spectiog crowd within 
the hall of jastice ! So let us but realize 
'.lad » band in the i^reat cruci- 
f;s:on — that we mingled with the multi- 
tude, tha base cruel mullitiide iu Jeru 
salem, and took part in their mockings 
and insultings. That your voice and 
mine assisted in raising tbe shout, "Away 
with him, away with him ! Crucify him. 
Crucify him !" That our bunds plared 
the crown of thorns upon his sacred brow 
and the cross upon the Saviour's back ! 
That your arm and mine swunt; the cruel 
hammer which drove tbe ppike through 
his hands and feet! That i*. was our 
spear that was thrust into the side of the 
friend of sinners ! That we joined the 
malignant populace in the lust and most 
cruel calumny: " [le saved (or profesiied 
to save) others, himself he cannot  ave ! 
I say let us but realize the fact, that by 
our "old man" of guilt, we were there 
in the place of a skull, we took part in 
its untold cruelties: and we will not but 
be suitably impressed, with tho reading 
or the preaching of the Cross. Then wc 
^ can properly sing : 

■• A.lai, aiitldid mj gaviour bleed." 

^ing with astoni^ticient, 

" Was It for l iiiicsthat I have dono 
lie f.'rottDed ipon tn • tree !"' 

Sing with 8ip."sre emotion, 

" Amazii - pity ftmce unknown 
And love beyond deg.-. '' 

Sing with a holy coDsecr:i ion, 

"Here Lord, I Rive myself away 
'Tisall tbat I cao do 



' latians ii. 20:) "I am crucified with have settled peace ? Only by having it 
■ Chri.t, nevertheless I live; yet not I but ! i" God's own way. Ry not resting on 
,,, . . . , ,, .•• 1 • I, T anything, even the Spirit's work within : 

t.hrist with.n m^; and .ue a.c which I ^ut on what Christ has done ■ 

I now live ID ike flesh, I Lve by the faith entirely without you. Then you will 1 
"of th-e Stin of God, who loved me and know peace; conscious unworthiness, but j 

yet peace. In Christ alone, God finds j 
that in which He can rest, and so is it | 
with His saints. The more you tee the 
nature and extent of the evil that is with- 
in, as well as that without and around, 
the more you will find that what Jefus is 
and what Jesus did, is tbe only ground 



denei 
there 
out-h( 



gave himself for me. 



J. II. K., OF Md. 



For the Ohservor and CommonwealtlL 

INCIDENT OF AN EXILED REFUGEE. 

" Cast thy bread upon tbe waters, for thou 
phalt tind it after many days.-' 

-Notice God's providences, and you »" ""J^'J'^^carMrest^ 

will have many providences to notice," is 
a well-known old Scotch proverb. I 
have noticed it often during my whole 
life, but never felt its truth so intensely 
as during this tedious e.xile in a strange 
land and among strangers. Let me 
give jou one instance among many others. 

By the invasion of Eist Tennessee by 
General tiurnside, many families loyal 
to the Confederate cause were driven 
from their homes of peace and plenty, 
and took refuse in the Atlantic States. 
During their exile, most of them had 
lost all their property — fome by robbery 
— others by incendiarism — all of them 
by violence and lawlessness. In Geor- 
gia, Virginia and the Carolinas, they 
lour.d themselves suddenly deprived of 
all pecuniary rescurces by the surrender 
of General Lt^e, and the consequent de- 
preciation of tbe only currency they had, 
viz: the i.'-sues of the Confederate 
Treasury. Fau)ilies that had, in their 
Tennes-ee homes, been not wealthy only, 
but ufflueuf, found themselves not only 
without a houfC, but without the means 
of sub.-istence — paupers — among Strang 
ers as much impoverished as themselves. 

It was exactly so with my own family, 
80 that we had to begin life anew at our 
advanced age. All my property— real 
and personal — stolen — burned — in the 
pos ession of others — or destroyed by 
vandals. From affluence, we found our- 
selves reduced to destitution. We found 
vacant house in tbe country — we had 



For tlie Observor and Commonwealtn. 

GREAT SIN OF THE CHURCH. 
The great sin of the church and tbe 
world is idolatry. Every nation, every 
individual, every church, has some pet 
sio, something which comes between God 
and itself. We all, more or less, worship 
golden calves, and have some substitute 
— some object or person — through or by 
which we worship Ilim who alone should 
be the subject of all adoration. 

God gave two commands to Moses, 
though we speak of them as ten. The 
first and chief is to worship God supreme- 
ly, and have no idols; the second, to do 
your duty to a U your fellow-men. 

Our Lord both divides and sums them 
up in his two precepts. 

We might of course speak of the idola- 
tries of other churches; of the saint and 
image and Pope wt rshipof Rome; of the 
worship of form and ceremony which 
characterizes our Episcopal brethren; or 
of the worship of a form of baptism, as 
illogical as it is unscriptural, which gives 
name and strength to that large and ex 
elusive sect who dip under the water. 

Of these we will uot speak. We Fres- 
bvterians have sins enough of our own to 
reciuiie our full attention. What is our 
form ol idolatry? what is cur pet sin? 
It is nobler than any of tbe.-e, and there- 
fore more dangerous. We set too high a 
value on mere intellect, and really wor- 
ship it iu the form of pulpit eloquence. 
We worship power ; we bow down before 
j God's noblest gift to mau, intellect as 
I shown in elo(iuence. As tbe ancieiits 
! worshipped the sun, because it gave forth 
I light and heat, and was therefore an ein- 
, bleui of power, so do we bow dowu be- 
fore the sun of iuiellect, and delight in 
' the majesty of its glory, 
i The fact is so well known that we 
I boast, and with reason, of the superior 
culture ami higlier degree of eloquence 
I po8!-essed by our ministry, that I will do 
' no more than assert it. It is so. We 
i would never have bowed down to tbe 
golden calf, whatever the multitude might 
have done around u-; but I very much 
fear that we would have worshipped 



vihit the sick brother? Not one. Did 
any member of the society call? The 
house was crowded with them ; and oflTers 
of service and of lielp wer» con^tsntly | romp ( 
made. Who in this case enacted the part 
of the good Samaritan ? If the Church 
did its duty, I mean tbe plain simple 
duty marked out by Paul in his epistles, 
as the duty of one church member to an 
other, there would be no necessity for 
these outside organizations. At least 
there would be no necessity for a church 
member being connected witli them. 

Shall we never carry out tbe 
declaration of our Lord? I v.ill have 
mercy and not sicrifice. Shall we con- 
tinue to forget the statement of St 
James: "What dotb it profif, my brethren, 
though a man say be hath faith, bnd have 
not works; can faith (without works) 
save him ? Faith, without works, is dead" 

L E. 



THE ROD AND STAFF. 

Rev. Nehemiah Adams makes this 
suggestive comment on the often quoted 
exprefsiuu in Psalms xxiii, 4 : " Thy ro 
and thy staff they comfort me." 

The shepherd carried with him two in- 
struments — the staff for his own support, 
and to attack a beast or robber; and the 
crook or rod By this crook, the shep 
herd guided a sheep in a dangerous p^i-s 
placing the crook under tbe sheep's nenk 
to hold him up and u.'-si-t bis step-'. BotL 
of the shepherd's instruments were a 
great comfoit to the sheep, while passing 
through a frightful and dangerous valley. 

The interpretation usually given to the 
words " thy lod and thy staff," as though 
they meant " thy gentle reproofs and 
thy severe rebukes," is erroneous. A 
sheep would hardly feel that his chasten- 
ing rod and the heavy blows of his staff 
comforted him. The meaning is, '• It is 
a comfort to me to feel tha crook of thy 
rod helping me in trouble, and to kno* 
tbat thy stuff is my defence against wild 
beasts." 



nothing to put in it, and only forty-two 
dollars of available money with which to 
set up house-keeping again. 

In our ncighborhoo'l were two other 
refugees— a brother and sister, driven 
out frofu New Orleans, and now more 
destitute, if possible, than ourselves. I 
had known the former iu better days. 
He had been foreman in a newspaper 
establishment iu the descent City, but 
was now unable to find employment in 
the country, to procure the means of re- 
turning to a desolated home. My wife 
offered him a plate at our table, and my 
sou a share of his bed He accepted 
their invitation, and he thus became tem- 
porarily a member of niy family. 

Time passed on till one day a stra'iger 
alighted at our gate, inquiring for our 
refugee guest, Mr. K., who was not then 

in eur house. During tbe stay of the • , , • . . 

stranger, I learned that he was General ' Mo«e^-  "* po« *essing the highest gifts 
Hill, editc r and publisher of the Lmd «hat God could bestow on m.ui. 
We Loot. He immediately, after seeing 



K. 



a his offic ' Hh- 



bis jorirnii. . 1' ■ 

paid m;.- very liberally from time . 
as my articles were published. The 
money thus acquired by my writi igs 
added much to our support and comfort 
But besides this, I b« casual acquaintance 
thus formed with General Hill was the 
means of my becoming acquainted with 
other gentlemen like him, of culture, 
attainments and character — congenial 
spirits, whose iijtercourse with me after- 
wards contributed much to relieve the 
loneline.-s y.nd solitude of my exile. 

Thus have I found the little bread 
cast upon the waters — the little kindnesa 
and civility extended to Mr. K., returned 
before many days to me. Notice provi- 
dences and you will have providences to 
notice. 

An Exile from Tennessee. 

J .1 uury 1st, 18' U. 

Kor tbe Oluerver and CommoawealtlL 

A THOUGHT FOR THE NEW YEAR. 

[The following article was received too 



The evil of this dispo.-itiun of ours acts 
upon both preachers and people. Does 
• iin;, V a ) oung rr. ' ' ■ [ : , ■ ' 

l..(" ,j'' ' ;.'iil; 
. .. /I 1 eAO'jOerW,T , ^* I^j.i^.- 

-  aud lite? To gain fame iu the 
L and influence in tbe General As- 

sembiv, • -"jfl'ip". thought to be more 
desirable Uj ; . ; pc; iu t persuasive 
power which will draw souls to Christ. 

.\nd the people are misled and trans- 
formed into partisans. Hence, there are 
divisions among us. How many differ- 
ent forms and names and organizations 
are there of Presbyterians? Has any 
' one ever counted them up, or ascertained 
1 the cause of their existecce ? Surely 
there is nothing in Presbjterianism to 
, cause differences and dissensions among 
I men. We do not differ much, or go far 
] apart. It is never like the separation 
that occurred at tbe Tower of Babel, for 
j we Presbyterians, however separated, 
never cease to speak one language, and 
I have oiie common mother tongue. No 
two PrcsSyterians ever did get so f ;;' 
apart as to be out of sight of the c infcs- 
i-ion of faith, and the shorter catechism. 
We can never pass these boundaric'', and 



late for our columns last week, but the pet within them we live apart 



thought presented is appropriate for all sea- 
sons. — Eds.J 

"Tliis year thou ►baltj-lie."- Jer. xxvi.2t). 
Of the many readers of the Ohierver 
who began the year 18(59, there are some 
who will read it do more. They have 
been called by death from the world to 
enter upon another state of existence, 
either of happiness or misery. And that 
which occurred during the j'ear, recently 
ended, will moit certainly occur this year 
also. Some perhaps, who read this com- 
munication will be among the number 
who shall, this j'ear, close their proba- 
tion here on earth. To one and another, 
and perhaps to many, God is repeating 
these solemn words; "This year thou 
shalt die." 



Every division tha' has afflicted the 
church, and then cursed the world, has 
arisen, not from any necessity in the case, 
but from the desire to rule — tbe wish to 
have pre-eminence — the unholy lust of 
power, in some two or more great, or 
would be great men in the church, blind- 
ly followed by a sightless multitude into 
division and separation and mutual 
hatred. 

I know that much of this arises from that 
spirit of independence so dear to the 
heart ol every true Presbyterian. Yet its 
effect is most disastrous. We are divided 
into divisions. It is as though each wave 
of the sea 8h(iuld refuse to obey together 
the sweet influence of the moon, and 
thus form one united tidal stream that 
will swell and sweep over all the ocean, 
and cover the entire world of waters ; 
but instead of this unity, each wave should 



n J , ^ J I select i s own star, and each be separately 

Dear readers, stop a moment and con- ., , j j • i 

- - u .1 , r. 1 ■ 1 ■ ' euided and governed in its motions by 

may be that God IS speaking • ^ ... . ■ 



sider ! It 

these words to you. If so, how solemn 
the thought ! I:i less than one year you 
will be in heaven or hell ! Do not thrust 
this thought away. If you are a true 
child of God then you are very near 
your heavenly home and final rest in 
glory, with Jesu*, your blessed Savior, 
stifely lajided in heaven! Just think of 
this ! For you then "/o die it train." 
But, if you are not a child of God, then 
you are jast as near to bell, unless you 
flee to Jesus for salvation. How dread- 
ful the consequences! Reader, consider 
that before this year is ended you may 
lie down in that miserable world and be- 
gin to suffer its torments due to your 
sins, which shall continue to all eternity. 
See what you are ri.'-kiog. The loss of 
your soul for the trifles and vanities of 
this world. 0, what madness ! 

Render, I entreat you ni.t to dismiss 
this thought from your mind on the sup- 
position that you are not one of those 
readers of this article who shall this year 
die. Some who read this paper one year 
since rested on this suppositio i ; but 
death came, suddenly and unexpectedly, 
and their spirits have gone to their final 
home. So it may be with you. .Voic is 
the time to make sure your salvation. 
To-day 'he Savior calls to you, and is 
ready to save; to-morrow may be too 
late. Tu-day give your whole heart to 
I tbe Savior and consecrate your all to him 
forever^ Rest not until you are assured 
you have made your peace with God and 
are prepared to die. In kiuduc-s — in 
love for your soul, I entreat you, Pre- 
pare to meet thy God." M. J. W. 



its influence. What confusion would re 
suit and has resulted ? 

No people have a stronger bond of un- 
ion than we have in our confession of 
faith, and especially in our catechism. 
And while I attribute many of our dis- 
sensions and fallings off to our worship of 
intellect, on the side of positive offense, 
i I attribute another part to the neglect of 
this valuable compendium of Bible truth. 
It is our sin of omission. 

Let us examine ourselves on Ibis mh- 
ject. Every Presbyterian is required by 
la;v to be perfect in this catechism him- 
self, and to train bis children in it. 
How many of us do this? How many, 
if called on suddenly, could answer the 
first ten questions? In many of the 
moral societie.» of the day, Masons, Odd- 
fellows, Redmen, a catechism is dili- 
gently taught, each new corner, and he is 
not allowed place or title until he has 
mastered his catechism. How this puts 
us to shame ; the children of this world 
is wiser than we are, or at leist are more 
consistent. The devotion which the 
members of these societies show to the 
prosperity of their order, contrasts strong- 
ly with the indifference with which we 
examine every new comer into our church. 
Let any one consider this question, and 
find the reason why Presbyterians are so 
indifferent to each other, and careless of 
one another's welfare, while Masons and 
Oddfellows take such an active interest 
in every member of their several frater- 
nities. I knew such a thing as this to 
have happened. A member of one of your 
' churches, who was also a member of O'le 
I of these organizations, met with a severe 
accident, which confined him to his couch 
I for some week--. 

How did the two societies - the churoh 



residence. And from this point, 
. satisfactory view of all the tasteful 
■■■3. Now passing on in a direct 
1 Sixth to Third street, the garden 
is so«.i • ntercd which abounds in good 
things too numerous to mention. Moving 
onward .still, for several hundred yards, our 
promenade is terminated by a natural bluff 
that overlooks Third street. Turn half 
around to tbe lefl, and walk with face toward 
the city, and for many rods are vacant lots 
so bcMtilully located, that bye and bye, when 
t!ie rich men of the town buy and build, this 
particular locality will be unsurpa-'sed for 
attractiveness. Turning back on Third street 
we can pass through a long lane of fruit 
trees, whose interlacing branches form a 
shady vista, that cools the winds of the hot- 
test summer's day. Pa.ssing once again 
through the children's dell, and then up the ^ 
gently win iing path, and here we are at one 
of th4eiiain entrances of the pastor's resi- 
dcnce.( And now what a change has come 
over the brusque, careless, cold-hearteil man, 
^jJpsTijrcd to us at first view ! What a 
talker,!' His guest listens with amazement 
at the volubility of this many sided preacher. 
Go with him over the elegant dwelling re- 
cently' erected, and planned throughout after 
his own not'on. He discourses its fluently 
ab 'Ut architecture as though building were 
his trade. Is it agriculture, commerce, edu- 
cation, civil government, philosophy or di- 
vinity ■? upon all these themes he talks with 
rca4iat. s and intelligence. Just sit quiet 
and attend. You shall be guided through 
many 11 Labyrinth of personal history, subtle 
argument, historical illustration, while all 
will sparkle with racy wit and rollicking fun. 
Kor he is a man of boundless good humor, 
and gets off bis sharpest paragraphs when in 
th v.])leasantest mood. He cudgels and an- 
nihilates a foe w hen his sides shake with 
laughter. Mind food from every direction 
has been carefully gathered, and this purified 
and assimilated is poured forth in exuberant 
currents from the alembic of his own intellect. 
Facts, argument, anecdote, humor, denunci- 
ation, all intermingle. He has wonderful 
endurance; both physical and mental. There 
is llo^llaIl in Kentucky, who can accomplish 
so much work in a single day, both for va- 
riety and quality. The writer has listened 
till the small hours of the night, and long 
before the breakfast hour there stood the 
Doctor guiding the hand of some busy labo- 
rer. He reminds one of the noble-souled 
Chalmers, who.sc great eye not only superin- 
tended every thing in his own parish, but 
was large enough to overlook all Scotland 
besides ; and who appeared to develop 
strength and capacity for labor, in propor- 
tion as burdens were laid upon his shoulders. 
Dr. Robinson as a Preacher. 
What shall we say of Dr. Robinson as a 
preacher? He certainly preaches like no 
one else, and yet as we listen, the wonder is, 
that every man who enters the sacred desk 
do»s liot preach in exactly the same way. 
H ^ ir.ethod is expositorj' and intensely sug- 
No minister ever heard him who 
for 1 ?cr!iion. The 
 : hearer is 
' ontact with 

I . .1 - I It are past. We stand ''near to the 
I ^ji,uu of Jesus as the Scribe and Pharisee 
approach with questions to 'oeguile and en- 
trap, We follow the company of suborned 
witnesses into the judgment hall of Pilate. 
We look with pitiless scorn upon the coun- 
tenance of that cowardly time serving satrap. 
The character and events of the olden time 
stand out before the eye on a canvas .so liv- 
ing that the whole is substantiated and real- 
ized. There is no display, no effort at effect, 
or at what the multitude called oratory. 
The speaker is far too elevated and sensible 
for this ; but impressions in the end are none 
the less, but far the more powerful upon all 
intelligent and well regulated minds. There 
is eloquence in every discourse from begin- 
ning to end, but it is the eloquence of truth 
and powerful thought. Nor is he by any 
means devoid of fancy, but bis delineations 
remind one of those masters of painting, 
whose pencils depicted with wonderful bold- 
ness and precision the .salient outlines, but 
left the minutiae to the play of imagination. 
Dr. Robinson obeys Lord Bacon's injunction, 
and never offers to enlighten a congregation 
unless there is a "full man." Though perfect- 
ly self-po.ssessed he never makes himself lit- 
tle by flaunting his greatness iu the faces of 
the people. He is the freest man from offens- 
ive presumption, and apparent affectation, 
that the writer ever saw enter a pulpit. In- 
different as to dres", with the outward man 
little cared for, he goes to work on his text 
in the most old-fashioned way possible. A 
s tran ger here again would feel disappointed 
at fir.4. But let him be patient till the 
preacher gets under way. And now if the 
hearer is sensible, be will listen with in- 
creased delight to the very close of the ser- 
mon. The secret of Dr. Robinson's power 
is his directness, simplicity, scripturalness, 
and intense convictions of truth. Of ccmrse 
these traits arc mingled with genius, learn- 
ing and great industry. Dr. Palmer, of New 



bereavement. Now and then, burning mem- j the universe. Let every power of your correspondence of the ObBenrer and Commonwealth. 



ories within forced out a tear for relief, and immortal spirits echo back the sound of 
once or twice, with quivering lip, the name ! D"*"'"*''' praise, and your hearts every 
of the loved one was called, but ina mom«nt thrilling chord catch up,Jand prolong the 
the countenance resumed its wonted calm, to Jehovah's name. 0 Lord, how 

and the laborer returned cheerfullv to his ""P"^"^"' "^ ^''-^ ^"'^^^ g'""""* 



allotttd work in the vineyard of his Master. 
None but a great head, combined with a 
large heart, can hide the presence of a 
mighty sorrow from the world, while the soul 
that is burdened within sheds joy and glad- 
ness upon all that are without. 

N. L. Y. 



' ^alU IU:' 
r-CXt IS SO 

:t once 



For the Observer and Cummonwealth. 

KENTUCKY PREACHERS. 

REV. STfART KOBIXSON', V. D. 

As the individual whose name stands at 
the head of this article acted a distinguished 
part on the defensive side in the bitter war- 
fare waged by the " Assembly" against the 
friends aud signers of the Declaration and 
Testimony," it may not be amiss to send 
out, all imperfect as it is, a daguerreotype of 
the man to the many admirers who have 
never seen the original. 

Dr. Robinson at the present moment is in 
the prime aud vigor of matured manhood. 
Physically, he reminds one of the first Na- 
poleon at the period when the Emperor be- 
gan to exchange the leanness of youth for 
the rotundity and fullness of figure, which 
enhanced the vigor and endurance of both 
body and mind. There are the same broad 
set shoulders, there is the same massive head 
in the region where Phrenologist-s locate 
combativeness and will — the .same lofty fore- 
head a:id piercing eye, while the " tout en- 
scMib'e" of the one face i- :'rf]' ■ . _''v ]■': 

'. There is :; 
i -f ■.\'^:\:n in Cue qiiv»,. 
unce'emonious movements ol 
whether sitting or walking. Indeed, one can 
almost imagine himself in the presence ot 
the "Petite Corporal," with the arena of 
conflict changed, as he listens to the Doctor 
in his rapid sketches of a summer's mis- 
sionary campaign. The evangelist is to 
make observations here, such and such pas- 
tors are to co-operate yonder, while at cer- 
tain strongholds of the enemy every force is 
to be united. No jwint is forgotten, no 
brother passed over — all difficulties are fore- 
seen, obstacles, as far as po.ssible removed, 
failures provided against ; and to give confi- 
dence and courage to other soldiers in this 
war, the leader is willing to make the place 
of hardship the post of honor — and this he 
choo.ses for himself. A stranger who meets 
Dr. Robinson for the first time, and that in 
the midst of pressing duties, is almost sure to 
feel disappointed, and sometimes slightly 
hurt. At such moments, there is a brusque- 
ness and ajtparent coldness that repels. The 
person introduced appears scarcely to be ob- 
served, and as he p.xsses on hurriedly the 
stranger looks after him in bewilderment. 
Never mind. The Doctor is now crowded 
with the cares of many things. The morn- 
ing's mail has brought letters from congre- 
gations whose houses of worship are endan- 
gered — from ministers who are out of em- 
ployment and seek for a field — from widows 
and orphans who are ahuiigered anil almost 
naked. His great heart is busied about 
these pressing necessities and bitter cries, 
and other things must wait. For when a 
man's reputation for kindness and munifi- 
cence goes out on the winds, the stricken 
will fly iu.stinctively to such a . source for 
sympathy and aid. Money is forthwith sent 
to one, food and raiment to another, while a 
field of labor is secured for a third. 

Cedar HilL 
A morning's pressing work is over at last. 
The disburdened philanthropist now comes 
into No. 72 Fourth street, with a smiling face. 

He inquires for the stranger, takcsTrriinuirf| 1 ^, easels him in word-painting; Dr. 



Settled Peace. 

The moment we begin to rest our peace 
And those of us whose ruilt died with Z '° ourselves, we lose it ; and and the merely moral order-act towar ls 

. , this IS why so many saints have not lel- him? The pastor of 

Jesus through faith id his .atoning blood, pe.&ce. Nothing can he lasting that 

will be able to exclaim with Paul, (Ga- is not built on God alone. How can you 



him? The pastor of tha church was 
away and could not call on him. Did 
the elders call? did the churoH members 



his well-known vehicle, and iu a few minutes 
"Old Whitey " land-i all i arties safely at Cedar 
Hill. Reader, were you ever at Cedar Hill ? 
if not, manage by some means to get there, 
if your way should lie at any time through 
Louisville. There is a plot of ground, twen- 
ty acres iu extent, lyinj between Third and 
Sixth strcet-t, and about a mile from Main. 
There are no grounds half so beautiful in or 
about the city. After entering the outer 
gate, there is a gradual a.scent until the lawn 
is reached, which spreads out beautifully all 
around the sp.icious mansion. Blue grass 
of the deepest hue vegetates in every direc- 
tion, whilst the pilgrim can now rest for a 
while, if he chooses, beneath the .shade of 
noble forest trees, through whose branches 
the winds have whistled for a century. Then 
facing to the city, dowu to the right .ibout a 
hundred yards distant, reached by a winding 
path, overshadowed by evergreens, is a natu- 
ral dale, carpeted with green, and fenced 
about on every side with shrubs, and trees 
and flowers; where once a year, in summer 
time, the kindhearted Doctor rejoices in be- 
holding the ruddy faces, and hearing the 
j gleeful voices of a thousand happy children. 
I Looking to the left, s.'venty-five paces 
! stands a model chapel, in which a regular 
afternoon service is held for young folks 
afid old, who cannot be reached by regular 
I sanctuary privileges in the bosom of the great 
1 city. Now lurning your b.ack upon Louis- 
' ville and walking straight onward, the path 
leads through a favorite orchard of pear 
trees. For these he has a special fancy, and 
discourses with eloquence upon the different 
varieties. Still bearing to the left, a few 
seconds' walk brings you to th.e.rear of the 
main building, and just in front of the gar- 



Hoge, of Richmond, Va., in poetic tempera 
ment and power of pathos ; Dr. S. R. Wilson, 
of Louisville, as a compact and wary debater 
in ecclesiastical courts ; Dr. Dabney, of Un- 
i(.n Theological Seminary, in exactness of 
information upon a limited number of sub- 
jects ; Henry Ward Beecher, of Brooklyn, 
in melody and compass of voice, but in 
breadth and versatility of character and 
genius, the .-Vmerican pulpit h.^s no.superior. 
Were he settled in London or Edinburg, his 
congregations would be equal to those of the 
most celebrated men. 

The writer was in company with Dr. Rob- 
inson recently when a shadow of great sorrow 
lay fresh on his hearth.stone. Lawrence 
Robinson had just gone down to the grave 
in the golden light of life's early morning. 
He was the last surviving son of a doting 
mother and a confiding, affectionate father. 
God only knows how many hojies were crush- 
el when the form of his dear boy descended 
to the grave. Far away from his beautiful, 
cherished home he died, and at the very mo- 
ment of all others when the future of this 
present world was fullest of promise. Well 
might parental tears be i)Oured over one of 
whom it could be truly said, "if any are 
noble, so was he, if any brave- hearted and 
generous, he was their brother." A week or 
two only had pas,sed since this afflictive dis- 
pkisation, when the writer spent several days 
in the society of Dr. Robinson, occupying 
the same room with him. It is good for the 
soul to come in contact with such courage and 
laith. There was no repining, no sickly 
frord of complaint, .t the ambassador of 
 |jod entered upon w --k with hisaccustomed 
einergy, and str n . hide from every one 
jiround him a ■ ■) .aisness of his own great 



For the Observer and Commonwealth. 

THOUGHTS on the WORKS OF GOD. 

Often there are found in the domain of 
real things phenomena which far exceed 
in wonderful characteristics, and the de- 
velopment of uncommon power, the 
grandest creations with which the fancy 
of the poet or the pen of romance 
had ever peopled the realms of the un- 
real. Tbe trite adage that "truth is 
stranger than fiction" is constantly reas- 
serting itself, both in nature and in the 
progress of human events. 

Thus in spring, the resurrection morn 
of tbe year, we see all nature shedding 
the dreary vestments of apparent death, 
and, without any visible cause, clothing 
herself in living forms of strange and 
varied magnificence and beauty. There 
is a power in the air and in the earth, 
mighty, though invisible, working this 
wonderful change. We look up to the 
firmament, flashing with its setting of 
myriad stars, and watching the march of 
tbe heavenly host- as they move in un- 
broken harmony along their glorious 
pathway ; we see wonderful energy and 
wisdom displayed ; but the hand that 
guides, and the mighty springs which bold 
this va t machinery together are hid from 
our eyes. We see tbe storm go by, and 
with reckless fury scatter in wild confus- 
ion all that falls in its path. We see its 
effects in the uprooted fores*, the disman- 
tled village, the wrecked ve-sel, the r»g- 
. ing fea; but the secret power which 
drives this furious chariot, and, guidii.g 
its wrathful steeds, checks at pleasure 
their raging fary, is more wonderful than 
the storm. 

Likewise there have, in different ages, 
arisen upon the surface of the world's 
history, men of wonderful power, who, 
ia the brilliancy of their genius in their 
mjsteriou", yet all omnipotent sway 
over the minds of men, in the grandeur 
of their achievements and in their own 
stern individuality, have stood far above 
their ege and kind. We have the rec- 
ords ot their deeds ; and the glory of their 
lives breaking through the shadows of 
ages, falls upon our path to day. They 
have left their seal upon the race. The 
men and their deeds are studies for all 
time, and we bow iu admiration akin to 
worship before such wonderful exhibi- 
tions of power. Yet, whence their great- 
ness, whence t^ose outward influences, 
and tbat inner life, fitting each for hi  
particular work, ai d -.ulliig bim forth in 
the jbo'!f' "f f'.je w"'""- ' ' '"ber'; 

^rCikon.e (..0 teii ...cum-  

stances by which they were surrounded 
have alone called forth aud formed, for 
their day, the great men of the world 
But I apprehend there is behind all these 
a mightier power, a mysterious and om- 
ni/ic will creating both circumstances, 
and the men, and adjusting the one to the 
other for the accomplishment of great 
purpises. 

There is, doubtless, a spirit brooding 
in sleepless vigilance over tbe affairs of 
nations and of men, and controlling them 
with a divine authority that recks uot of 
circumstances. Thus in nature in all 
her varied p ^enomena, and in history, 
whether it regards the lives and labors 
of individuals, or tbe progress of oatious, 
we find the world filled with wonders 
To the child of nature the universe is a 
vast panorama of miracles continually 
passing iu review before Lis astonished 
and delighted gate. Tbe studeut of his 
tory discovers in the grand march ot 
events an all-pervading and cmuipoteut 
presence, and both, awed into reverence, 
bow in fear and worship before these 
manifestations of Ood. Ho'.v instinct 
with significance are all these wonderful 
phenomena! How bright with divine 
glory ! Through these God speaks to bis 
intelligent creatures the glory of his power 
and wisdom. Ontbem is written the sign 
manual of the eternal, and amid them 
He makes bis stately steppings kno«n. 
These are some of tbe characters by 
which his divine personalty is declared, 
and in which is revealed, in matchless 
grandeur, the uispeakable majesty of hia 
character. 

This all-pervading presence of Gol 
when properly realized, ennobles every 
object in naturi , dignifies every event in 
history, and invests with fearful interest 
every thought and act of man. The 
winds and flames are seen as the minis 
ters of Jehovah. All things are the crea- 
tures and the instruments of his poAcr, 
and the witnesses of his presence. Man 
feels that lie is continually walking in the 
very foot prints, and is surrounded and 
overwhelmed by the pre.-ence of an all- 
knowing and all-powerful God. And 
yet though mau lives and dies amid these 
stupend«us exhibitions; notwithstanding 
that from the vast world without and the 
still more wonderful world within him, 
the voices of God's witnesses are contin 
ually speaking, though he sees the band- 
writing of Jehovah inscribed upon all 
nature, and traced iu living characters 
upon every page of his own history, and 
stamped upon every lineament of his own 
being, often alas, Le passes along unfeel- 
ing, unheeding all, and falls into bis 
grave without ever having properly reod 
these wo iderful signs, or realiz;d the 
presence of God iu the world. Living 
in darkness iu the midst of light, a child 



and unsearchable thy ways, how wide 
thy vast dominions, how fearful the thun- 
der of thy power! " Whither shall we 
go from thy Spirit, or whither shall we 
flee from thy presence. If we ascend 
into Heaven, thou art there, if we make 
our bed in hell, behold thou art there. 
If we take tbe wings of tbe morning aud 
dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, 
even there shall thy hand lead us and thy 
right hand shall hold us — even the night 
shall be light about us." The heavens 
declare thy glory ; day unto day with its 
ten thousand voices uttereth its testi- 
mooy to thy presence and power, while 
night from her myriad stars and solemn 
silences, answers back to night tbe glory 
of thy handiwork. And yet exalted God, 
these are but part of thy ways. 

B. M. F. 

Cor nth. Miss. 

For tbe Obaerver and Commonwealth. 

EXCUSES. 

1 can't repent. 
What an awfully tcicked heart you 
have. You love sin so well you can't be 
sorry for it — can't hate it. AwtuI ! sin 
against God, Chri t and the Holy Spirit, 
and not be sorry f Ah ! it is a self- 
righteous and self-justifying excuse. 
You say you are willing to repent, but 
can't. Nay, you are really not willing, 
nor will be so till "in the day of my 
power," saith God. God is willing for 
you — He says repent. Others repent, 
a^ you can as well as they. Not of 
yourself, but as they by the Holy Spirit. 
" In me is thy help; let bim lay hold on 
my strength that he may make peace with 
me." Let tbe sinner look away from 
himself to Christ, who is exalted to give 
repentance aud remission of sin. Is. Iv. 
6,7. 

1 can't PRiY. 

Salvation is to be sought, the gospel 

calls you. You think you sh uld not 

seek, pray, etc; God thinks differently and 

says, "seek," etc. God is right and you 

are wrong. You shall fiod him when 

you seek him with all your heart. You 

should submit to God iu prayer. If you 

do not repent yet you are commanded 

to pray, and it is binding. One sin can't 

excuse another. Y 'U should pray, 

though you can't pray aright; fir it ia 

.vorse not to pray at all than to try. 

" There li no man aska so much ainiaa 
As he that asks tor naught.'' 

We must get power from Ood by 



prayer to pray aright. Can'/ pray! 
Then not sived without prayer. God 
says, "Ask that ye may receive;" but 
you reverse it. Forsake your thoughts. 
God thinks you can pray; Ho says, 
"seek ye tbe Lord, call upon Him." 
Tbeucall upon him to g.'ace to lepent — 
to forsake your way. If you do not pray 
you will not repent. If you u-ish Qod 
to give you a new heart ; why ot 
tell him? Then ask — pray for it If 
you are sincere in your expressiobs to 

-..r ftil-. ;),-• h- ■ c-e 

vu ' • '. AuJ aiiioerc, .v... 
turn (rjai your evil way, and thus 0 
forth fruits meet fir repentance? 'rjd' 
promises the U  ly Spirit to those tbat 
ask Him 

But you say, "The prayers of the 
wii-ked are an abomination." No! the 
Bible says "the sacrifice of the wicked is 
an abomination;" that is, when the,^ 
wicked otliT sacrifice, and at t'le same 
time do not intend to abandon their 
wickeduess, it is an abomination. The 
Lord will hear the prayer of the drsti- 
tule. The complaint of ihe Bible against 
sinners is not that they pray with bad 
motives, but tbat they do not pray at all. 
They cast off f.-ar and restrain prayer. 
Such are self-rig'iteous. They wait for 
a good heart tlieo and therewith to pray, 
and expect to be heard broiusjof the 
good heart; like the Pharisee, to cry, 
"God I thank thee." Rather should 
they go and cry, "God be merciful to 
me, a sinner" Suoli justi'y theius dvis, 
even their prayerlessoess, bee .use they 
have not a right heart 

We t-h 'u!d 'Tay and pray always. 
First, because God c immands it, and it 
is our duty to obey ; second. He connects 
promises wi'h c miiuauds; third, to refuse 
to pray is disobedience, rebellion and sin, 
that provokes and culls down the pen- 
^entire of .Mmighty G 'd ; fourth, we 
should never despuir, for ibat makes 
men and devils worse. Hope iu Ood by 
bel ieviiig what be say s. Fifth, we should 
pray because we have wiokel hearts; 
s xth, others have so done, and this error 
(can't pray) was o -rracted. Try, s' retch 
firth a third arm — God help. Seventh, 
the impression tbat you can't pray is a 
temptation of lha devi', whom you must 
resist by prayer; eighth, the idea of not 
praying with such a heart is of self- 
righteousness. Such want a good heart 
that God will bear on that account. .See 
"Spencer's Pastor's Sketches."' 
1 ca.n't feel 
First, the bible never tells you you 
mus' feel, but command'! you to repent 
and believe. Second, can't feel is an 
excuse to justify you for not ooiuing to 
Christ noio. Third, it is a self-righteous 
spirit; you desire feeling to commend 
you to Ood. Fourth, it reveals profound 
ignorance of yourself, for feeling of it- 
self will do you no good. See devils 
and lost spirits. Fifth, your position 
simmers of false religion — the true calls 
for duly. You ought to feel and love 
G od. and grieve that you are such a sense- 
less sinner. Rather do like the prodigal, 
go home, and with the Father's arms 
around you, learn to feel. 

the faults of christians. 
To many seeking Christ, Satan throws 
in the way as a stumbling-block, the 



A NEW CITY IN THE WEST. 

Messrs. Eoitors: — It may le that 
some of your readers would be pleased to 
read a brief description of a new city on 
the western border of Missouri. My 
knowledge of Kansas City, before seeing 
it as it is, I have found to be imperfect. 
It may be styled the infant giant among 
the cities. From being a small village 
but recently, it gained its vast propor- 
tions during the last two years. Situated 
on the south bank of the Missouri river, 
just at that point where the river, in its 
downward course, ceases to divide the 
State from Kmsas, it extends down the 
river to quite a distant point, and from 
the river to the Kansas State line. It 
stands like ancient Rome, not cu seven 
but on eleven hills, and at the same rate 
of progress, in a few years, it will cover 
twice eleven bills. Perhaps there is no 
other large town in America built on as 
rough and uneven surface. Cuts from 
thirty to fifty feet in depth, with corre- 
sponding fills, are to be seen in tbe grad- 
ing of the streets. 

Human art and energy are rapidly 
adorning the city. Magnificent build- 
ings for business indicate the strong con- 
fidence of capitalists in the futnre great* 
ness of the place. Indeed the only ques- 
tion in the mind of t e intelligent be- 
holder is the question of time. How 
long it may be iu filling up the measure 
of its capacity none can tell. Tbe seven 
railroads already branching out through 
the most rich and fertile section of the 
west, insure great continued growth to a 
population of thirty-three thousand. No 
new place, perhaps, can boast of a more 
active and substantial population. Among 
the highly respectable men of business 
many succeed well, others, as might be 
expected, do less. _^ 

To religious minds its importance 
greatly swells. In that it may be said 
literally to stand as a city on a hill, des- 
tined, under God, to oast floods of relig- 
ious light far off toward the newly peo- 
pled regions beyond and backward, until 
its influence shall meet and ble.id in har- 
mony with that of St. L )ui3 and other 
points of like importance. Some breth- 
ren seem to be alive to its itnportancc. 
The Presbyterian Church, under the in- 
dependent Synod, have, in the person of 
Rev. .\. D. .Madeira, the right man in 
the right place. I found him to be a 
bold, eloqusnt preacher, truly scriptural 
in expounding and defending the great 
truths which we, as a church, love. If 
the L)rd be pleased to continue him at 
that po^t, his influ ioce mu t tell in build- 
ing up a strong church. 

All the isms have their represeut.itives 
in the city, but I have observed less fan-, 
aticism than we see in Chicago and soijj 
places contaiuiug a material adapted 
the fostering of new and una arJi ^ 
ideas. The surrounding towns 
overshadowed by the superk 
of this point over theini 
now so q iiet and dgiiii 

destine'i tn bf 
or r . _ 

but little 

-•on of  l "s CT! 
i to ""IB' ■ count 
uepec ' at Synou with th^ 
son lU, doubtless tbe act is expecT 
done in due time. 




THE EFFICACY OF FAITH. 

Tbe waves were dasbing loud and hijfh. 
My child looked on with me: 

" Father," she cried, " why may not I 
Trust Uod, and walk tbe lea ^" 

" Waa it not] lack of faith alone 
That made tbe apostle aink I 

By filth, therefore, it may be done ; 
Father, what abouid 1 think f 

The Lord bade Teter go, my child ; 

And aboiild He thee command, 
Thy feet would on these waters wild 

Be Una as on the aaad. 

But life baa atorma mare awlul yet. 
Waves rougher than yon aoa ; 

Then do not thou in tbeae forget 
That Jeauj is with thee. 

Care not what othcra have to do, 

What may be or baa been ; 
But in tbe path God calls tbee, go, 

And use thy faith therein. 



Hindi. 



for the Observer and Commonwealth. 

THE UHITY OF QOD, 

Dent. 6: 4. "Hear, 0 Israel, tbe Lord our 

Uod la one Uod." 

I. Senses in which Ood is one. 

I. He is xoilhoul composition. Wa- 
ter has its elementSg'and by electricity 
may be resolved into them. God is not 
divisible. He is a pure, simple Being. 
2. He is one without another of thi 
same class. Mankind and angels are 
cla'^ses of being — one man and one angel 
are one of their respective classes. God 
belongs to no class — He is one. 3. He 
is one without the poesibility of their 
being another like him. Our earth (the 
run also) is one only, lot if dud Ut s. 
willed it, there would have bean another 
j 1st like it. But it is impossible that 
there should be another like Ood. 

II. Evidences of this unity. 

1. Scripture. Moses declares this 
unity of the Godhead in the passage 
quoted above. Paul announces to the 
Corinthians, " There is none other Ood 
but one"{l Cor. 8: 4 )— and writes 
to tbe Galatians, •' O jd is one." (0*1.3: 
2.0) Isaiah prays, " Now therefore, O 
Lord, save us from bis baud, (Ssnna- 
charib) that all the kingdoms of the earth 
may know that thou art the Lord, even 
thou only. ' (ls» .37:20.) Jehovah an- 
nounces, " I am the first and I am the 
last; and besides me there is no Ood." 
(Isa. 4-t ; 0.) 2. .Va/urr teiches his 
" eternal power " — omnipoteoc'j. If 



faults of christians. But counterfeit 
of his bounty, a creature of his baud, | nioney and hypocrisy don't prevent men 
and yet without room in all bis thoughts j from seeking and apprcjiatins; the genu- 

for the God who gives him being ! In I ine, tbe true. We believe in the r ulity ' Ood be omnipotent, there is only one 
all the universe there is m place where I of religion, and if there was a Judas who | God. Two •riiuipotent beings cannot 
Ood is not, except in the thoughts of ! was a thief, there was a Matthew and ' exist at one time. Etch would have the 
buch a man. others, genuine christians. And sinners piwer of the other, and yet each Aa»« a// 

Alas, alas ! can it be that such a mu- [ ought (as well as christians) to set one ' potvei — which is an absurdity, 
nition of darkness surrounds the souls of] another better examples. Both ore nn- | III Practical use of thi» doctrine, 
intelligent men, that all this light, inten- 1 der law. If the sinner would set the, 1. It destroys Polytheism and idola- 
sified through ages, and filling the world | christian a good example he would do i try. 2. It prevents confusion concern- 
with glory, cannot penetrate it ? Can it j better. But he sets bim no holy exam- I ing the standard of right, c-jnfession of 
be that among those on i»hose nature 1 pie; yea, his course bolsters and encour- sin, prayer, and all other duties. We 
God's imago is s amped, there are hearts ages other sinners to hold on and go ou 
so dead, and ears so dull that they have in sin and keep them from Christ. The , 

never yet been waked by that music faults of Christians oan't save any one. ■ the same Ood with ui, as one soldier 
which has for ages thrilled with its di- ■ We may see Christian's faults, but not loves hii comrade. Association in a 
vice harmonies the hearts of men and j their tears and prayers in private. We ^ common cause begets brotherly feelings, 
aogels, and the swell of whose grand | need to be charitable lest we judge 4. It unifies the church, and increases 
chorus, struck forth from every chord of | amiss; and the faults of individuals its power. All move to one point — the 
this mighty harp, rolls in majestic gran- should not be charged upon the whole glory of the one Ood. Rays of sunshine 
deur through all the templed arches of i profession We should not say that filling at the north, the south, the east 
tbe universe 1 j ■' blacksmiths, lawyers, etc , are villians, and the west— all in their courses up- - 

Awake, all ye sons of men, and if be- ! and dishonest men; 'tis unfair, false and ^ ward fin^ cue oornjaun S'spf re — Jt^^g^-/ 



owe all to God. .3. U promotes h-oth- 
erly love. We love those wt;  ?orship 



fore yc never saw the glorious manifesta 
tioos of Jehovah, behold them now. 
Throw open every avenue of your inmost 



souls, and be filled with the harmonies of to think of our own." 



islander. ; So all Christian lives, t -vaver widely 

" To dwell upon other's faults injures separated on the earth, still in their 
us and them ; the Holy Spirit leads us courses upward find one common centre 

B. I —God. W. H. D. 



CHRISTIAN OBSERVER Als}) COMMONWEALTH, JANUARY 19, 1870 



ASB FREE CHRISTIAN COMMOXWEALT.I. 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY lO. I870 



ConlciilN oriliiH Nnmbor 



.1. II. K. 



-All 



M. .1. « . 



Were the .lews Rietit 

Inciilent iif an Exiled Heruttec. 

Kxtlefroin Tennessee 

A 'I'limmiit for the New year. 

Settleil I'eaee 

I'lie (ireat Sin  if ihe C'liurch. 

The Kixl anil Statr 1 

Kev. Stuart Riiljinson, 1). U. N. T. Y. 1 

ThouKhts on the Works of Gotl H. M. K. 1 

KxcuMta U. 1 

A New Ciiv In the W est KaiLsaa 

City I. 1 

Kilkaev of Faith Pnetrv. 1 

Theriiltvot iJod W. II. a 1 

A valual)ie HoDk for Students... . Kdltorlal. 2 

I'atcchcticnl Instruction N. A. P. 2 

).  tter (roni china Ben Helm. 2 

The Human Trouble O, V. C 2 

The Hor)]i of Order C. i 

Small I--o.\es O. f. C. -l 

i.rowthof l'ivsliTterlat l8in In (ia. Dr. Wilson. 2 

An Hour with tliV Metuph.vsielans K.vperlor. 2 

A Sensational Story .1 

K iiieation of .Ministers* Daughters ^ 

Rei ent Piililicatlona Editorial. :i 

short Items -i 

A li her .\poloir,v -1 

(ieneral Intelliifence 'i 

.Marriajres— Deaths 

I'rlce Current 

Advertisements. 

TBI nOME riKCLK. 

How Paper is Made Papa. 

The Sweel Story of Old Poetry. 

Well Done, Hoys Delaware. 

I Want to l c a Minister 

I he Ijiw of Love 

The Open Door 

I'AKM ANn nofSK. 

The Crops or Last Tear 

(;heerlnp Prospects ut the South. .. 

I 'ulture of Wheat 

Beet Suuar 

Hamie Seed Called For 



.1-4 



A VAMIA1II.E BOOK FOH STUDENTS. 

It is the liife of Jo'eph Addison 
Alexander, D. D , Profe.esor in the The- 
ological Seminary at Princeton, N. J., by 
his nephew, Dr. Ilenrj' Carrington Alex- 
ander, recently published by Chailep 
Scribner it Co., New York. It is the 
most valuable literary biography of our 
age and country. It contains the history 
of a mature and ripe scholar, a learned 
and able professor and teacher, an ac- 
complished writer, a preacher of great 
power in the pulpit and a servant ol 
Christ, who consecrated his life and his 
vast erudition to his service. The ex- 
ample of such a life — though mostly 
spent in seclusion from exciting scenes 
in the church and the world — is a power 
for good eminently worthy of a lasting 
record. Though the subject of it is dead, 
he yet speaks, and will long continue to 
fpeak to admiring thou.sands. 

Joseph Addison Alexander, the son of 
our venerated teacher in Theology, the 
late Dr. Archibald Alexander, gave evi- 
dences of mental endowments of the 
highest order in his early childhood. 
Id the development of his mind, there 
was nothing abnormal. His intellectual 
powers were balanced with remarkable 
Hyiiiiuetry. He did not possess a faculty 
for one study, with no talent or taste for 
other studies. As the Princeton Re- 
view remarks, (fiora which we copy the 
iiiott of this article) " he had great power 
for every thing which he chose to at- 
reiiipt. His acquisitions were determined 
by his tastes. He studied what was 
agreeable to him, and left unnoticed what 
did liot suit his fancy. Afier leaving 
(!ollege, he had a strong inclination to 
udy law. Had he done so there can be 
tional doubt that he would have 
one of the greatest jurists and 
country has produced, 
less indebted to in- 
ylucational influ- 



niaincs, in French, ami the 12th chapter of 
Don Quixole, in Spanish ; then read about a 
hundrid lines in the Clouds of Arisloplianes 
then read about the same number in Chan 
cer'* Canterbury Tales; then went to tlie 
Philolojrieal HiiU. to attend a ineetinji of 
the IJoanl of Criticism of the Pliilolii ;ieal 
Sdcietv, and ret^eiveii from tlie jnesident an 
anonymous translation of Horace's Book 1 
ode 22, to erilieise. Eead in the Uall the 
14th eanto of l)antc"s Inferno, and finif^lied 
the article on Arabian Literature in the For 
eign (Quarterly Ileview ; returned home and 
examined the aniinyinous translation afore 
said, noting (h)wn some observation.s on tlie 
same; then read a review of llase's Dog 
matie and Gnosis in the Tlicologische 8tu 
ilieii ; then reu lthe remainder of Isaiali 2iUl 
in Hebrew ;■ then read De t aey's Arabic 
Grammar; then read Genesis 22, 21!, in Jle 
brew; then wrote a sheet of French e.\er 
eises — and then to bed." 

Such was his work for two year.', spent 
in dive siBed study, after graduating at 
Princeton College. He found no royal 
road to learning- but study was his 
pleasure. His vast atfainmc«ts were the 
rich fruits of industry. The above speci- 
men of a day's work should not be lec m- 
mended as an examjde for others 
Very few students, if any, can be profit 
ed by endeavoring to study a d' zeu works 
on as many subjects in one day. This 
method, or rather want of method, would 
be injurious to most readers. 



I.riter From CliiiiH- 

Id another column, will be found some 
very interesting extracts from a letter 
from the Kev. Ben Helm, one of our mis 
sionaries to China. It was Dot designed 
for publication ; but it contains state- 
ments that will be read with profit by 
thousands of the members of our church- 
es — and that will, we think, awaken a 
deeper interest in the labors of those 
brethren in Christ, who are earnestly 
toiling to plant the seeds of Gospel truth 
in a far-off land of pagan darkness. 



A New Work vs. Popery. 

''The Pope and the Council,'' is the 
title of a powerful work, written by a 
Roman Catholic, under the 8igu||ure of 
"Janus," in direct opposition to the ar- 
rogant and ultra-moutane claims of the 
Jesuits and the dupes, including con- 
verts from the Anglican Church. This 
work appeared almost simultaneously 
in England and (iermany ; and in the 
latter country, the author has bad seven 
thousand copies printed for his first edi- 
tion. 



For the Observer and Commonwealth. 
THE KOMAN TKOIIBLE. 

Macauley, in his very brilliant review 
of " Hanke's History of the Popes" re- 
marks : " Nor do we see any sign which 
indicates that the term of her (the Uo- 
ujaD Church) long domioion is approach- 
ing. She saw the commencement of all 
the governmjnts, and of all the ecclesias- 
tical establishments, that now exist in the 
world; and we feel no a.ssurance that she 
is not destined to see the end of them 
all.'- 

.^I inifestly, the signs of the limes have 
changed since l»-iO. We have all of a 
sudden leaped into a cycle of wondrous 
change. Institutions and customs which 
men believed to be pinned indissolubly 
to society have boen overturned by a 
restless radicalism. The Rom in Church 
ijtalks like n ph niat of tho ajiidl?— SgS- 



..•;e ihiit he was taught fo 
ceded and !^&ceiv*d'as little 
ce in the one case as in the other, 
ather, seeing hie; disposition to study, 
flft him very much to himself. He went 
to ths grammar school, and afterwards 
t'. rough College ; but a very small part of 
his time OP attention was given to the 
prescribed curriculum in those inslitu- 
tion-t. He walked the course, absorbed 
with other things. 

His taste led him to devote his princi- 
pal attention to language, history, sac- 
red and secalar, ^including interpreta- 
tion) and general literature. It is in the 
study of languages that his earliest and 
perhaps his most extraordinary attain- 
ments were made. Finding an Arabic 
grammar in his father's study, be took it 
down and began to study it ; and before 
he was fourteen years old, we are told, 
he had read the whole Koran through in 
the original. .Shortly after he took up 
up the Persian, and soon attained a fa- 
miliarity with the language, which be 
continued to cultivate as long as he lived. 
Hebrew, Chaldeo, Syriac were soon ad- 
ded to his acquisitions. And subse- 
quently, Coptic, Rabbinical Hebrew, 
Sanscrit, and even, in a measure, Chinese. 
The languages of modern Europe were 
early ma.'^tered ; French, German, Italian, 
Spanish. Dutch, Danish, itc, the major- 
ity of which, he wrote as well as read. 
His biographer gives a list of twenty lan- 
guages with which he was more or less 
familiar. In (ireck, Latin, Hebrew and 
Arabic he was a thorough and accom- 
plished master. To no language, how- 
ever, did he devote so much attention as 
his own. Its history, its authors, its re- 
sources were all ^at his command. One 
of his great excellsncDS was his Knglish 
style. He was almost unequalled for 
clearness, conciseness, felicity and force. 

The reviewer remarks that "it would 
be a great mistake to regard him as a mere 
prodigy in the acquisition of languages." 
His great attainments were not made 
without labor; but in the labors of a stu- 
dent he found pleasure. The habits of 
industry, attention, study, formed in ac- 
quiring languages, marked his progress 
in reading history, sacred and profane, 
theology, criticism, in every thing which 
he chose to study. Like Cicero's orator, 
he was a universal scholar, familiar with 
almost every department of learning, 
excepting the works of metaph ysicians, 
for which he had no taste. 

It would be pleasant to follow the wri- 
ter of the article just cited, and speak of 
his labors as a professor and teacher, as a 
preacher, a commentator and writer, and 
of his character as a man and a minister 
of Christ, consecrating every talent to 
the church and kingdom of his Lord and 
Master. Before closing this notice of a 
work which will no doubt be read by 
many students and ministers of the gos- 
pel, we cite a specimen of his daily la- 
bors, bearing date of January l5th,1828, 
when he was in the nineteenth year of 
his age. 

" Head a part of the 29th chapter of Isa- 
""iaETm iiebrcw ; the 4th chapter of Louis 
XV. the 4th chapter of the 2d section of 
CondiUac'8 E»9ai sur les Connai^ances Hu- 



what he learned I through the glaring nom tid« sun of the 



present. U Itra-niontaue principles are 
dreams of a hoary past. The '' un- 
changeable" Church is at war with the 
age and au ugly fissure tells the story of 
division. She may see the end of all 
politics; but she will h*v^ no more a 
Hildebraud, or Innocent, to cjrry out 
her master policy. 

.She has just rcceivad an ugly stib 
from some of her own chillren. The 
Liberals have given her a death-thrjst 
ia that irrefrigable accretion of evidence 
found in the recent book, "The Pope 
and the C ninci!." The book is simply 
uuanswerHule. The foundation upon 
which I'apal Home rests her assumptions 
is laid bare, and is seen to be a uiafs of 
monstrous forgeries and lies. The chap- 
ter on the forgeries ought to be read by 
every living S)ul wh) cxn read. Catho- 
lics cannot say of the book " a Proles- 
taut lie," because it is written by staunch 
Catholics, who know what they are wri- 
ting about. The very clear exposures in 
this book prepare the miud, in a measure, 
for the pronouncements of the Jvjumeni- 
cal Couucil at Rome. The uUra-montane 
pressure will undoulAedly lead the Coun- 
cil to the adoption of the syllabus of 
Pius IX. This syllabus is an enumera- 
tion of eighty " errors," the adoption 
of any of which by any hapless mortal, 
will subject him to the anathemas of 
Rome. 

Let us see what the .Jesuits would es- 
tablish as the principles of their holy re- 
ligion. The following are a few of the 
" errors," the opposites of which are the 
dogmas of the '• unchangeable Church." 

" That every man is free to embrace 
and profess whatever religion he, in the 
light of reason, regards as true ; that 
there is good hope for the salvation of 
those not found in the true Church; that 
in a conflict between the civil and eccle- 
siastical power, the former must prevail; 
that Church and State ought to be sepa- 
rate; that civil marriages are lawful; 
that secular education ought to be sup- 
ported by the State; that modern civili- 
zation und civil liberty are consistent 
with religion ; that freedom of conscience, 
freedom of the press, and freedom of 
elections, are just and proper." 

The Devil does not show his accustom- 
ed sharpness, by bringing tuch utter bal- 
derdash to be adopted by an ecclesiasti- 
cal council ia the cinetcentb century. 
For while many, even American Hbihops, 
are ultra-montane enough to subscribe to 
this ghostly nonsense of the dark ages; 
yet it is too palpably a death-blow at 
human liberty to escape denunciation by 
the growing and reasoning brains of the 
age. The division is irremediable. A 
few weeks more will work a vast change 
in the "unchangeable Church." Since 
writing the above, a late to'egram i.-; be- 
fore me announcing : 

"The Memorial Diplomatique isaerta 
that a compromise has been arranged on 
the quession of the infallibility of the 
Pope. Infallibility will be affirmed, 
but diasint from the article will be in 
dul^edf 

This is evidently for the benefit and 
soothing of Gallicanism, which is ram- 
pant in the Council. We had rather be- 
lieve that the distent is a foregone con- 



clusion and will exist in spite of Pius IX. 
What course events will take none dare 
with eertainty, prediet. That the Ro- 
mish I'hurch may rise as the IJeast rose 
again fr.ira the abys*', and be once more 
the bloody monster she was in the 
middle age, is a possibility. 'I'hat she is 
at strife with herself is a moral certain- 
ty. Iti.ad the article : " The Future of 
Protestant is:u and Catholicity,'' i.T the 
Catholic fl'erliUoT .lanuary ; also" rhe 
True Origin of Gallicanism," in the 
same .Maeazine, and above all. read at- 
tentively, " The Pope and the Couiioii." 
We are coming to greater wonders than 
the world has .-'ver pas-ed tlir 'ni/h. 

(I C. C. 

For the Ol server aud Commonwealth. 
CATRCIIICnCAL IXSTRUCTION. 

The iinp )rlan;e of religious catecheti- 
cal instruction, is admitted by all Chris- 
tian?, though iu these degenerate duys, by 
far too much neglected. Ttie holy men 
who prepared the catec!ii.sm of our church 
felt that no sacrifices were too groat to 
make for the truth, and to hand it doivu 
in its beauty and purity to their childreu. 
For the truth's sake so-no of thorn were 
driven f:om their homes and pulpits 
Some suffered in pri.sons. And many of 
them bore marks on their own bodies for 
their sincere and faithful attachment to 
the truth. And if need be it is our duty 
to make sacrifices, and exercise self-de 
nial to secure the attachment of ourchil 
dren to the blessed truth, aud hand it 
down through them to our children's chil- 
dren, unadulterated as we have rccfeivcd 
it from the hands of our fathers. 

The la r^e V and shovfev ('(ilcciiistns 
of our Church contain, as we believe, 
the doctrines of the Bible; and the 
Shorter Catechism, which we especially 
teach to our childreu, contains the con- 
cisest and most admirable summary of 
the doctrines of Christianity, extant in 
any language. It has stood the test of 
long, long years. It is now 227 yeais 
sit;ce the Assembly which prepared it 
convened at Westminster, aud fiom that 
time to this multitudes have made very 
extersive ust of it, relying, themselves, 
on the system of doctrines it coatains, 
and teaching them to the rising genera- 
tion. The nu-st eminent Christians that 
have lived during this whole period, have 
held the catechism to be the most pre- 
cious compendium of biblical truth in 
the world. They have carefully examin- 
ed and compared it with the word of God, 
believe in it, instructed their children 
from it, and left it as a rich legacy to 
their posterity. We shall never know, 
until by the light of eternity we learn, 
how much we owe to our ancestors for 
their fidelity iu indoctrinating the rising 
generation of their times by means of 
this excellent summary of Bible truth. 

The men who prepared the catechism 
were men of tried lailltfulnesa. They had 
passed thro' the fire of persecution. They 
had exhibited their love to Christ by suf 
fering for his cause. .Mr. Richard Baxter, 
author of the ".Saints' Rest,'' and "Call to 
the Unconverted," says of them : "There 
has not been such another Assembly of 
divines since the Apostles' days. Thoy 
were men of eminent learning, godliness, 
ministerial abilities and fidelityv*' Aud 
Neal, ill hi . History of the Puritstos, s^ys: 
"If the rtad.T read th/^list-trf 

the men composing the Weituiiaster As- 
sembly, he will find in it some of the 
most considerable lawyers and ablest di- 
vines of the last age. With all their 
faults, impartial posterity must acknowl- 
edge the far greater part were meu of 
exempi.ry piety and devotion, who had a 
real zeal for the glory of God, and the 
purity of the Christian faith and prac- 
tice." 

The citechi.-ms were prepared with the 
utmost pa'ieuce and care. The Assembly 
met in 164:J. It had in it 121 divines, 
continued five years, and held l,Ii).3 ses- 
sions. Pjvery question was discussed and 
considered with the most anxious solici- 
tude to develop the truth. Tbey sought 
to know the mind of the spirit. It is 
said the Assembly spent four days in the 
most profound deliberation on the one 
question, "What is God ?" At the open- 
ing of thii Assembly on the morning of 
the o'.h, a young Scotch divine, who had 
not been previously a very prominent 
member, rose and read iu a most sol- 
emn manner, "God is a Spirit, Infinite, 
Eternal and Unchangeable in His Being, 
Wisdom, Power, Holiness, Justice, Good- 
ness and Truth," which was immediately 
adopted without a dissenting voice. And 
now, during the lapse of 22-5 year--, there 
has been no occasion to alter or amend it 
in any particular ; and iu the samo cau- 
tious aud prayerful manner was every 
answer prepared, and never adopted until 
it was seen that every position was sustain- 
ed by the word of God. 

There is not another catechism in ex- 
istence that has been so extendvely used 
by Christians iu their families for so 
many generations, or is worthy to hold 
any comparison with it. Others there 
are, so'ind aud judicious, that have been 
and are still, u.seful in indoctrinating the 
youthful mind ; but none -o comprehen- 
sive, containing so complete a compend 
of doctrinal theology, adapted not only 
to the instrucrion of youth, but 
to comfort and edify the people of God, 
of every age. It has been associated 
with the sanies of the most Christians, 
that have lived during the last two cen- 
turies. The Puritans of England and of 
America, the whole Church of Scotland, 
and the Presbyterians of the United 
States have, and do still to some extent, 
make it a text book for indoctrinating 
their children in the principles of our 
holy religion. 

And we venture to affirm that had the 
descendeuts of the pilgrims been as faith- 
ful and continuous in their use of it as 
their fathers were, the New England 
Churches had been spared many cf the 
evils which have befallen them ; and al- 
though, as we believe, the larger part of 
that church still "contends earnestly for 
the faith once delivered to the saints," 
yet t' /ii^aria/iiim has found a pcrmwDnt 
footing there. U niversalism presents a 
bolder front than in any part of the world, 
and wild fanaticism has kindled the fir, s 
of a war among brethren, whose disas- 
trous results a century will not be able 
to repair. 

la the Presbyterian Church, too, there 
is reasoD to fear that catechetical instruc- 



tion is greatly neglected. Robert Raikes 
will be held in long reinenrbrance as the 
originator nf the Sabbath School system, 
an institution which has blessed tens of 
thousands of families, both of the rich 
and poor, in every part of Christendom. 
Yet it is feared that one evil has grown 
out of it, or that domestic religious in- 
struction has been to somOxtent super- 
ceded by the teaching of the Sabbath 
School, and wc know that in many schools 
the union and other questions haVe taken 
the (ilace of the catechisms of the chureh. 
Til s is certain'y an unfortxinate result, 
for while the under.-tandiug, enlightened 
by the use of the questions alluded to, 
and a general knowledgi! of the scrip- 
tures acquired, they leave the pupils al- 
most us ignorant of the peculiar doc- 
trines of the IJibie, as those who do not 
study them at all. The peculiar excel- 
lence of the catechism consists in its be- 
ing a concise summary of the essential 
doctrines of grace, and although it has 
some things "hard to be understood," es- 
pecially by the yourg, jet who that has 
impressed them upon his memory 
has not found them after his conversion 
a rich mine of useful, scriptural knowl- 
edge 1 We do not, then, hesitate in say- 
ing, that while we would not exclude 
questions of a historic aud general char- 
acter, the shorter catechism -"liould ever 
have a prominet place in ovpry Presby- 
terian Sabbath School. Uljel^1 ^ ftn^ b e- 
lieve the doctrines taught t'^ )rein. We 
believe them to be the dc 'rines accord- 
ing to godliuesj;doc',rines whi-^h, believed 
and practiced, mak-2 wise unto salvation ; 
doctrines which have shed joy in the man- 
.sions of the rich and the cottages of the 
poor, and comforted the perspcated saints 
of Jesus when driven from their homes 
and firesides, as well as thowTFh ) wor- 
ship in peace in the sanctuary of the 
Uord. N. A. 1*. 



aries, three missionary physicians, twenty 
female missionaries, beside the wives of mis- 
sionaries. It has twenty-two ordained na- 
tive ministers and licentiates ; about fifty 
churehes, with a membership of two thous- 
and; some seven thousand youths, more or 
less, under Christian training, with a number 
looking forward to the gospel ministay. 

It has in three difl'ereiit countries printing 
presses at work, which issued the p.ist year 
more than thirty-two million p.tges, nearly 
half of which were the Scriptures. 

The Board has sent out to dillerent fields 
since May htst, seven new missionaries, five 
female missionaries, and seven missionaries 
that were at home — making, with the wives 
of such, a total of thirty-tw o, w lio went forth 
to their respective stations by the authority 
of the last General Assembly. This, with 
other neccs.sary enlargements of the work, 
will involvean increased exjienditure of over 
$:5(J,0(»U. As no such legacy in amount can 
be expected this year a-s that received the 
last year, the sum needed from the eiiiirch 
must be proportionately greater. 



Correapondence of the Otwcrver aud rominonvrealth. 
THK SMALL V'OX E8. 

Ouly a blade of grass ! There it 
stood, a sharp, bright, green, defiant, up- 
right thing, unlike the sjft, wavy weeds 
arouud it. It looked, somehow or other, 
as though it did not belong there ; it bad 
a foreign air about it ; yet farmer B . 
after looking at it attentively a few mo- 
ments, left it and went on his usual round 
of observation. 

The next year that solitary blade had 
struck resistless roots far down in the 
earth; bad spread a million ramifications 
therefrom, and field after field was utfcr- 
ly ruined ; every crop was pierced and 
cut by the remorsciess cocoa ! There 
was no gettiug it out of the soil. We 
ought to draw great teachings from the 
natural world. God means us to do so 
All of Nature's mighty processes have 
beginnings. The giant oak suggests the 
acorn which you may crush between your 
finger and thumb. The broad and ever 
deepening river began at a little rill's 
mouth which a baby could step across. 

So one grown gray with crinae, whise 
toQgue is foul with blasphemies against 
Jasus ; whjse hiadj have wrougbt evil 
through life, cm remejiber theUi| /«, the 
reri(/i///e sin whiijh staud- 
thro^gii t}^ years, 'at the lo 
ous catalogue of crimes md debaucher- 
ies. Oh! Christian, struggling yrith me 
for the mastery ; agonizing to enter inti 
the city ; cast dt wQ but not utterly swept 
lut of God's way ; we need each other's 
experiences; we need to know the Lord's 
dealings iu peculiar cases ; we want to 
feel as brothers going home to their dear 
elder brother, Christ. We need to clasp 
hands and help one another, as the Alpine 
travelers do, over difficult places. Help 
one another, verily, but help one another 
to Christ. 

Our difficulties, doubtings, back-slid- 
ings aud apostacies, all begin at the ad- 
mission of evil thoughts. Tnjrecanbe, 
therefore, no safety to the inactive Chris- 
tian. If we are not reaching forward to 
the things that are before, we are remem- 
berin^ the things fiat are behind. It 
must be so. " Cleanse thou mt from 
secret sin," was the prayer of one who 
knew what it was to fall into great sin, 
through looking and lustincr. And 
here is our great strength : The though's 
of tho heart, which is the fountain, being 
kept pure, the streams of actions which 
fiow therefrom will partake of the purity. 

If we, in our private devotions, reit- 
erated this one prayer, " Cleanse thou 
the thoughts of our hearts by the Holy 
Spirit," we would be getting at the rem- 
edy. We do not become saints all at 
once. The Bible saints were very much 
like ourselves. If Isaiah bad reison to 
say, " Oar righteousnesses are as filthy 
rags," and Paul had reason to cry, " Oh, 
wretched man that I am, who shtll de- 
liver me from the body of this death ?" we 
certainly can ta^te courage and believe that 
He who hath begun a good work in us will 
continue it until th« day oi -»Ie i|p(|A4tr»«t. 
Let us watch our hearts — they are very 
treacherous. Tfaey jump at evil natu- 
rally. The golden chiius wliicb bind 
them to Jesus can alone keep them from 
sinking us to perdition. Dear (Chris- 
tians, let us keep the noxious weeds out 
of our hearts with the fervent utterance, 
" Cleanse thou, us from secret sins." 

G. C. C. 



prii:sbti5:kian mimsions. 

Though wc have seen many things in the 
proceedings of the Assemblies of the late 
t)ld School Church, worthy of censure, we 
rejoice in the progress they are making in 
the work of Foreign Missions. Their mis- 
sionaries arc now preaching the gospel in the 
four quarters of the earth. A writer in the 
Pliiladeliihia J'rabylerlan »intes that the As- 
sembly's Board has established missioas in 
ten distinct countries in North and South 
America, Asia, and Africa ; it is furnishing 
means to carry on evangelistic work in 
France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Italy, 
and it has one laborer among the Jews in 
our own land. 

t^The Board is laboring among six tribes of 
Indians in the United States; it has been 
at work for many years among the Chinese 
in California with some success ; it has a 
mission in Bogota, and another in Brazil, 
among tlic Romanists, where seven churches 
have fjeen gathered ; \U missionary staff in 
Japan aud Cliina is larger than that oflany 
other society ; it is almost the only organi- 
zation that is sending the gospel to the f ia- 
mese and Laos; in Northern India it is ef- 
fectively at work, while in Liberia and Cor- 
sica it is preaching Christ to heathen |ind 
Christians. i 

The Board has in commis«ion at these Iva- 
rious points, eighty-seven American mission- 



\ 



CorresjKindence of the Observer and ConiniomveaUh 
LETTER FROM CHINA. 

Letters to China— Storms on tlie Great Deep — 
An Epidemic in Uanchoii— .siitterinKS of tUc 
Jlissionaries- Admonition to the diurches— 
Oriental .Measures  jI Distance— The New 
Mission Station at Oii I'siu— Its advanlajres— 
'I'lie Chinese I'riestliood — A Priestly Mode ot 
Jlakins Money— H arniins Ten Months of the 
Vear— The Work for Missionaries to Do. 
•Mv Dear Brother: — Your unexpected 
letter was welcomed the 17th of September, 
instead of the middle of August, asyoti sup- 
posed. Letters leave San Francisco the 3d 
of each month, I believe. Hcn:c, yours left 
the western shores of our country the'Sd of 
August, and it requires full thirty or thirty- 
two days to arrive in Shanghai. But this is, 
in time, a very distant port from our city. 

As it regards the Typhoons, wc were so 
blessed iu our voyage, that I have i)robiibIy 
lost the proper appreciation of the dangers 
of "the mighty deep," and can rather sym- 
pathize with the author of — 

" A lite on tho ocean wave," 
than with the sea sick, storm-tossed voyager, 
who had but two wishes, viz : first to get on 
dry land once more, and second, to whip the 
author of the above noticed ballad. Indeed, 
I look back with jileasure to the romantic 
life of two months on the fine steamer 
ploughing the deep blue Atlantic, or coast- 
ing along the cloud- robed mountains of Cen- 
tral .\meriea, or yet threading the Inland 
Seas of Japan's picturesque islands. It is 
not hard for me to realize the feeling which 
prompts the returned sailor boy amiii even 
the pleasures of hcmie, soon to long to be 
again " rocked on the cradle of the deep." 
Nevertheless, these storms on the Chinese 
seas are fierce and justly to be dreaded. I 
heard a missionary relate bis experience, in 
one where, for a day or two, all save one or 
two expected so 111 to go down. 

Ever since we arrived, urgent letters have 
been written to the Church at home, telling 
them the pressing need of a suitable house 
for the mission and schools. But it was only 
until recently, that the people of God so re- 
sponded as to enable the Executive Com- 
mittee to furnish the requisite means. The 
result has been what some of us, in letters, 
expressed a fear would be the case, viz : that 
the schools would .sufler from an epidemic 
in ca.se  uie prevailed. During the latter 
part of August, following the excessive heat 
of parts of July and August, the weather was 
cool, raw, cloudy and rainy. The mission 
premises were flooded by water from the 
city, and the filth of the neighborhood w.is 
such that some cholera made its appearance. 
Brother Houston h.id an attack of dysentery, 
and Brother Inslee waited personally on him 
till he was obliged to return to his family 
and school. His liitle babe wss at'ackcd 
one morniniT, and that day was token from 
- --iekJJui Diiis.li' 

1 .• 111, w acn one by 
iiiiprudenee brought on a relap-e, and after 
lingering a few days closed her young life. 
In the meantime, Brother Inslee had remov- 
ed his family and school out of the city, to a 
place on the shore of a small lake, w liich 
skirts the western wall of the city. During 
this time, he was himself suff'ering from an 
attack of dysenterj', but the cares and re- 
sponsibilities were too many for him to goto 
bed, so by fortitude and prudence he was 
enabled not only tt administer to the wants 
of the mission, but .also to attend on some of 
the natives who were attacked, one of whom 
fell with the disease at his door. At our last 
accounts all were improving, save the two 
little blossoms of life whioh have been so 
early plucked. 

I suppose by this time, the iirocccJs of 
^.301X1, in greenbacks, have been received to 
"jing" a house. " Behold, the goodness and 
severity of the Lord." So soon has he seen 
it best that our mission should seal its devo- 
tion to his cause by the lives of two from its 
midst. While a cloud is thus cost acro-ss the 
early dawn of our mis-ion, we hope we si'c 
in it, the bow of promise. " For whom the 
Lord loveth he eluisteiieth." May it be 
blessed to us all. But there is a lesson to 
others in it, to which I may allude. And 
let me here remark, I do not love to find 
fault with the jieople of God, and it is only 
love to our portion of Zion which induces 
me to speak to you of it, hoping through you 
it may benefit .some. I lad the churehes and 
individual Christians in our connection, who 
have from some cause made no response to 
the calls of the Executive Commiltee, only 
done something for the cause of missions, a 
house mijjlit have been secured in time (hu- 
manly sptakiiig,) to have averted this sad 
stroke from our brother's family, yea, upon 
our entire mission. Is there not a heavy re- 
siionsibility for those to bear, who may not 
have given unto the Lord according as He 
has bestowed upon them. ? 

In rejdy to your questions, I may not 
biicfiy notice some wliich have intideutally 
or necessarily been answered by our letters 
home since you wrote, and by the heading of 
this. Brother Smart wrote from Ilancliou 
an account of our trip up here, wliicli ren- 
dered needless a letter which I had prepared 
during his absence for the Free Christian 
Commonwealth. Your question abotit the 
time and distance of Ilancliou from Shang- 
hai are from an .\merican point of view. 
The distance being about one one hundred 
aud seventy-five miles, it might be thought 
proper iu a country where you cross a conti- 
nent in seven days, or go from Louisvilcto N. 
Orleans in forty-four hours, to ask how many 
hours it is to go from Hanehou to Shanghai. 
But in the Orient, save where Western en- 
terprise has penetrated — travel is reckoned 
by days and months. Three days, then, is 
considered "quick time" from Hanehou by 
boat to Shanghai. By laud, according to na- 
tive rate of travel, I suppose it would be five 
or six days. As your questions were based 
upon the supposition, that I would be at 
Hanehou, it may be well here to give the 
time to and from tiiis point. Wc are about 
one hundred and seventy-five miles from 
Hanehou. But being on the river, instead 
of a canal, the time varies much according 
as you go up or down stream, and according 
as you have wind and tide in your favor or 
•against you. The trip up may be made in 
six to ten days, down in three to six days. 
This is not the time the Hanehou boats take, . 
but your own travel — neither is it the mail 
schedule. That is a'jout six days either 
way, being by land, and from Hanehou to 
Shanghai from three to six days. So to 
make sure of connecting with the steamer, 
we have to allow some twelve or fifteen days 



from this point to Shanghai. Now, think of 
a trip from Canton by tiiis place — the in- 
land route — to Pekin occupying two or three 
months, and compare it with the three or 
or four days trip Iroin New York to New 
Orleans, and you will see the life and pro- 
gress of the Western Cirea.ssian race, as con- 
trasted with the emb.almed conservatism of 
the Mongolian, or more jiarti' iilar yet of the 
Chinaman. 

You have long since learned of the settle- 
ment, and of this station and its location on 
the Tsien Dang River, one hundred and 
seventy-five miles south-west of Hanehou. 
It is better located than that city. Han- 
ehou, it is true, is at the foot of the hills, bi.t 
still it is on the great plain reaching to the 
ocean. .\nd the tide, coming up Hanehou 
Bay, passes far above the city In fact, 
there is a massive tide wall stretching across 
the plain a mile east of the city, wlrich was 
erected many centuries since. I am not in- 
formed its to whether the tide ever reaches it 
at present. But this city is several hundred 
feet about the site of Hanehou, as wejudged 
by the fall in the river. It is on an eleva- 
ted plain and enclosed by picturesque moun- 
tains stretching from the north around west 
and south to the east. Tliis is .about the 
head of large boat navigation ; and being 
on the inland line of travel from Canton, in 
Kwangtung Province, Iliaug-Si and Tub 
Kian Provinces, is of importance, though a 
small city. 

The people are a finer, healthier looking 
body than tho ^e of Hanehou. So far a? I 
am able to judge, there is a wider door open- 
ed to us here than .at the former city. Tticre 
is a feature here a little surprising to me, but 
it may arise from my limited experience. It 
is the few^ness of priests and the apparent 
neglect of the temples. At Hanehou, the 
temjiles are being rebuilt and repaired. 
Crowds are in frequent attendance, and the 
numerous idle, opium-smoking priests may 
be seen collecting alms or going out for 
some noctural scene of idolatrous worship. 
They also have several nunneries for Budd- 
hist nuns. How many of these, and of the 
priests there are, I cannot say. Nor do I 
know whether Buddhist or Taoista are the 
prevailing sect in the provincial capital. 
But jirobably, the former. Here, the tem- 
ples at present are undergoing some repairs, 
but it is generally those which depend on 
some of tho ofiicial Yamens, (officers.) A 
Buddhist priest told me, there were but forty- 
four priests of his sect, large and small, in 
city. The Taoists may be the prevailing 
sect here, but it is lianl to .say, as I seldom 
see a priest. The people have not given 
over idolatry, although they do nat appear 
to be priest-ridden as at Hanehou. Y'ou 
may see the families conducting their own 
idolatrous worship, whereas at Hanehou 
you almost alw.ays behold shaved hf ads and 
yellow robed Buddhist priests. 

You may think I do not speak well of the 
" priesthood," but they .arc the most idle, 
sycophantic, unprinei])led looking men I 
have ever met with. Their religion and life 
is a falsehood, and many of them show that 
they kniw it. But a short time since, two 
of them with gilt-edged, neatly bound book, 
called on us to get money. They professed 
to believe tho truth with all humility as we 
declared the True God to them, and then 
turned and begged a few "cash." When 
told they must give up being priests, aud go 
to some trade if tbey believe the truth, one 
a little excited turned to his com|iaiiion and 
exclaimed: "Liar, puh tab," a superlative 
expression in this connection about equiva- 
lent to our exclamation, " Dreadful, unen- 
diualile." Many of thes: temples, have bu- 



state of things then existing — few elders 
ever appearing on thefloorof the Pres- 
bytery. At best, our Israel was exceed- 
ingly small. The laborers were few and 
far between. From about this period 
may be dated tho rise and spread of 
Presbyterianism in Georgia." 

After noticing the history of /icvcral 
churches, emigrants from which bad founded 
and built up new and now flourishing church- 
es — that more than compensate for the pres- 
ent feebleness of the jiarent church. Dr. 
Wilson continues: 

" Presby'erianism is not declining in 
Georgia. In 1820, we had not more than 
twenty churches in ths State; we had 
one PreSbHsrv and no Synod ; now we 
have within tiTe^~ ka. e proper about Wi'i 
churches, and inolu'Hng- EJorTtfa;' 
145 to 150. We have a Synod and six 



Is Presbyterianism 



iuj^de. 



oi.c) in riip tV|)nt part, jrltiJe wfe W(?r-.j4£j:y»' 



Presbyteries, and not much short of 
8 OOO members, 
dying out? 

Lot me state how this thing works, and 
might cause a superficial observer to 
jonclude that we were in a sad decline. 
The church at Decatur, DeKalb county, 
was organized in October, 1 825, with only 
nine members. They were mostly immi 
grants from Good Hope Church, S. 0. 
That is forty-four years ago. The church 
has had its bright and dark days, but has 
still held on the even tenor of its way. 
Its present pastor, the Rev. M. D. Wood, 
has recently looked into its roll, to as- 
certain how many names of members 
had been inscribed upon it. He found 
that more than 700 had belonged to its 
communion since its organization. At 
present, it has about 180 members. Is 
the diurch of Decatur declining ? We 
think not. It is a grand old heaven- 
favored church. It has sentont colonics. 
The original members of the First church 
of .\tlauta, and also Marietta, were prin- 
cipally from that church Presbyterian- 
ism is not dying iu Georgia. It may 
be sleeping That, I fear, is too truly 
tlie case. But it will awike some of 
these days. 

Correspondence of the Observer and Commonwealth. 
AN HOUR with Ihe METAPHYSICIANS 

mccosh's dkfen'se of fcvdamkntal 

TRUTH. 

We have been greatly refreshed in s mie 
of our college studies by the reading of Dr. 
McCosh's "Defense of Fundamental Truth." 
(iueslioiis of church iwlity, and the terrible 
violations of all law and logic which have 
been sprung on us these past years, liave so 
engrossed many of your contributors tind 
readers, that there was neither time nor 
taste for the quiet groves of the Academy. 

When Laiifranc, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, Anselm, his successor, Odo, Bishop of 
Cambray, and others, revived the science of 
logic in the eleventh century, their investi- 
gations re.ached a point on which there arose 
a violent dispute among the patrons of that 
useful science. They all acknowledged, says 
a historian, that logic or dialectics, had for 
its e.sscntial object the consideration of uni- 
vfr.sa!s in their various relations and points 
of comparison, since particular and individ- 
ual things, being liable to change, could not 
be the objects of a sure and immutable sci- 
ence. But the great question was whether 
these universals, which came within the 
sphere of logical inquiries, belonged to the 
class of real things or thaV of mere drtiomin- 
alions. 

In this historic jiicturewc have a full view 
of the nominalists and reali.sts, — philosophic 
parties, which have been adorned by great 
names. The dispute has lasted seven cen- 
turies, and remains uudecidcd— the greatest 
minds which give their attention to this 
truse subj.'ft, being un: 



shqi may bt^ carried on a 
them. 

As rcgardssoil, &c., the plain is a dark, 
and I judge, a fertile soil over a bed of 
bowlders, such is revealed along the bank of 
the river. ■ It has been a vast plain of rice, 
with here and there plots of sugar cano and 
other productions which are peculiar to 
China. The lotus and n.ative jiotato, much 
resembling it in leaf, also add a little variety 
to the scene making tr  an .ngritulturist a 
beautiful landscape. You here miss the 
fences, which cut up a rural scene in Amer- 
ica. Footpaths are sufficient to divide the 
small rice and t.tber fields of dillerent jiro- 
prietors. No sooner is the rice crop gather- 
ed, than the land has to brar a burden of 
vegetables fir fall. But daily fertilizing 
enables it to pr;iducc heavily about ten 
months out of the year. The country .about 
here is beautiful, the clima'c better in win- 
ter than in Virginia or Kentucky, and hotter 
for a month during the summer. Leave out, 
or endure that month, and the remainder of 
the time it is as good a climate us I have 
been accustomed to. There arc vast fie lds 
of the Master's harvest here without a labo- 
rer, and with all the indilference to eternal 
things which oppose the missionary, the heart 
is not harder than those who have resisted 
the teachings of a Christian mother, and the 
persuasions of faithful pastors. Then, are 
we not to Expect -some young brethren yearly 
to come where they can build, and not on 
another's foundation — where they can bear 
glad tidings to souls wlio "have never heard 
so much as that there be a'' Saviour? 

CROWTII 01 ' PRESilVTEKI AM»M IN 
GEORtilA. 

At a missi(mary meeting of the Synod of 
Georgia, last fall, a young mini.ster cxiiressed 
the opjnion that the Presbyterian Church 
was on the decline in Gcorg;a. The venera- 
ble Dr. J. S. Wilson — one of the oldest min- 
isters in the Synod, thus notices the remark 
in a late number of the Southn n Prexbijle- 
rian : 

"It was mauifesst that he (the young 
brother) knew littls of the history of 
Presbyterianism in this Stite. H id he 
known what t:Ouie of us knew, he would 
not have pn cla m:'d ourlChuich in i dy- 
ing condition with fo n uch btddncss 
Had be traveled over the road some of 
us have traveled, and witnessed what we 
have witnei^sed, he would rather have ex- 
claimed, on a review of tho past half cen- 
tury, ' Whit hath God wrought ! ' 

I came to Georgia a licentiate in 1820, 
having been licaused the previous year 
by the Pre.sbytery of South Carolina. 
At that time, Hopewell Presbytery em- 
braced the whole State, from the sea- 
board to the mountains, or at least that 
portion of it settled by the white people ; 



oue-tliird, perhaps nearly one-lialf, of the 
present territory of the Siate was in pos- 
.se;-siou of the Indians. The following 
year, (I.S2I,) I returned aud received 
ordination from the same Presbytery, and 
was dismissed to Hopewell Presbytery. 
Previous to thut time, as much, 1 think, 
as eighteen ironths had elaplsed when no 
meeting of the Presbytery had b .en held 
lor want of a qujrum. There was a 
((uorum in the Stite, but some of the 
ministers were aged and infirm, and 
lived so far from each other that they 
were unable to meet forih* transaction 
of business. I joined the Presbytery 
 t'01d Bethany,' iu the spring of 1822 
The churches under its care were few and 
veeble. If I am not mistaken, the first 
statistical report made to the General As- 
sembly after my connexion with it did 
not exceed 350 communicants. It is 
probable that the report was defective, 
as it would be very difficult to obtain 
the correct statistics of the churehes in the 



IS 11(11' .Ul i; 

the altar behind discussed !n the "Defense of Fundamental 
Truth," it is frequently in sight, and the 
book, in many places, and particularly at 
page 330, discovers to us Mill, a Nominalist 
aiul McCo.sh, a Realist. There is no great 
advance made toward settling the question^ 
and the mode of statement and defense are 
not greatly dift'erent from those used in the 
days of Beratigcr and Lanfranc. 

It becomes us to be modrst, when we re- 
flect that the science of this advanced age 
has not been able satisfactorily to- define 
the operations of the human miud, but we 
are not to conclude on this account that 
there has been no advance m.tde by modern 
philosophci-s in the'knowledge of these oper- 
ations, or that theirin vcstigations have been 
fruitless. This examin.ation of Mill and his 
school (^f iihilo.sojihy, wc regard its a valu 
able contribution to the scienceof mind, and 
eminently calcul:;ted to check the specula- 
tions of a sect, which at present is supported 
by great names, and finds no small favor 
with the jiublic. If we follow the school of 
Mill, we rarely or never reach an external 
world, and we arc just where we were with 
Berkley, with whom there was no external 
world, or, at least, no proof that there wiw ; 
all that man knows or can know, being re. 
solvable into sensations and ideas. It is true 
that theories of this kind, considered in 
them elves, are perfectly harmless, as they 
never will have any influence on the mass of 
mankind. But the reasoning which is 
thought to establish these theories, when 
applied to man's present condition, finds him 
to have a nature in which there is inherently 
no moral or religious attribute, a fortuit .us 
dweller in a world in whioh there is no fixed 
moral law. and iu which no God reigns. 
Man, in this state of things, having reached 
what are suppo.sed to be the last results of 
philosophy, is left to grieve over an unsatisfac- 
tory piift, an incomprehensible present, and 
no future. 

Dr. McCosh does not partake in this dismal 
view of things, and with good reason repudi- 
ates the philosophy that leads to it, as bein^ 
not only unfriendly to human happines*, but 
radically unsound in itself. He arrives at an 
external world by intuition, which is certain- 
ly the way our .Maker formed us to arrive at 
it, and following which the child does not 
err, while the philosopher is lost in a laby- 
rinth of sonsations and idea-*. In like man- 
ner he aci'ounts for our moral sentiments, or 
those decisions of the mind, which we ex- 
press by the words "giod" and "bad," as .ap- 
plied to actions and by "ought", and "duty," 
while on the other side what is meant by these 
important words is attempted to be generated 
out of the association of ideas. While there 
is so much to approve and admire in this 
volume, we regret that the author has, in 
several places, left himself exposed, as ap- 
pears to us, to a very d imaging criticism, if 
his o iponents desire to take advantage of it^ 
of which we can only note a f"w exanijiles 
in this paper. 

In the chapter on "Judgment or Compar- 
ison," piige220, he says, "I have shown that 
the miud starts with an original stock of 
knowledge and belief" And again on page 
237, ' The mind, as I apprehend, begins its 
intelligent acts with knowledge, and we may 
add, with beliefs." With all respect for the 
standing and experience of the author, we are 
compelled to say that we cannot accept this 
as philosophy. The word start, as used in 
the first quotation, must denote the beginning 
of the mind's existence, or the beginning o' 
its acts. Locke was of ojiinion that a child 
may have ideas before it is born, but we sec 
in the book no hint of such an opinion being 
held by our author, unless it be in the above 
statement. In the second quotation the 
word "start" \a identified with the beginning 



of its intelligent .acts. This fixc^S 
wherever that point may be, before i 
understand this philosophy to sav, 
has a stock of knowledge and belief* 
it makes use of at this starting poinlf 
as soon as its intelligent acts begin! 
there is, moreover, attributed to the i 
eertein advantage in having this tXo\ 
knowledge and beliefs, on which to begij 
series of intelligent acts which is to 
tute itshistory in this world. This, nod| 
is a very great advantage as against 
who contend that the mind commences^ 
career merely with sensations. The advaj 
tage would ap] ear to be as decidedly 
favor of the mind, if it did possess such 
stock, as capital is to a man commencing 
bu.siness, as against him who has none. Bur 
"i^yHHt "iitii'"c is tliin "T'du 
knowledge .nnd beliefs, aiul whence did lO 
come? ■ It did not come from an extern J 
world, for the mind has not yet started in if 
commerce with that world. The word oriiii- 
«a/ would seem to indicate that the mind has" 
them independently of an external world ; 
if so, it must be endowed with-ihcm previous 
to experience — a doctrine whicR. is utterly 
untenable. It may also bj safeljiasntmwj^ 
that a stock of knowledge and belief? 
the exercise of intelligence, but thi 
conceivable before the mind beginsT 
ligent acts. The true philosophy, 
prebend the matter, is that the niiil 
ally pos.se-ses certain capacities whl 
also called powers or faculties, and tliaS 
the exercise of these capacities on their i 
er objects, ari.se knowledge and beliersj 
these are ever enkrging with theexcreiSi 
the capacities, but there w.-ls no original 
stock, nothing original, but the capacities. 

Again, on page 2(33, when speaking of the 
truth, reached by intuition, he says, "it is 
narrowed * » ■  » by the.4rfgy«aljii- 
lets, which are theoutward m^ffu^'rd fenses " 
We are aw.are that Lockemade reflexion one 
source of our ideas, and s.aya it might proji  
erly enough be called "an ' internal sense.' 
Wc have nothing in the contest, nor in the^ 
book elsewhere which serves to guide us to | 
Locke's meaning in the plirasc "inwaril 
senses," as used by Dr. McCosh, and we ai 
driven to ask what 'does it mean ? It issomi 
thing different from the oiihvard senses, fd 
it is an additional inb t to that constitute 
by the outward .senses, and it denotes some 
thing difl'erent from the mind to which thei 
inward senses are an inlet. Are these iij 
ward senses a medium between the mindal 
the outward senses, and without which, the.' 
considered as separate parties, could have i| 
communication? This is just the plaS 
where ] hilosophers are liable to err whe 
they enter the mind's innermost chambeiJ 
and it does little for philosophy to introduJ 
s) vagiio a i)hias3 as inwari senses, witht/ 
telling us what llu-y are, and how many the] 
are of them. 

We will ouly remark on one other 
in which the distinguished author faj 
give us any light on the point he Ujj 
to elucida'X!. It appears to be 
who have treated of the mii 
which ha -e a resemblance sug^ 
Tliis is a rocognizjd Inwof ass 
unsettled question, says our ;j 
the relation (of res»mblaij^ 
mind before the law o\ji 
trait, and it at once^ 
have never seen 
portrait for ilic. 
present. 
It 



There 
of thought li 
gcst" and "call ujT 
law operates a.ssociatii? 
the arguinent is that this 
iginal is, according to our^ 
mind before the resemblance^ 
"For until the idea of the oripf 
up, 1 cannot di -cover the resiS 
Now what causes the original to sj 
Not the resemblance, for tbe reseS 
cannot be discoverad until the orig 
springs up. There the original springs 
witho' t any cause a.ssigned by our author ; 
he does not permit the resemblance to call it' 
up ; that will scarcely be alleged, he tells us. 
According to him it s|)rings up by chance 
out of the graat slorchouse of the mind, and 
then by an act of judgment we pronounce 
the re-emblance. If the law does not act 
t'.W after the original sjirings up, we ask^rilalT 
use, room or iieed u there for the law at all? 
We have the portriiil, ibc original, and the 
perceived resemblance — ^all that we want, 
without .suggestion, in any form, or perform- 
ing any office. This particular original 
springs up, we say rather than any other, 
and to tlie exclusion of all oihers, 
becauso there is a relation (called re- 
semblance) between the i ortrait and it, 
and along this relation, bo t   speak, 
the mind travels with electric speed till it 
comes to the original. We do not mean by 
these criticisms to disparage this work, which 
wc have already s.iid is very valuable. But 
we must remark in general that while Dr_ 
McCosh charges his oppinents with being 
vague, incomprehensible, and sometimes in- 
consistcat, he has not been as successful in 
avoiding these thi;igs hims.lf, as we would 
expect a philcs jpher to bs who so clearly 
perceived them in others. E. wI erior. 



For the Observer and Commonwealth. 
THE ISOOU OF ORDER. 
A PSOPOSAI. KI-:SPECTING SYNODS. 

Ill a former article, we called attentiiin 
Chtipter v.. Section 5, on.Syuods, and to some 
facts showing the importance attached ^l 
them as evinced by the attendance on this 
court of the Church. We presented the fact, 
that but a umall fraction of the members of 
Georgia, were present at its last meeting. A 
minority of the Synod of Kentucky had to 
trai)s;ict its important business. This was 
true, also, of every Synod that lias met the 
past few months, so far as wc have seen any 
statement of the number present. Memphis 
Synod bad a fuller meeting than any prece- 
ding one for te;i years, and only sixty-six 
were present and one hundred and eight 
were absent. South Carolina, not one-hall' 
of the ministers, and not one-third of tb. 
elders were jircsent. These four Synods, wc 
think, may be taken as a fair sample of all 
the eleven Synods of our Church. The con- 
clusion, to whioh, we think, every reflecting 
reader must come, is that the Synod as now 
constituted, is not as well attended .as either 
the Session, Presbytery or the General As- 
sembly. \'et, it is an important court of tbe 
Church, and we would not have it .abolish- 
ed, but only remodeled. 

The (.'^Hurch Session or Parochial Presby- 
tery is composed of pastor and elders chosen 
by the congr.^gation, and to rcjiresenr saidj 
coiigrcg.ation and act. iu its name and behalf.' 
The I'resbytery is compo-cd of ministei-s 
and elders chosen by these Sessions to rep- 
resent them. The Sj nod, iis at present, i- ^ 
nothing more or less than a Presbytery, a 
.somewhat larger one than some, aud not any 
larger than some othe- presbyterits. Thus, 
it was not, if ot.r memory serves us, for we 
have not now the book by us, in the Forn 
of Government adopted by the Westminstc 
Assembly. Was the Primitive and A] 



in .to_ 

OHIO 



CHRISTIAN OBSERVER AND COMMONWEALTH, JANUARY 19. 1870 



lie Synod constitutej as ours now is '.' Some 
'.li e ma ^ as!?, what then do we want? AVe 
iinswer, let the Synod be constituted as the 
Sf^sion and Presbytery are — hy ministers 
and eldi rs elected by three or more presby- 
teries to rcjiresent these presbyteries ; just 
US our Geni'ral Assemblies are. Then, all 
tlius chosen would feel a greater obligation 
to attend. Then, we would not liavc as 
MOW, minorities tratisacling the most imi)or- 
tant business. .Jhen, we need not have so 
TTtTffl^SjfJIoIIsT'and the expen.ses of both 
preaching and ruling elders being paid, we 
w ill have a full repro.sontaliou of each, and 
our synods be what they ought t.i bi' in the 
t'hurch of our Lord Jesus. (". 



l nily Prayer Meeting in Louisville* 

.\ Union prayer meeting cofiducted by the 
Young Men's Christian Association, is now 
held daily at 12 o'clock, in -tciid of nine 
o'clock, as hitherto. 

Third Cliureli, Kii-hniond. 
On Sabbath afternoon, Jan. 0, Win. H. 
Craig was ordained a ruling older of the 
Third Presbyterian Church, Hichmoud, and 
Messi-s. W. U. n. Frayser, E. I'leasants, 
George W. Taylor aniLG. W. Alien deacons. 
The Rev. Wm. E. Hill, the pastor, was as- 
iiij- the Rev^Thos. I,. Preston, of the 
'I'irst Church. 

Alabama Sfrcct Church, Meniithls. 

In a business note to the editors, on the 
UUh instant, the Rev. Dr. Stcdman say.s — 

riio Alabama Street Presbyterian Church 
ha.s just closed itsTOgulai .'A^oramental soa- 
sin. It was a time of great refreshing and 
comfort to God's people, and some jirccious 
souls, we trust, were converted to God. One 
was added by ie'.ter, and five by the profes- 
ilfon of their faith— all of these adults: one 
, of whom was baptized. Two additional el- 
ders and two deacons, who had been previ- 
ously elected, wtre in.-talled, all of them 
worthy and true men. Our little church lias 
been graJtKilly and steadily increasing, is 
very much united iu mind and heart, and is 
striving, I think, to do good as it may have 
opportunity. 'God has done great things 
lor us, whtreof we are glad.' May we al- 
ways walk softly before Him, and show our- 
selves always ready to every good worfl and 
work !" 

Ur. Stiles in Alabama. 

We learn by an exchange paper that the 
Kev. Dr. Stiles, who has entered upon hi^- 
labors as the Evangeliist ot the Soutii Ala- 
bama Presbytery, was preaching in Selnia, 
we doubt not to congregations deeply inter- 
ested. 

A I iiliou8 to the Church. 

We understand that a few per.wns were 
added to the Portland Church, of which the 
Rev. Mr. Thompson is pastor, ou last Sab- 
bath. There was also an accession to the 
Church in Elizabethtown, Ky., under the 
ministrv of Rev. Mr.'Flournov. the same 



Festival oT the Reiormation. 

On the 7th of November last the Festival 
of the Rejii«nation wits celebrated in all the 
t^rotwtfiiit Churches in Paris. This is a new 
institutit n, which attracts a great number of 
hearers to the religions services. The preach- 
ers remind their audiences of the pious ex- 
amples of the reformers, andtheohl Huguc- 
nols. They show how Evangelical faith is 
fruitful in deeds of fidelity, of zeal, and of 
self-sacrifice, and awaken the historic con- 
sciousness of the Christian congregation. 



^st j tcriaii Churc^i, Stjnnton 

rtWS PFCLABLD FHEE. 



[lew of the growth of this eongrega- 
|.cc the war aud underi's piescnt 
a growth indicated by the 
re than thirty families seek- 
' ithin its walls cannot be 
-th ! ooiigrogalioii, 
have declared 
pj^i of th } 



Wi 

fi.orrtf 



-iliyfli 
'Dr. Stnyth 
t'lat church 



did not intend "to impose celibacy on the 
missionaries, but simplv require that candi- 
dates should remain unmarried during a 
probation of tw o years, and while engaged in 
a particular kind of itinerant work." 



Acknowledgment. 

We :ii knowlc(l:;e tlie receipt of §!0 IVir the 
caufc ol'eclucation ol yonn;; men for tiie minis- 
try in tbe  !outh, received Iroin B. H. !];irliiean. 
Esq., Cliauipai^-ne, Illinois. 



EDUCATION 1) F M I N I S T R R !$' 
DAUGIITEKsi. 

Tlic f.iUowing comnuiiiication is coin- 
meiide*! to those whom God has bles.sed with 
means to aid thcbcncricciit work undertaken 
by the Rev. Mr. Caldweli., the Principal 
of the Edgeworth Female Seminary. Eds. 

Messrs. Editors : — No one who has read 
the communication of the Executive Com- 
mittee of Sustcntation, dated December J9th, 
can doubt that many Presbyterian minis- 
ters in the !-'oiitli have urgently iicidcd more 
as»i.-,tuiicc than lliat Committee proposed to 
give or was able to give them. It was there- 
lore w ise and important to make an effort to 
assist and relieve them by the present sup- 
port and instruction of tiicir daughters who 
are of a suitable age to be at school. The 
plan adopted for the accom])lisliment of this 
object, and carried into operation at Edge- 
worth Female Seminary, tireensboro, X. C, 
has been repeatedly ami extensively pub- 
lished. By circulars addressed to the stated 
clerks of our Presbyteries, and through all 
our religious iicw.spapors, information has 
been sought in regard to the circumstances 
of brethren who need the a.ssistance proposed. 

After much thought, consultation and cor- 
respondence, it was obvious that nothing 
could be done in the South to give success 
to this plan of aid and relief Citizens of 
the Rorder States had so frei|uently and so 
largely contributed to our churches and our 
people, that it was thought to be unwise t i 
appeal to them for their co-operation. 

I'lie only pros])ect of realizing any desira- 
ble measure of success was to make known 
the wants of our brethren to persons of 
wealth and benevolence in the Northern 
States. This has been done to a limited ex- 
tent. No suitable agent could be ])rocured 
to take charge of this benevolent enter])rise, 
aM l hence nothing was done to raise funds 
until the summer  d' 1808. Then and since 
that time, as circumstances would |)crmit, we 
have made several brief, earnest and labo- 
rious visits to the North, in the interest of 
this cause. We sought to induce individu- 
als, either singly or in union, to contribute 
$10U per session, or $200 a year for the sup- 
j)ort of the daughter of an indigent minis- 
ter whom he or th.ey might select, and with 
whom a correspondence was to be imme- 
diately opened. We make no charge for the 
tuition of such pupils in the literary dei)art- 
ment. Two hundre l dollars was consitlered 
a very small consideration, as it was intend- 
ed to cover all exiienses of board and text 
books, and as there was considerable ex- 
pen.se and unreipiitcd labor in raising the 
i'unds. It is also worthy of remark that by 
reason of the ])eculiar conditions of tli#lcasi' 
of this property, we become liable to my 
year for each of our bo irders whether 
"I'ne daughter of a minister or not. This Ls a 
work of benevolence, and as sucii it has re- 
ceived the endorsement of a number of the 
wisest and most influential ministers in dif- 
ferent Sciiitheru States. We believe God has 
rti^y sanction, inasmuch as J^ie has 



Mrs. Stowe was weak enougii to retail the 
dirty, scandalous story, which is refuted in 
Mr. Mackay's pamphlet. Mrs. Stowe has 
published a book in defence of her last hum- 
bug. 

Ool-nEN SONOS ANn UAI.I.4DS FOR TDK CHILDREN. 

Selected by llie aiillior of " Annie"» Gold 
Cross," Ac. pp. :i.")0. I'liiladelplii i: I'resliy- 
lerian I'ulplieution Cominittep. l'"or s.ile hy 
,1. K. Sleight, No. 1011 ilain street, liieii- 

lllODd. 

An excellent collection of beautiful songs 
and ballads is here presented to the reader. 
We know few books more suitable for the 
nursery table, or for a Christmas gift for lit- 
tle boys and girls. 

Seeiko Jebus. By the Kev. Henry A. Nelson, 
1). I)., ol tliK Ijane Tlieoioyical Seminary, pp. 
172. riiiladelpliia. I'resljyterian I'ublicatiou 
Committee. For sale as above. 

Various .scenes in the life of our Saviour 
are presented in a form well adapted to in- 
terest and instruct the young, ami lead them 
to see Jems " the Only Begotten of the Fa- 
ther, full of {,race and truth." 

JosEPB ; The Hebrew Prince of Egypt. In 
llible l-ancuajre. Nine Illustrations, pp.81. 
I'liiladclphia : I'reBbvterian rublication Com- 
niiUce. l?"or sale as above. 

Tee Amshicah  JiiAtiTERi.v CBiRcn BsviEir 
AND hccusiASTiOAL KttiisTER lor .January, 
IsTU. Kev. rrofcssor.Tohn M. l eavitt. A. M.. 
Editor and I'roprietor. New York : No. 37 
Bible House, Astor PKice. 

Contents— Advanced Ritualism ; A Leaf 
from Mediaeval History; Walter Savage 
Landor; Prison Reform; Darwinianism ; 
Clerical Celibacy ; Mystical and Represen- 
tative Numbers ; Ignatius ; Romish Saint 
Worship ; The Liturgy and the Articles ; 
Notices of Books; Ecclesiiustical Register. 

Kitty, liv  l. Bktiiam Edwards, author of "Dr. 
.Tacolis." '-A Winter with tlie Swallows:" 
N -wYor:»: Harper & Urc.thrrs publishers. 
1S70. Kor s lie as above. Trice 50 cents. 12 
luo. pp. U3. 

This numbers 332 of the library of select 
novels published by Messrs. Harper & Bros. 
(3f the mi rits of the .story we cannot speak. 
Tbe scene of it is a studio of painters in Bo- 
hemia. 



I.ateMt V'roni Dr. Livingstone. 

Letters dated Zanzibar Dec. 23d, from 
Consul Webb, received at the State Depart- 
ment, in Wasliington, state that a letter had 
been received at the British Consulate from 
Dr. Livingstone, dated May 30th. Living- 
stone W!is at I'jiji, on Yanyanvki lake where 
he had found his  upplies. He was in good 
health and spirits, and jiroposed traveling to 
windward of Yanyaiiyki unless some boat- 
men and further supplies, for which he had 
sent, reached I'jiji. 

Colored BiiptiNtM in Va. 

The statistics of the colored Baptist 
churches in Virginia show a membership of 
43,318, exclusive of thoseyetin communion 
with the white churches. They have 132 
churches. 



Prize PcwM in Mr. Heeelier's Clinrcli. 

It is slated that the llev. Henry Ward 
Beecnerjiicrsonally superintended the auction 
sales of seats anil pews in Plymouth Church, 
Brooklyn, ou Tuesday evening, and encour- 
aged the biddinj;. Mr. Gage, a wealthy 
speculator, carried off the best, or prize seat, 
for which he pays ?!(U5 as the annual rent. 
Mr. Bowen, jjublisher of the Independent, 
bid S490 for the second clioice, and Mr. 
Claflin, the dry goods prince, offered S4S.5 
for the third Vx'st seat, and both these bids 
were accepted. The total sum realized by 
the sale w.as ?;07,.'' 4:;.;j0 against $.'i4,494 last 
year. 

Fourteen Congregational churches Lave 
been organized among the colored people in 
and about New Orleans during tiie fast year. 
The Rev. Edward. F. Strickland, late of 
Michigan, has been laboring among them. 



I'erKOiiHl. 

W\. Loughridge hits removed from 
f;e to Lavaca, Texas, having accept- 
lanimous call from the churches of 
I and Victoria, to become their stated 
Correspondents will note his change 
Lddress to Lavaca, Texas. 
Uev. W. H. McAuley has removid from 
Selma, Alabama, to Wi'souville, Alabaiiui, 
where he is oecujiying an important mis- 
sionary field. Corrcs; ondeiits w ill note the 
change. 

ItoiK^uraN, Ark 

There was a new church organizid by tl e 
Rev. M. A. Pattereon, at Honduras. Colum- 
bia county, Arkansas, on Saturday, bcfoie 
■ tirst Sabbath in Dtcdnbtr, containing 
aeen members, including three ruling el- 
( Cis "aiid two deacons. 

Unexpected S^eqnriice oT Itc-ni ion 

The secretary of the Presbytvjriau 
Hjard of Domestic Missi ns issues his re 
grets. thut amid the j  y of re uui m tiie 
Board's receipts have lal'.eu of more than 
twenty thousaiid dollars. 

Degrees at Princeton. 

At the late semi-annual meeting of the 
Trustees of the College of New Jersey, 
Princeton, the degree ot Doctor of Diviiii y 
was conferred upon Rev. I harles A. Aiken, 
President of Union College, New York, and 
the degree of LL. I), on the venerable Jos. 
W. Scott, of New liruiisw ick, of the class of 
1795. The rejiort of President McCosh )ire- 
sented a highly gratiljing view of the con- 
dition and prospects of the institution. The 
mimber ot studints in attendauce is 32.' . 

A Singular Notice. 

A congregation in Chicago advertises for 
a jircacher, and specifics that, besides being 
a good preacher, he must be -a man of good 
moral character. Au exchange expre-ses 
gratification that a moral charactor among 
preachers is not at a discount with that 
church, though it would seem to be a scarce 
c"' ill that region. Another cnitor 

J; ■ I I'y this circumstance of a Quar- 

terly L . ..iieiice in Tennessee, that jietitioiicd 
the bisliOp to send them, by all means, a 
preacher piously inr/incd. 

A Woman Preacher. 

' Rev. Jlrs. Haiiaford hashad a call to New 
Haven, with a .salaiy of $2,-000. She will 
draw the college young men to her hearing. 
She is of a very mini.sterial aspect and bear- 
ing, a graceful and devout manner." 

So says an exchange. The salary is suflic- 
icnt tosujiport herself, husband and children; 
but we arc anxious to know who will dis- 
charge the duties of pastor's wife, if she ac- 
cepts the call. 

Roman Catholic Purity. 

To ki ow what Romanism is, one n.u^t see 
it in Italy. It wears its n.ost attractive garb 
ill America. 1 have seen in the I'ajial 
Stiites only three ecclesia^tical persons, in 
whose facts I could discern sincerity and 
pU'ily. The sins of the priests arc a matter 
of ' '[III on knowledge,and, with the youths, 
' I i l l! I was inloiined that the obscene 
Looks   . publicly told in Rome and in all 
.i^outhern Italy, are almost wholly made up 
■of the frightful licentiousness of the priests. 
A Roman lawyer, of very great prominence, 
told me that a common saying is this, "He 
is as low as a priest," usually put in this 
way, "Treacherous as a priest. ' — R. L. Col- 
lier in the C/tistian Heijislrr. 

Benevolent Societies in London. 

The Bi.-hop of London states that there 
now exist in that city more than a thousand 
as-sociatioiis for cliaiitable purposes, adminis- 
tering annually about £4,000,000, in addi- 
tion to the rc;;ular assessments of the poor 
rates. Yet there is such a spread of want, 
misery, pauperism and crime in that metrop- 
olis, that the authoritiej are at their w its' end 
to meet itij' 

^ Celibate Missionaries. 
The excit »ment among the Baptist- of Eng- 
land Oil the (jtie-itioii of sending out celibate 
missionaries to liiilia, called forth a vote at 
the meeting of their missionary society held 
laiit moiiUi, to the effect that the Coniniittce 



granteil iis jlic yisit ; tiiin^ of JiisJiyiaJ__jjii^_^; 
brinight s()JW?ol I he daughters of his jiroph-H k 
ets, with many others to yield thcinselvesi 
unto (Jod, as those who are alive, from the 
dead. 

Arrangements have been made according 
to this ])lan for the .support of sixteen young 
lailies — daughters of ministers — for oiieyear, 
and in a few cases for two years. To this 
number we hope additions will be made by 
the agency of the Rev. S. A. Stanfield. 
Two young ladies, selected by persons wil- 
ling to support them, have been hindered 
by i rovidential circumstances from the en- 
joyment of the privilcgiw proposed. few 
individuals have received partial aid. Thir- 
teen daughters of niiuisters have been board- 
ed and in.structed either a jiart or the whole 
of the past year on this fund. One of them is 
from Virginia. Four are from South Caro- 
lina, and seven are from North Carolina. 
So far as we know at present, eleven will 
partake of its benefits in 1.S70. One from 
Virginia, one from tieorgia, three from 
South Carolina, and six from North Caroli- 
na. We hope that additions w ill be made 
to the number before the close of January. 
These young ladies are chiefly from fifteen 
to eighteen years of age, and it is understood 
they are all preparing to te.ach. 

A few who have gone out from us, and 
who were with us prior to this year, are 
now teaching. Positions of usefulness will 
be open for them all ; and they may not only 
be self-supporting, but render etiicient aid to 
their parents. As an illustration of the ne- 
cessity of this method of aid, it may be re- 
marked that several of the brethren, w hose 
daughters have been w ith ns, were not able 
to replenish their wardrobes, nor to jiay their 
travelling expenses to Edgeworth. This ap- 
peals to the best iini)nlses of the Christian 
heart. In view of its results, so far as they 
have been developed, we thank (lod and feel 
ho|)eful as to the future. 

No personal application for assistance has 



now hope for contributions from many who 
have ample means and large hearts? 

Every dolhir thus far received, has been 
contributed by men and women of noble im- 
pulses, in the Northern States. Tlieirnames 
are on record in this Institution, and may 
they have large reward from Him who loves 
the cheerful giver. J. M. M. Cai.dm'ELL. 



ComninniKm in Iowa 

Communism has found a home in Iowa. 
Neor Marengo, there is a co' oy ofonetliou- 
sf: ' • 'iiingover 

2  . all things 

CI sect, and 

. ?rTT- -r^ - --h. l  il l 

1808. 



olic dogma of the Real Presence, auricular 
confession and penance; also, that marriage 
is a sacrament, and images of .saints and 
martyrs fit objects of Christian adoration. 



Clo.se Communion. 

A jiastor of prominence in the Baptist 
Church, writing to the W itiliinan tiiid He- 
tleetni; urges his brethren not to ignore the 
fact that the number is constantly increas- 
ing of the clergy and laity in that church 
who long tf» see a closer union of all Christ- 
ians, and who, because they can find no in- 
junction to the contrary, either in the law or 
spirit of Christ, believe that there is no more 
fitting place to show forth their union than 
at the sacred table where they together may 
commemorate the great love of their com- 
mon Savior. 



Union Seminary, New York. 

It appears by the late catalogue that there 
are one hundred and seventeen students at 
the New York Union Seminary, from thirty- 
six American and European colleges and 
universities. The junior and middle clas.ses 
have thirty-seven members each, and the 
senior class thirty-nine. There arc also four 
resident licentiates. The New England 
States have fourteen students, New York 
State forty-nine, and the States south and 
west of it 6ftv-thrce. 



Tbe Threat Unheeded. 

Several weeks ago, CardinaH'uUen threat- 
ened to withhold the sacrament from parent* 
who send their children to model schools in 
Dublin. It is stated, that in the face of this 
threat, there arc at |iresent, .at least one thou- 
sand children of Roman Catholic parentage 
in attendance at the Model Schools in Marl- 
bo;ougb Hieet, Dublin. 



Lives of the Popes. 

There are many facts rei'orJed in hi-tory 
of the Popes, which should be held up as 
lieacons to warn the world of the corrupting 
influences of their religion. .\ contemporary 
joiirnalsays : 

" Ninety Popes died from violence of arm- 
ed men, from over indulgence in drink, or 
from venereal diseases. Two Popes were 
nominated by Einpres.ses who were their 
mistresses. Sixty-four Fopes perished in an 
extraordinary manner — some of them of un- 
namcalile tortures, or diseases, or dissijia- 
tions. And most of the Ecumenical (^mll- 
cils have been characterized by as much dis- 
order and discreditable riot as any political 
convention of modern times." 



Metropolitan Methodist Church. 

Bisho]) Morris describes the ^Methodist 
Mctro]iolit.in Church at Washington City as 
not gaudy, but substantial, neat and boatui- 
ful. Prisideiit Grant and Chief Jiislico 
Chase are Trustees, and, w ith their families, 
are regular attendants. The singing is con- 
gregational, and the worship jtlain and spir- 
itual. 



A Useless Speculation. 

A correspondent of the Church l.'iii in is 
looking carefully into Bible clijouology, to 
nsLcrtain whether Mtlhusalah was drowned 
by the Hood or died in h's bed. The ques- 
tion is s iniewliat mixed in his mind, but he 
expresses a hope that he died a natural 
death, "for it would have been awful to live 
s ( l.inc and be drowne^l after all." 



Tli£ \Ve»/ern Cn/ha/ie J-nnml states that 
Bisho]) Duggaii is po i'ivcly insane, and con- 
fined in the Insane Asvlum in St. Louis. 



The Pope's Conncil. 

The London Tablet, of Jan. 15, states that 
the majority in the Ecumenical Council 
favoring thetinfallibility of the Pope, is 783. 

In the Council January l' , the oldest 
legate present complained that many of the 
speeches were too long,and that some of the 
fathers did not strictly observe the obligation 
of secresyin regard to the proceetl'ngs of the 
Council. 



A Pension lor I)r I.ivinKsloue. 

Sir Roderick Murchison intimated in his 
recent opcuing address at the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society that it is proposed to con- 
fer a pension, and po.ssibly a title, upon Dr. 
Livingstone on his r.,'turn from Africa. 



A Sensational morj. 

There is a paragraph going the rounds of 
the press, which we clip from the New York 
World, as follows : 

" A hundred and forty Southern editors 
are Presbyterian clergymen ; which accounts 
for the aggressive and bellicose tone of the 
Southern press." 

This ]iar.agraph is .about as true as it 
would be to say, that llif re are fifty thou- 
sand newspapers printed and published in 
the Southern States. If the former state- 
ment is true,-thc latter is also. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

I he  !Dfs ASP Ep )D s of Horace. A Metrical 
Tbassi.ation into Ei.'oi,isa. with iutrodiiction 
and coiiimpiitarics, by Lcrd l,i ttoii,witli Latin 
text from ilic f ditionsot Orclli, Maclcane and 
Yoncc; New York, Harper and lirotUcrs, 
publishi rs, l.STU. 12 ino pp. 521. 

The appearance of this book, containing 

the latin text and an elaborate translation of 

the Odes of Horace, will be welcomed by 

many an adrtilter of his genins. It is 

bound in cloth, in good substantial style. 

For sale as above. 

A Gkbman t'ornsE. Adapted to I s" in Col- 
If^-'CS, High Sciiools and Academics. By 
Ueorftc F. Comfort, A. Jl., I'rofe.'-si.i of Mod- 
ern 1 argiiiigcp and Aesthetics in the Alle- 
Kl'eny I rillctip, Jlrndvillc. I'cnnsj Iv.-mi.i. 
New Yolk : Harper & Brutbers. ISTu! I'inio., 
pp. 4!)o. 

This work is intended for professors and 
teachers, and also as a class-book for stu- 
deiitj to facilitate their progress in acqui- 
ring a thorough knowledge of the German 
language. The author states that it has been 
his aim to incorporate in his work the most 
advanced views of linguistic instruction as 
held by the best writers upon philology and 
the best practical educators in Europe and 
America. He endeavors to meet the wants 
of one on entering a foreign country, by giv- 
ing him, first, a vocabulary of words, second, 
grammatical forms; third, laws of syntax ; 
fourth, idiomatic construction, and fifth, 
rules of pronunciation.- The work is neatly 
printed and issued in good substantial style. 
For sale in Louisville by John P. Morton & 
Co., Main street, below Fourth. 

JIfDOBA LkIOB. a Hi.sTORT and an .iCTOBI- 

oonAPHV. Edited liy Charles Mack-iy. With 
an Inlrodiiclion and a t)i.inmentary on tbe 
Chargps Broimht Ausinsl I, old Byron by 
Mrs. Harriet Beccher Stowe, New" York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

Medora Leigh is a daughter of Lord By- 
ron's sister, of whom Lady Byron became 
jealous on account his afi'ection for her. 
I Hence the chargeof incest, ov..r which Lady 
I B. brooded so long that 8h« believed it. 



••What Women are Doing." 

Under this head a "Woman's Rights" 
paper, cilited by several strong-minded wo- 
men and weak-minded men, sniong whom 
are Lucy Stone and Wm. Loyd (iarrison, 
says : 

The Rev. Miss .Vngnsta J. t'haiiin preach- 
ed in Iowa City, on a recent Sunday, from 1 
Cor., xiv. chap., 37 v.: "Por it is asliame for 
women to speak in church." She has ac- 
cepted a call to that parish at a salary of 
$l,.'j00, and has been a settled pastor over 
Western parishes nearly eleven years. 
It also says in the same connection : 
Some citizens of Massachusetts are mov- 
ing for separate prisons for women. 

The Blessing or the Suez Caual. 

Le /"(V/fo-o says concerning the Suez Canal 
ceremonies: "The Viceroy had a superb 
idea ; he wished that the canal should be 
blessed by the representatives of all religions. 
They were to be arranged in rows ; on one 
side the Ulemas. with the diverse sects of 
Mahometans, and on the other side the Rab- 
bis, priests and pastors, finishing with the 
Patriarch of Alexandria. At a signal — 
'Dzingg' — all the benedictions were to com- 
mence in Arabic, in Turkish, in Coptic, in 
English, in Latin, in Hebrew! But the 
Latin Patriarch sto])pcd this fantasy of the 
Khedive's. He refused to bless at the given 
signal. The Empress then asked her con- 
fessor, M. Bauer, to replace the .Vrchbishop, 
and so the benediction was given, to the 
great joy of M. de Lesseps and of the guests 
Notwithstanding the imposing manner in 
which it was ble-sed, the first mercantile 
vessel which pa.ssed through the Suez Canal 
with a cargo was wrecked in the Red Sea 8C 
miles from Suez." 



A Baptist Criticism or Baptists. 

The Louisiana B'ljdlsl thinks Baptist close 
communion is not close enough, as at the 
meeting of the Sandy Creek Association it 
was stated that one member could not at 
tend, as he was making a run of whisky from 
his still, and another, a preacher, must have 
his three drinks a dav. 



Revival Inllueuec.s iu Cinciuuali 

The meetings in Cincinnati, under the 
direction of Rev. Mr. Hammond, are going 
forward day and night, without any abate- 
ment of interest. It is eslimated that six or 
seven hundred have been awakened and con- 
verted, atid many of the churches have been 
greatly revived and strengtheneil. 



The Gospel in lleatlieu Lands. 

Bishop Clark, in a late missionary address, 
saiil the most cariful statistics show that in 
ISOS there were in strictly heathen lands 2,- 
.')00 missionary chuichc, 2,000 nii.ssio:iari;'S, 
2 -KtO native jireachers, 2.j0,tt00 iiienibers, and 
l,HiMi O'JO nominal Christ,iat;s. 

A BEKCHER APOLOUT 

Some time ago a man in New York named 
Richardson, who moves in high social circles 
— a brother tj the editor of the Boston Con- 
greijalioni'is! — persuaded a Mrs. McFarian' 
to desert her husband to live with him. To 
aged husband shot him for his ofll' 
11^1 his d. 



coin, greenbacks, and other available secur- 
ities, which have been recovered by a brother 
and sister of the deceased. 




oi)/( raged husband shot hm 
ai M mortally wounil^ him. 
b^R, Henry U'ard B^cc'icr msC^ed Mrs.' .A 
Farland to Mr. Richardson. The »i 
created a good deal of sensation and aroo- 

strong sense of indignation againttt 
clerical nor; )riety-s-?e!-:er, who thus mule 
him-iclf a jiarty ti Richardion's crimes. Mr 
Beccher bus been constrained to mak;^ several 
humble apologies : the last which he pub- 
lishes, is such an one as ncirly every gam- 
bler .ind drunkard would not hesitate to 
make. He says : 

I suppose I do .»/'(/' O' "'' sometimes. Well, 
I never saw a pan ju t full of milk that did 
not slop over. If you do i;ot want any sloj)- 
ping over, taken pint of milk and put it in 
a big bucket. There will be no shipping 
over then, .^nd a man who has only a pint 
of feeling, in an enornn'us bucket, never 
.slops over. But if a man is full of feeling, 
up to the very brim, how is he going to car- 
ry liim.self without spiling over ? He can- 
not help i'. There will be dripjnng over the 
edges all the time. And as every flower or 
blade of grass rejoices as the rain falls upon 
at, so every recipient along the way in which 
a man with overflowing generous '-'cliiig 
walks is thankful for his bounty. 

How to carry a nature full of feeling, and 
administer it witiioiit making mis'akes, I do 
not know, you do not, nobody does, nobody 
ever did, and nobody ever will; so we must 
tiike it anil gel along as best we can. Life 
is a kind of zig-zag anyhow ; and we are 
obliged to resort to expedients, and learn 
from our blunders, which are inevitalile. We 
find out a great deal more from men's mis- 
takes than from their successes. 

But, after all, I am not sorry tUat I have 
been imposed ujion, and that I have tru-ted 
men that were not worthy to be t us ed. I 
am sorry that I have been diijied It falls 
out from an abundance of geiier ns feeling 
It is the mistakeof a disposition tli t I think 
it is a great deal better to have, witii all tlu-^L+mji ,„ 
impositions which it suffers, than thai kiml ( hcnrticlore this court 
of cold c.uition which iireventi you ventur- 
ing anything on the side of kindiiiess because 
you always want to be safe. 

kn eminent divine once made the remark, 
"There are three classes or .sorts of men in 
the world, the good, the bad and the Beecli- 
ci-s. 



SUPREME COURT OF THE U. S. 
Hon. Willt.am Strong, of Philadelphia, 
formerly of Reading, and for many years the 
representative in Oingress from Bucks coun- 
ty, has been a) pointed by President Grant, 
the Attorney General of the United State-s, 
to succeed .fudge Hoar, transferred to the 
Supreme Bench! 

LEGISLATURE Of TENNESSEE. 

On the 12tli inst., the House passed, ou 
the first reading, the bill to amend the char- 
ter of Nashville. It provides for the regis- 
tration of voters, and forbids the City Coun- 
cil JErom issuing bonds for any jmrposc un- 
less authorized by a vote of the people. 

The bill to relieve the State Treasury was 
taken up on the third reading. It provides 
that the State tax sh.all bereal'ter be eighty 
cents on every one huodred (100) dollars' 
worth of taxable prop- rty ; that taxes so ils- 
s^Seo, if paiil in United States legal-tender 
notes or National Bank notes, may be dis- 
charged by paying one-half, or forty cents 
on every hundred dollars" worth of taxable 
property. The bill was amended by redu- 
ciii^the tax to sixty cents; and, before any 
further action was had, the House .adjourned. 
— ^ — KAN.i.lS. 

The Legislature met on the 11th inst. in 
the new Capitol at Topeka. The Governor, 
in his message, denounces the policy ofmor- 
alurisioii adopted by the Government to- 
ward Indians, a. id com]dains of the public 
sentiment in the East on this question. 
H*c wants the Indians confined on re ci va- 
tiojis. ;iiid the Government to detail a siilii- 
ri*».'^^)rcc-^^j;_troops to keep ihcni thwve. 
  'u th(» neutral laii-I qllcstioii, he s.ays there 
IS slill a necessity for troops, and their 
puyewce is conducive to peace and order. 

IMMIGKANTS TO VIRGINI.C 

Mr. Addison Moc, of New Jersey, recently 
purchased the "Green Hill" tract, on Staun- 
ton -River, Va., containing 7,ltOO acres, for 
i|80,0()0, and proposes to settle upon it forty 
families from the vicinity of Patterson and 
Rahway, N. J. 

nniiiivr; BACK THE COTTON CROP. 

A correspondent says: "There is less cot- 
ton along the Tennessee River ready for 
shipment than he ever saw. At least three- 
fourths of tlic entire cotton crop remains in 
the hands of the planters, who arc hohling 
back for better pi ices." 

SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Gen. \. M. West writes from Walter Val- 
ley, Miss , about .Swedish immigrants to that 
.S'aTe: "We have quite a nnniber of that 
elas» of jiersoris here, in the capacity of me- 
chanii's, house sv^-vants and common labor- 
ers. They, thus far, give entire satisfaction, 
and are superior to the negro or any other 
class of laborers or servants that we have 
tried. We have an agent now on his way to 
Sweden with orders for several hundred, and 
will start an .igenf to Germany, via Sweden, 
with numerous additional orders on or be- 
fore the 15th in-t. The first shipment is ex- 
jiected to arrive by the 1st of Jaiiuory, and 
the others by the 1st of February and 
March." Mr. C. was speedily detected, and 
will probably find a home in an insane asy- 
luiii. 

— ■ MfRDER BY l-'EDEP.AL TROOPS. 

Ca|)tain Tully Gibson, well-known about 
Richmond iluring the war as a gallant Con- 
federate soldier, was nuirdered by Federal 
trQojis w hile sitting in his own house, in Sun- 
flower county. Miss., a few days since. 

HOMICIDE IS NEW ORLE.^NS. 

Aflldavits have been made, charging C.W. 
Oamraack, paying teller of the New Orleans 
C.tize i's Bank, with killing John Nixon at 
the Boston Club, on Saturday night, Janu- 
ary Stli. 

A sc-asdalIto the .ministry. 
Rev. Mr. Cook, the erring divine, in New 
■d' ped with a young lady member 
ii, has heretofore possessed the 
• ence of his flock, but it is feared 
"onrse^ are not of recent origin. 




PIEDMONT & ARLINGTON LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 

nOMK OFFICE, CORNER TENTH AND MAIN STREET, RICHMOND, VA 

() F F I (• s : 

W. C. CARRTNGTON, President. 

R. H. MAURY, Vice President. 

J. J. HOPKINS, Secretary. 

B. C. IIARTSOOK, Assi.-itant Secretary. 

0. H. PERROW, Medical Adviser. 

(JEOKGK ROSS, M. D., Assistant .Medical Advi.scr 

JAMES K. WOLFF, Sup't of A-gencies. 



U 1 K E C T U K .S : 



M. MAURY, 

S. LEE, 

F. WEISICER, 

TIDE.MAN, 



W. A 
J. J. 
CARKINGTON. 



A. F. HARVEY, 
RICHARD IRBY, 

ARMISTEaB, 
HOPKINS, 



Dividend paid policy holders !si April, l.sun, Fortt per Cent. 

Tliis Company ii:i» nitt with asm-cess lieyoiid all purullcl in Life Insuruuce, and offers to th-3 
.Soutiiern pulilic a Home enterprise equal to any and Bnri)-assed by none iu existence. 
COiOineuced active operations alinut Mov. l.st, 1867. 
A.ssets 1st of April, lSt)9, $407.(100, now much increased. 
Policies issued iu ei;.'hteen months a.OOO, covering risks of $11,000,000. 

It has paid tor losses of *ai,iWO, and in every iustaiiue waived the ninety day ' time and naid 
at once. ' 

It advises the payment of all cash premidms, because their dividends will cuntlnually de- 
crea.sc e.-ich next payment until nothing will be required, and the policy may be a source of in- 
come, hut it will ullow one-half loan ou life and joint life policies. One-third loan on other par 
ticipatioK policies. ' 

It requires no notes lor loans of the part ol premiums, but endorses the loan on its policies 
until absort ed by dividends, or tbe policy is payable. 

It has no restrictions on residence or travel. All its policies are iion-forleitabie ; and the ri"ht 
ol parties !»uaruiitced on tbb face of the policy, as a part ol tlic contract. ° 

ft h:i6 the lollowiu« vnlualile feature which no other Company gives : The late war tan"ht 
many tlie penalty of licing separated from the IJome OUice by havini? their payment forfeited. 
■' Ike Piedmont" xuaids against this in qkk policiks, aad in event of separation from its of- 
ace by any intervention guarantees to such all the rii;hl8 of non-forleitnre, paid up policy sur- 
render value and reinstatement, as though there had been no such intcrveuiui; cause. 

Its investments are made tor boncthol .'Southern .advancement. 

It brimfs money to our pyople— keeps money with our people. Then why should they con- 
tinue to impoverish themselves by sendiui; money oil' whicli can us wisely— us «asily— aa iiroti 
tably be sjient at home 't j - j l 

Tlie Piedmont asks all who wish to insure to compare its rates— terms— progress, with any 
corjpany, and feels confident its merits will equal any other company. 

Agents wanted everywhere. je 23 tf 2 



him, and lili.d all the relations of life with a 
becoiiiing and manly propriety. 

Hedied in the failli. trustini; in the blood of 
Christ for pardon and sa'vation. His mind had 
been iiiriicd to the gre.it subject of reli};ion for 
some time past, and be confessed Christ and 
was baptized into the I'resliyterian Church. 
He was calm, colieclod and decided. His end 
was p ace. He leav sa yoiin;; and atl'ectionato 
widow, to whom he liad lieen married nolqnite 
two years, with a lar ;e circle ol relatives and 
friends to m uru his early departure. 

•■ Weep not, be is not dead, but slcepcth." 

H. 

Jllt.S. ELIZAHKTH ANN LYLE, widow of 
the l!cv. John Lyie, died at her residence near 
the Walnut Hill Church, Fayette county, Ken- 
tucky, on the 14th of October, ISfJ!). She was 
born October 21st. 1S1.1. 

Her ancestry h.ivc been connected with the 
Walnut Hill ciiurcb, probaiily from iisorgini- 
zation, r.carly a hundrcil years :igo. Here she 
w as bom and reared. Here she was tw ii-o 
marriid, tirst to ifr. Uobert Irwin, ofierwards 
to ihe Itev. .I..I111 l..yie, the third pastor of the 
Walnut Hill church. Here slw trained iier 
lour children who siirvivj her. in the knowl- 
cd;.-o and fear of ti id Here siic U d '• a ipiiet 
and peaceful li:c " perhaps never hivini^ made 
an enen;y. Hero she died, universally beloved 
and rej ected. Loving the Lord's day, and de- 
voting its hours to religion, ciiliivalinj; her own 
piety and i;:cnlca'iiig by precept and exaaiplj 
upon her cuildicn the p'iiiciples of Christi- 
aiiuy, she p-ssed thron:{ii lile in Hia-,'ular peace 
and  iiiictncss. slie died, as she lived, a sin- 
cere Christian, Her memory is frai;rant. 



FACT.SFOUTHE LADIES. 
ChttS. A. tUir^in dcp iscd : I have been fa- 
niiiiur with Sfwing-machincs lor many J cars 
riie Wheeler ai.d VVilion -Machines ari' vastly 
ecptrior in tbeir aduptation uiid Uic upon ail 
clusses ol work lor domestic purposes. One 
great cousideiaiioii in the ube of Rcwin;;-!iia- 
cniiies IS the e.ipei s; nf repairs. From the 
case of all its mcvhanicui innvcmei ts, the 
Wheel. r 4 Witsi.n ilacbine issubjictto luit 
slight wear, and the expeiit-c oi reji^iir is very 
slight in cumi arisen w ith other luachiucs. 1 
am fully convinced that they do nut cost one 
tilth of that of Huy other two-lh ead m-achlnes. 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 

EVERY STYLE OF PICTUUE from the 
Card to Life Size, taken in the most approved 
styles of the art and on the most reasonable 
terms at the 

" LEE " 

GALLERY, 

9-20 Main Stkkkt. 

JOHN W. DAV 11!*. 
C?" Strict attenlioQ paid to Copying old 
Pictures. 2 tf 



•■ importunities, he resolved at 
the person of the poor tru-ting 
- forever. He departed, leaving 

. . , :i.s wife and the fiither of Miss 

Johnson confessing his crime. Detectives 
are on the track in sc eral directions. The 
girl is undoubtedly ruined. Her brothers 
ari? on the track, and a bloody tragedy will 
probably end the painful drama. 

VALUABLE FAKMING LANDS. 

^Payette Couiitv, Ky., returned for 18C0, 
170,W1 acres of land, valued at §.31 93 jier 
.acre. Total valuation, $7,870, 22-"). liourboii 
county returned 17;-(,52Sacrt S of land, valued 
at.$4l5 .'5S per a'.rc. Total valuation. §8,- 
(XV.KUO. 

FOREIGN. 

FRANCE- i Tr..tGEDY l.V PAEl . 

-O ■ the inth inst. Victor Noire was shot dead 
by I'rlnce I'lerre Uonaparte. The city was 
greatly 1 x; ited over the tragedy, Princn Bo- 
naparte's vur i  n of the alLiir "as furnished to 
the jmrnals l.y M. Paul Cassasnac. He 
says i!\c Prince made the followin^ sia!emenl 
firli in on his honor : 

•' M. Fonvillc and Jl. \ I. tur Noire came to 
my rc'ld ncc with a menacing ir. wHh their 
hands in their pockets, and presented a letter 
from Jl . J'asclial OronsBil. 1 s:iid : 'It is 
Riichcfort, and not bis n eat ores, t at 1 seek.' 
'Read the letter,' replied Nolr ". I had my 
hand on my pistol in my pocket. ' Are yon 
responsitile lor it :-" I aski d. At tins I received 
a slap in the face from Noire, whf I drew ray 
revolver and tiled at biin. Fonvillc crouched 
bf h ind a chair, and, frnm the protection that 
TTfflirded. aimed bis r' volvcr at iiie, bo', hp 
oonid not get it to go elT. I tir.-d at him \(*iilc 
he was in that p.isitio , w bci he ran out of the 
room. He stopped in the next room, and ai-aln 
turned his pistol toward me. 1 tired at him 
again, a-.ul he fl"d." 

The Prince surrendi^red, and the J iirnal 
Official of the 1 Ith iiitl . contains a decree con- 
viikini_' the Chamlx^s fur the purpose ofbi in;;- 
ing action lielore the High Court of .lusticc to 
ecide upon the chirte of homicide against 
Prince Bonaparte. I'lie Pmcj, belonging to 
i mpTor's family, the cxamination.must be 



In 



in 



An uual ColIectioDH 

Our (icneral .\ssoinbly has appoinled the_fj; 
lowi g as (he times for the annual cfHl-ictions 
its benevolent 8chem''s: 

F. r Suslentatiou— On the tirst tal.bath 
Januiry. 

For Putili 'ation- On ihe lirst Sabbath 
March. 

For Foreign Missions— Ou the tirst Sabbath in 
May. 

For Education— On the lirst .-fabbat h in No- 
vcmlier. 

For tlie KelicI of Disabird Mr istcrs and the 
Widow s :ind Orphans of Deceased Minisicrs— . 
On the lirst Sabbath in July. 

In cases where it is highly inconvenient to 
take up collpcti'-i!S nn tliii-cdays, tjie As cinliiy 
enjoins that thcv shad betaken upas s ion as 
pos-lblc Ihereafitr. 



\)a Tu'. j 



PritgresH of KitnaliMm. 

There is one Pro'estaiit Episcopal Church 
in the Dioce-se of New York, where the of- 
ficiating clergyman teaches the Komaii Cath- 



FE.MAI.E .SUFFRAGE. 
The act of the Legislature of the Territory 
of Wyoming, iu reference to female suflVagc, 
which has been signed by the Governor, 
reads as follows: "Every woman of the age 
of 21 yeai-s, residing in "this Territory, may, 
at every election to beholden undcrthelaws 
thereof, cast her vote. And her right to the 
elective franchise and to hold ollice, shall be 
the same under the election laws of the Ter- 
ritory as those of male electors." 

CHINESE IN CALIFORNIA. 

From official statistics, it appears, that 
138,000 Chinese have come to California. 
Of these .'57,.3'23 have returned to China ; 10,- 
420 have died, and !»0,2.51 remain at var ous 
points on the Pacific co.ast. 

interesting gift. 
Mrs. Mary Ellet, of Philadelphia, last 
week presented the Pennsylvania Historical 
.Society with a c'.ock manufactured in Lon- 
don one hundred and thirty-fire years ago — 
said to keej) time now .as well as when it was 
first made — perhaos better. 

DEATH OP A MISER. 

A man named Lyman Allen, formerly 01 
Connecticut, aged over 70 years, was foum 
dead in his room at Taylor's Hotel, in Jersey 
City, op|)Osite New York city, last week. He 
h.ad been living here for several years ])ast, 
very peniiriously, occupying the cheapest 
room in the attic, and was supposed to be in 
very indigeutcircumstances. After his death 
over 160(1,000 was found in his old trunk in 



MTX PHOM ENGLAND— SKIZCRK OF HS. PSABIDY 8 
LAND. 

Late adv ces tiate that the Crown liasteized 
some land near .'-tockwi II, whi^ h bclorgi d 'o 
(Jeorge Pcabndy. The seizure Is made on the 
ground that Mr. Peabody was an alien, and had 
ne'er been naturalized as a subject of (ireat 
Uritain. Therefore be w i^ unable lo hold land 
in the kingdom. The Court of I'robale takes 
similar ground. 

ITTirTrONAL W^FKMEN's (XBIBITION. 

lay night, the lltb inst., a jilan for 
in International Workmen's Exliibition, to be 
held in London the c iiuiug summer, was m»- 
tiireil en, it a m'.eting over which Mr. Olad- 
bloue pii sideil. Agricultuial Hall h us been en- 
gsged for Ihe exhibition. 

KOr.TH BRITISH REVIEW. 

^_Thc Xorth llrilifh Review was established 
" aljout twenty-fi ve years ago, as the expound- 
er of the Free Church q^' it'cotland's views, 
"ffgrailually glided into the hands of the 
Broad Church of Scotland, (whatever that is) 
and it is now edited by a liberal Roman 
Catholic, of whom there arc a few in the 
world. 



MARRIED. 

In Shelby ville, K c r.tiK ky. on .laniiury 1 1th 
1870. bv the Kev. .Ti.hn S.' (iraslv. Limtcuant 
CHAULES P. HAllPKit lo Miss .JO.S1E AL- 
LbJN , youngest dauglilcr of Dr. .loscph Allen, 
deceased. 

In Athens, Tennessee, ou Thursday. .I inua 
ry 13th, bv the licv..). H. Jlirlin. .J' illN IL 
CAMP to Miss MAUV D. BUIDCES, i Idcst 
daughter ol the Hon. George W. Bridges. 

lu Portersville, Tennessee, bv the Rev C. M. 
Watson. December, 30th. IS09, K C, THOMP- 
,S0N. of Winnsboro, S. C, to Miss MOLLIE 
UlCKSON. 

On Deccmbjr 1st, IS'ltl, near Henderson, Ken- 
tucky, by th" Kev. W. A. Harrison, .JAMES 
OlJODLEY to Miss AMANDA M. CLAliK. 

Uv the same, in Henderson, Januarv 'ith, P 
C. APPLECrATE to Mies LOU M . .SOKCUTIO. 

On Sund-ay. March U h, 18G9 at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. .). B. Tucker. Hudson City, New- 
Jersey, bv the Itev. .Mr. Wardlaw of St. Paul's 
church. Hiids .n Cilv. WlLUUIt IICN I ISG- 
TON I'UoC I'O.t, son of Willi im li.andS. A. 
Pioclnr to FANNIE .1. .\l.(iEO. (1 iii-jbter of 
the late R M. \. Al;;eo, Esq., all ol New York. 
Cards. 




OBITUARY. 

Died near Paducah, Kentucky, on the tlth ot 
•ccember, IStiiL in the twenty-sixth year of his 
ge, W.   . LANDER, sin ol W. .1. Lander, of 
hristian county. 
Mr Lander w as a young man of promise and 
character— much esteemed by all who knew 



A NEGLECTED COl GH. COLD. OU SORE 
THRO\ T, 

which ini^ht be checked tiyn simp'e reni'idy. 
like •' liRow.N S Bhokcuial Tiiocnr.s." if al- 
lowed to progress in; y tei minute scrinualy For 
Hronchit s. Asthma, Ca'arrh, and t'onsnmptive 
are juj jl_;-Jlh ad 
ininicdialc relief" 
will tiiidthim also 
and render art ctila 

lion wonderfully easy 



of black- I Con.'ills, ■• Tbv TiiO f pes •• 711 
jiicncc ofT vantat-e, (.-ivini; ofle^ilimf s 
~, uoM, iT"f7ntiei^'"«';r» "'"^ public^pcakets 1 

■ Jtln.. 1,.! - .. I,- ,1 .1 'excellent locl  ar the \oicc an 



price: current. 

The foUowini; is a statement of the wholesale prices 
of the appeuded articles at the close of the last week. 
It f^tves the quotations in Louisville anil Itichnionil : 

The liirures i)Uotcd lielow are wholesale prices— re- 
tall are higher: 



LOUISVILLB. 


AKTICLKg. I 


KICUHOND. 


122 


Gold-Selling p^-e. 


122 


S 50 (..."  OU 


Apples V libl 


2 50 @6 00 


16 M I6 il 


Bacon— .sides, lb 


IS (a. 19 




•' —.shoulilers 


15l,(oi 15' . 


i» (4. 


" —Hams suKar-cur'il 


22 (« ii\ 


2 T5 (His 00 


Beans— Navy prime 


4 75 wl.l no 


I &U (SS no 


" — ('oiniuou 


1 .■'lO ( xi lui 


•27 (« 32 


Butter -Prime c'ntrv %i 11.. 


.30 In. .1.1 


•-•2  rt 26 


" — ('oiiinion to fair. . 


'20 (a 28 


S5 (a, 9) 


t'oriiineal— C'imiitry V ^ - 


MO 10; !I5 


IS «r ^24 


Coilee— Hlo,   Ih 


23 


31 W 34 


" —.lava 


34 (« 35 


!i3'.tl« 


Cotton— MiOilbui; f/ ll  




•lij^ii 28 


" — Low iniuilllng. . . 


....(4.... 


21,S,l.! 22 


•' — Orilinar)- 




Drieil Krnils— Apples 


ti (4 3 


6'»1* SJi 
24 ttt 'i6 


" •• —Peaches 


C (4 14 


KKRS. 

Hour— Family ¥ bhi 

" —Extra 


30 (4 33 


5 25 (n 7 '28 


7 00 


4 75 io5 •2S 


5 75 (A 


4 5i  (.i4 T.I 


" — .Siiperliiie 


5 25 (n^ 50 


1 11" (n.! 15 


Grain— Wheiit, ¥ bu 


I 20 (n.1 35 


77 (a' so 


" — (.'orii, slielleil 


S; (ni  15 


.VI «i! 57 


•' —Oats 


.Itf (4 


75 (4 SO 


" -Kye 


— (»" 


1!" I0.20 


Hay— Timothy.priinec'ton 


19 1422 


IS (n:19 


" — Ml.\e(l 


16 (»:I7 


17 (* ISV 


Lard, tl n. 


20 (d 


i^H i 5 


t.lve Stock — Beef, V 1'^ Str's 


4)v(4 8*4 


....(4.... 


" " -Pork, ^1 th net 


14  A 15 


....(^.... 


'■ '• — Sheep, Vl'igr's 


4I414 7 


46 (41 2  


.Mola.sses 


40 hi, SO 


29 (4 32 


Oil- Coal, V gal 


4(1 (4 45 


....(4.... 


Holaioes, V liu 


5i  (4 75 


8 s;i«- » Hi 


Itice, i* tl) 


9',il4 9  . 


2 Ul  in,3 01) 


Salt, large libls 


i 9J (43 IHI 


1 S5 «i4 (Ml 


Secils— liluegrass 


. . (a 


9 10 ( 49 25 


" —Clover 


9 00 (nM 


4 TS «46 O-l 


" — Timothy 


6 00 (1^ lo 


1 20 (41 80 


" -Orchard grass 


2 5) C4 


ll.-iw; 


Sugar— Xcw Orleans lb. 
'■ — Cnbx 


....14.... 


(A 


18 («  14 


151^(4 15 


" — Keliuuil \ 


14',(4.... 


14 ',14 15 H 


" — c 


14 (4.... 


13 (4 14S 


" — Yellow 


t2 i 4.... 


5 on (n;9 OU 


Tobacco- Lugs, V cwi 


5 50 (48 00 


10 (n il 76 


" — SInpiitng leaf. . . 


S 5) 1411 


....ti,.... 


" -Bright wrap'rs. 
Wool— U n w a s h e d and 


20 (40 1 


32 (« 50 


washed, 'i$Xi  


25 w 43 



CAI.DWKLL FKMALE IN.STlTl'rK 

D.tNViLLE, KENVUCKV, 

THE Tweutieth Session of this School will bej tn ou 
MONDAY, .lANl AUY 31ST, 1S70. 
Kur Calalogaes and Circulars, ivldress 

itEV. L. G. BARBOUK, Principal. 

jan19-4t 



'« T H K VICTORY" 

Clontaius rhc latest composltious Rn l a Steel Vi.ktk 
Ji'OKTKAlTOK W.M. H. BKADIU UV. It Is the favorite 
Church .Music liouk or this sea.-*oii. If yuu want the 
best, examine "TIJE VICTOKY" before purchaalitp. 
Sold everywhere. Price |1 .V) ; per (lozen |I3 rxt.  me 
copy sent for exaiiiinaliou for {1 

BKiLOW A MAIN, I'ulilishers, New York, 
Jal2 3t Successors tc wm. n. bkapbckv. 



vrcK's 

FLORAL GUIDE 

FOR 1870. 

THE FIRST EIIITION OF ONE Hr.VEltED AND 
TWENTY THOI SANU copies of Vick's llUlstrated 
Catalogue ol seeils and KUiral (iulde. Is published and 
reiuly to semi out. It is elegantly prluted ou Hue tint- 
ed paper, with about 2!H» line wool Engravings of 
Flowers and Vegetables, and a beaiiliriil Colored 
Plate— consisting of seven varieties of I'hlo.x Drum- 
moudli, making a line 

DOCiUBT OK P1IL0.XES. 

It is the most beautiful, as well as the most Instruc- 
tive ?'lorat Guide published, giving plain and Iho- 
roiigh directions for the . 

Cl'LTCKC OF FLOWERS AND VEUETABLE8. 

The Floral Guide is published for the beiiellt of my 
ciistt^mers, to whom it is sent tree without application, 
but will be forwarded to all who apply by mail for Tk.n 
Cents, which is net half the co.st. Address 

3t .lAMES VICK, Kocheiter, N. Y. 

AGENTS W2VNTED! 

GOD IN HISTORY! 

The Second Great Book of the age NOW UE.\DY. 
We hope lor this work a sale equal to the 

HANDWRITING OF GOD- 

Tht s^rand:si Subscri/ilion Book of 
modern limes. 

The above woi-ks, wl'h our I'lCTOKlAL BIBLE OF 
l.uiK) ILI.t.'Sri;.\TloNS, opens a Held ol surpassing 
richness to every kaknest wokkbk. 
Copies given to any person securing a good ,\gent, 
80 pages sent fret*. Address — staling Territory de- 
sired, ' (iOODSl'EEl) A CO.. 
US Lake St., CoicAoo. 37 Park Row, New York. tfA 

SITUATION WANTED. 

A LADY' whose home has been broken up I».v the tleath 
of her rehuiveH, wants to obtain a ttituati'on as  ;ov- 
enie«.s in some fannly in one of the Southern ^iates. 
She teaches Music, 'and has ha l con.siderable expe- 
rlenee In Southern faniiliua. She wouM be prepare l to 
enter upon the (iuties of a family school about the lirst 
of Jauuarv. AiMreH8 Miss "JM. I* '— No. 613 Green 
street, Philadelphia, I'm Dec. lfi,4w. 



^ WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 

^ LEXINGTON VA. 

FACULTY . 

General R. E. LEE. President. 

CAKTFR J. H AUKIS, A. M., Professor of Latin. 
JA.\USS J. Wiin E, A. M., Professor of (Jreek. 
EDWAKD S. JOY.NKS, A. .M., Prof. Modem Ijjuguagea. 

' Prolessor of English. - 

RKV. .7. L. K1KKPATRICK,D. U., Prof. Moral Philos- 
ophy. 

WM. PRESTON JOHNSTON, A. M.. Prof. History and 

English Literature. 
ALEXANDER L. NELSON, A. M., Prof. Mathematics. 
WILLIA.M ALI^\N. A. M., Prof. Applied .Mathematics. 
RICHARD S. Mcculloch, a. M., Prof. Natural Phi- 
losophy. 

■rOHN L. CAMPBKLI, A. M., Prof. CliemlBtry. 

t Prof. Ajiplied Chemlatrr. 

Hon. .1. W. nROCKENBROUOH, LL. 1)., Prof. Ijiw. 
M W. llUMPIlItEYS, .\.M.,Asa t. Prol. Latin and Greek 
KODES MASSIK, A. ,M., Ass t Prof. Mod. Languages. 
DUNCAN C. LYLE, A. M., Asi't Prof. Matheniatlcs. 
CHARLES A. ORA VES, A. M„ Ass't Prof. EngUsh. 
E. liERKELEY, Ass t ProL Ap. Mathematics. 
JOSEI'U IS. WALKER, Ass t Prof. Chenustry, and 
Principal of Business School 



•For the present, the instruction In English Is divided 
among the Professors of Moral Philosophy, Modem 
Languages, and History, with the aid of an AsslstttD 
Prol'essoi. 

tThe duties of this Chair are discharged by the Pro- 
fessors of Chemistry and Natural PhilosopXy. 

A.CADEMICAL COURSE. 

The student selects his own course of study, nnder 
the advice of his Parents or of the Faculty. The several 
Schools arc so arranged as to ailniit of a complete 
course of study in the following directions : 

1. Di'partment ol .\rt8, to which is attached the De- 
gree of IIACUKIAIK OK .^RTS. 

■i Department of Science- with the Degree of Bach- 
KI,OIt ofSciknce. 
3. Department of Philo80|»liy— with the Degree of 

BAC71KI.0R OK PllIlXlSOI'UV. 

The Degree ot Mastkk of Aktb Is conferred on .Sla 
dents who have completed the course of study in eight 
of the Schools, and have taken the highest dlsttnctTon 
in seven of these. 

2. PROFESSIONAL COUR.SES. 

L Pi I iriiii. nl of CIvU Englneerlng—wlth the Diplo- 
ma (-'' VEEK. 

! ■ r Mining Engineering — vlth tbeDl- 

■ ' ' INKEK. 

' a .'t'.' - jfq g . ' t'' ir)» jj^i i ilny— - 

; ;tier to extend the practical 

and ^cu-iitiilc l)c[i,u iiiii:nts in the direction of 

1. Mecliauical liMglneering. S, Applied Ohemlatry 
3. Agriculture. 4. Commerce. 

3 PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. 

This course embraces the subjects of Latin, Oreek, 
Mathematics and English, preparatory to the regular 
College classes. 

4. Student's Bnsiuess SchooL 

In this School Penmanship, Bookkeeping, Accounts, 
4c, are taught, under the authority of the Faculty. 
SPECIAL PRIVILEGES AND HONORS. 

,\s special luduceinents to diligence, three Gold Med- 
als and live Honorary Scholar.slil[is, the latter covering 
tuition and College fees, are auiuially awanled. 

Three Masters of Arts are auiiu'allv appointed as 
"Resident Masters," with valnabie privileges and emol- 
uments. 

The CollPire educates, free of i harge, all candidates 
for the Ministry, properly recommended. It appoints 
to free SclioUrships, twenty-live young men intending 
to make jouriialisiu their profession. It gives a long 
credit to meritorious young men without means. 

The ne.\t session opens on the 16th of Sept., and closes 
on the ^sth of .lunc. 

Necessary exiienses need not exceed $326 per annum. 

For further Information address .1. M. LEECH, 
Clerk of Faculty, Lexington, Va. 



CHRISTIAN OBSERVER, 

AND 

FREE CHRISTIAN COMMONWEALTH, 

FOR 1870. 

The Christian Observer and Com 
MONWEALTH 18 devotcd to the princi- 
ples of a Christianity pure and uncontani- 
inated by any alliance or support from 
civil power — to tbe true principles of 
Presbyterian ism. 

The paper has been so long known to 
most of the former readers of the Obser- 
ver, and has been received with tokens 
of suoh cordial approbation by those of 
the Free Christian Comivionwealtii, 
that the editors deem it unnecessary to 
make any extended promises as to the 
manner in which it will be conducted. 
In its discussions of questions of interest 
and importance to our clergy and people, 
it will be our study to present the /rti//i 
in lort. Its summary of intelligence of 
those things that affect the welfare of the 
Presbyterian Church iu the United 
States will be full, including outlines of 
the proceedings of Presbyteries and 
Synods iu all parts of the Church. Its 
department for the " Home Circle" re- 
ceives a great deal of attention and im- 
parts many useful and interesting lessons 
to the 3'oung folks. 

It contains every week hiuts of practi- 
cal value to the house and on the farm, 
aod will furuisb weekly reports of " the 
markets. While the general news of 
the day will receive a passing notice, 
the readers of the paper may feel se- 
cure that uoihiiig wiill appear in the 
news columns to offend the most fas- 
tidious taste. The advertising columns 
themselves will be found of practical 
utility. 

The high reputation that the Obser- 
ver enjoyed for the system and accuracy 
of the mailing dei)urtmenl — which se- 
cured its regular receipt in communities 
where frequent complaints of mail irreg- 
ularities were heard — will be maintain- 
ed. And all that persevering industry 
can accomplish will be done to continue 
to merit the high encomiums which have 
been frequently bestowed. 

To secure the active co operation of 
thousands of its readers — the following 
inducemeuts are offered. It would be a 
source of much graliticatioo if every sub- 
scriber iu forwardiug payment, would 
accompany it with the iiaiaus of one or 
more new sub.si;riber.-i. 

PREMIUMS 

FOE NEW SUBSCRIBERS. 

We will send the paper fir one year to one 
old and one new subscriber lor 

23, instead of 
One old and two new •iiLscilbtrs tor 

i7 25, iu.-;todd of $9. 
One oldan-l three new 8ut .scribers lor 

*9 00, instead of *12. 
One old and seven new subscribers lor 

$1G OU, instead of 
One old and lllleen new subscribers lor 

$30 UU, in-teai of f j 
Ur in lieu of the above ctsh r.ilcs, rtj 
lurnlBh either of the followini,' prciuiuj 
Church and Parlor Orj 
Mason iV- Hamlin's Cabinet arjj 
Organs are piououaced Ih^ 
in the world by two liiij 
cntisiciaus in thij 
of Uve octave* 
m»er Ih'lrliir 



TWO D8L1GIITKUL NEW MUsIC BOOKS 

FOR H O J  I D A V PRESENTS 

PIANOFORTE GEMS. 

A New collection of tlie latest ravaril« .\octurnes. 
Waltzes, Polka.s, Marches. fS -hottisches, Redowas, 
Four-hand Pieces, &c.. Just issneil In one Look com- 
plete. 

T U E \V R E A T II O K G E M S. 

A New collection ol the most popular Songs, Ballads, 
and Duets, of the d.ay. with au accomp. for the Pieno- 
forte. Price of e.at ti, lioard.s, 5 i ; Cloth, full gill, 
t  DO. Sent postpaid on rccel|it of I'rice. DITSON i 
CO., Publishers, 277 Washlngtou .^t., Boston, ill 
llro.idwav, New York. 

Just Published— CM RlSrM AS CAROI-S, Old and New. 
Nineteen Carols frfim the itermau Engllsli, 3S cents, 
jana tf 

r. B KkLLoaa. .i. w uibson. 

* KKLLOtlG & GIH.SON. 
Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
CHINA, GLASS, EARTUEXWARK, 

and HOUSE PURNLSllING GOODS. 
No. 1207 Main street, Richmond, Va. 

We have removed to the large and elegant Store late- 
ly occupied by Messrs. llutler & Son, where, with In- 
creio^lug facilities and a iiiucli larger sto -k, we are pre- 
pared to oifer toour Iriends and the (lublic, a complete 
assortment of goods in our line, at very low prices. 

WUh grateful thanks lor the very liberal patronage 
extended to us heretofore, we respectfully solicit a 
conUuuauce. KELLOGG A GIBSON, 

No. 1S07 Main street. Eagle Square. 

Oct. 1 tf 

JOHJS A. BELVIK, 

CABINET MANUFACTURER, 

AMD 

U jy IJ E R T Ji K E n . 

AOBWT fob FISK'S UUUIAL CASE.S, 

No. 1215 Broad St., bet. 13th and I4th, 
Jani!3-tl i 



UICHiloNU, V A. 



THE VICTORY. 

NEW CUURCII MUSIC. 

ASK FOrt 

"THE VICTORY" 

AT YOI R BOOlvSTORE. 



The .'eiiiand for the " VICTORY " has been so great 
that the lirst edit ion— the largest ever printed ola new 
Ciuin^h .Music Hook— is already exhaustetj, leaving our 
orders only partially lilled. Tiie second edition is be- 
ing pushed forwani rapidly, and will be ready diirlug 
the present wt^k. 

"THE VICTORY" 

IS JUST WHAT Yoi: NEED KOR VOl'R CHOIR, 
SINGING-SCUOOL AND UO.ME CIRCLE. 

Remember! "THE VICTORY " contains 

the Latest Compositions, and a 

Steel Portrait of the late ff'illiam H. 

Bradbury. 

The Singing Class Department, In Its simplicity, com- 
prehensivene.sR ami style, t-urpasses anything hereto- 
fore publishe(L 

Price, Single Copy, $1.50; per Doz., $13.50. 

Until Dec 1st,, Clergymen, Choristers and Teachers 
?rlll be supplied with cue copy, (jiost paid) for examina- 
tion, on receipt of ll.iUk 

BIGLOW k MAIN, Publishers, New York, 
Soccessors to W'M. B. Bkadburt. dec,! tf,w 

MUTUAL ASSURANCE SOCIETY, 

OF 

^' I R G I N I A . 

INCOKI'ORATEO 179 4. 
Ortlcc corner of Tenth and Bank streets, Richmond, 
Virginia. 

Insures buildings tiy perpetii^l or annual policy. 
U. A. CLAlltOKNK, .INO. B. DANFORTH, 

Principal .'\gent, ' Secretary. 

HENIi&B.DANI-Oimi, .SvM'I. H. PULLIAM, 

Jal4«m A».'-istantSecret«rj. Collector. 





or a Iccturc-rooffl 
one with six stops for \ 
?17fi ; Cabinet Origans withl 
the Vo.ic Hiiiniiuu, for $170- aiiiT^ 
struuients at all prices. Au illiis 
logue, sbowiut; them, will be furnisiTf 
plication. 

For 20 new subaoribers. paying $3 ev.ch, 
we vvill give a credit on anv or^ai. sclcc- 
tcit of oi^_ 
For W new subscribers, a credit of -lo on " 

40 " •' " " «.■) o;i 

 i O'l •' •• '•  • »5 00 

TbeOrjfan will be shipiied Orora New York. 
Coiuinnnion Hets. 

For3 l now sub.scribers, piyi.i: tiirue dollars 
each, a liaiid»onie eoiiiiuuiiion service, heavily 
silver-plated, coiisistmy ol pieo-)s, viz: a 
Flagon, UaptisintI bowl, two fjobleUs anil two 
plates. These sets are manulactured by Inc 
Meriden Brittania Company -the platiiifr will 
last lor many years. These are Uirnished by the 
hou e of J. I. Lemon Co.. I oiiisville, or Kel- 
lojcg & Gibson, Itichniond. 

For 15 iie« subscribers, a similar service, made 
of britlanr.ia or white metal. Bui uot plat d. 
Hymn Books Tor New i^ubscriberM. 

We will so ld by ma:l, postpaid, a copy of the 
New liyran Book ol our Church, to any one 
who will obtain and send us one Niw subscriber 
with payinc.1t (Wj for one year in advanci;. 
Sunday School Libraries. 

Any books tint may be ordered for the Sun- 
day School or lauiily will be furnished as pre- 
miums lo the extent ol One Dollar's worth lor 
every new subscriber. 

Suii(h )b Barnuiu'H Bible Dictionary 

This rich and valuable woik, coutaiiiiu!: I,- 
234 octavo liagcs, will be sent,— bound ia mus- 
lin, price 86, for four new siiliscribers; bound in 
library sheep, price 6, for five, and in half mo- 
rocco, price '..W, for pix new subscribcis, who 
pay $3 each for one year. 

Th.ise sending us new subscribers will please 
notify us what premiums thr-y wish. They will 
be I.Twarded by expics-i un'es.? otherwise or- 
derrd. 

Send for extra copies to circulate 
among your friends. They will be fur- 
□ isbed without charge. Send the request 
for them to the office in Loui^ritte. 



. CHRISTIAN OBSERVER 

AND 

FHEECHKISriASi COIMMON )V EA LTH. 

Is Published eveky Wednesday. 
OFFICK3 : 



KiCHHONO. Va., 

I'iU Main street. 



Loni8Tii.L», Kt., 
7-t Fourth street. 



TKXtMS.— ThbkiUollab* i er annum, if faid 

WITH IM TBI FIE8T TWO MOKTHSOfthe SUbScrip 

tlon year, or Foub Dollars if pay Tt^.4j,«_^g^^ 
layed. , 

No paper to be discontinued until an erpu. 
oil order to that effect le received at tbo office ot 
publication and arre*rages paid. 

PoBTAOJ.- Five cent* s qu i:t r paya le la 
advanc at the office where tue puper isrecened. 

AnvEBTioKMBNTfl.— No advertisemcnts pub- 
lished e.tcepl subject to the condition that it 
the advertiser fails honorably to satisfy every 
reasonable expectation that he .-iv.akens, the 
readci» ol the Obskevkk are, al the oplicn oi 
tae Kditors, lo be cautioned agaiusi hiui. A 
circular, coatainiiig a tabular sta'.emcut ot 
TiKMS, w ill bo lorvvarded on applic-iliou. They 
are very nearly asloLows : 

For a tingle insertion, lUw a line. 
For twoto lour luseriious, 12c a Hue each lime. 
" one to three mouths, lOj '• " 
" three to six " tic " " •' 
'• more than ■• •' bo •' '  
An inch iu length ol tbe column will be count- 
ed as 1-' lines. Advertisements will be inserted, 
either in that portion ol the edition which circu- 
lates Kast ot the Alleghanies, or in that wh.cb 
circulate- Weal of them, for five-k:ouih8 of 
the above rates. 

Ubitcabiu over ten lines In lengiu Mill b« 
charged at the rate ol 7.5 cents for everj inch iu 
length down the olumu. About tifty words 
make au Inch. I'ayment Ihould accompany the 
notice. 

KKMITTANCKS.— The figures opposifj the"^ 
name ou the addre.ss label, show to what time 
the subscription has been credited. Ii th'y 
should uot be changed within a lew weeks after 
a payment is forwarded, please nolily the etli- 
tors. Make payments to local ai^ents, or send 
checks, or poslollice money-orders, or encloso 
the money in a rkoistkbed letter. If neither ot 
these precautions be observed, the money is at 
the risk of the sender. , 

Communications and letters on b^|^^Atfl^BH| 
be addrested to ^^^^^^^^^H 
C  ) .'^^^^^^^H 
LoiriSTii.i^^^^^^^^^^H 



r 



HHl8TiA.\ OB8ERVEK AM COMMONWEALTa JANUARY 19, 1«T0 



For the Observer ami Commonwealth. 

HOW PAPER IS MADE. 

Saturday night — and Eddie drew him- 
self to his father's chair and reminded 
him of his promise to tell him something 
about paper and the printing ( ffice — 

"O yes," said his father, " and I will 
commence with how they make white 
paper. Do you know what paper is made 
of?" 

" Yef, it's made of rags. ' 

"You are right. It is generally made 
of rags— of cotton or linen, sometimes of 
straw, sometimes of corn shucks, some- 
times of wood." 

" What a funny thing paper made of 
wood must be, I'd like to see some such 
paper.'' 

" 1 dare say, you've often seen it, and 
did not know it from paper made of 
rags." 

" Why how funny, and how does that 
look which is made of straw and of corn 
shucks." 

" It looks so much like paper made of 
rags, that no person can tell the differ- 
ence until he has examined it carefully 
and the difference has been pointed out 
to him." 

" I« paper ever made of anything 
else?" 

'* Yea, it is sometimes made of silk 
rags. The paper that ' greenbacks' and 
bank notes arc printed on is made of silk 
rags; and sometimes it is made of old 
ropes and old printing paper, and some- 
times of parchment shavings." 

"Well, that is funny. I thouglil pa 
per was never made of anything but cot- 
ton rags — and now, whenever I put on a 
paper collar, I shall be sure to think I've 
got a rope around my neck. So it i^n't 
very comfortable always to know a great 
deal, is it?" 

Mr. Hardy Fmiled, but he went on. 
•'You may rest assured on that score, 
for in the collars you wear, they don't 
put anything but old linen rags. The 
paper that is made from linen rags is a 
a good deal firmer than the paper made 
from cotton. See the paper of this Fam- 
ily Kiblc; see how strong it looks. That 
is made of linen rags, and moat of the 
old books that have your grand-father's 
name in, though they do look brown and 
old, have good strong linen paper in them. 
Now-a days, they don't print ordinary 
books on as good paper as they used to." 
" Why don't they?" 
"Because linen rags are becoming 
scarcer, and people read more books than 
they used to, and people don't have linen 
rags enough so that the paper-makers 
can use them. So they only print the 
most expensive books on linen paper." 

" How many pounds of rags do they 
use to make paper of? 

"I don't know. But I do know this, 
that the people of the United States do 
not make rags enough for the paper-ma- 
kers of this country — so they have to 
bring rags from foreign countries to make 
paper of. It may be that that paper 
which you were just now reading was once 
the old coat of an Italian beggar boy, 
or it may have oace been the Pope's 
pocket handkerchief." 
" Well, that queer." 
" Yes, and I'll tell you something else 
that is curious, too. Of the rags which 
are bought by the paptr-makers in some 
of the large cities, they prefer and pay a 
lier price for cotton rags from one 
of the city, than for cotton rags from 
pr part of the same city." 
is that ?" 

Lof the city is chiefly inhab- 
anrthor r..i-'. ' 



fags from the German quar- 
ts a general rule they are 
eaacst and need less bleaching to 
le good paper. German rags are even 
'cleaner, so my paper-maker once told me, 
than American rags ?" 

" But how do they make paper out of 
rags ?" 

"Having gathered the rags together in 
grea bales, they take them to the 
paper mill, and there they are hoisted up 
to a room where they are sorted. This 
is done by boys and girls. The linen rags 
are put in one heap, the white cotton rags 
in anfitber, the colored rags in another, 
and the old rope in another. The rags of 
one kind are then put into a hopper, and 
a wheel goes round and round very swift 
ly, and this wheel has a great many teeth 
on it, and revolves so fast you can't see 
the teeth; and these teeth tear the rags 
up into very little bits. Then these torn 
bits of rags are taken, a good many hun 
dred pounds of them at once, and put into 
a very lar^je iroui pot, which has a tight 
cover to it, and which seems to be lying 
on its side. This iron pot is as big as the 
room we are sitting in; and then they 
close up the door of the pot — the door is 
on the side and closes very tight. They 
call this pot a boiler; and they let steam 
go into the boiler, and then the boiler 
turns around on its axis just like a big 
water-wheel, and the steam and some 
bleaching powders they have in the boiler 
bl«ach the rags and get the coloring mat 
ter all loosened. Then after they have 
done that for awhile they stop the big 
boiler and take the rags out and put them 
in a great tub which they call a rag 
engine. This tub has a board fixed up in 
the middle of it, and the rags are kept 
sailing around the board; at one place in 
the tub they have the frame-work of a 
wheel or drum, which has wooden ends 
and sides of wire work, so fine that water 
can pass through but rags can't. The 
water with some of the dirt is drawn off. 
In every paper mill you will see several 
of these rag engines. The first one haa 
pulp of a dirty yellowish brown color; in 
the next one the pulp is not so dark; in 
the next one it looks whitish; in the next 
one nearly white, and in the last one it 
ia as whits as snow." 

"I know why that is, papa. It's be- 
ocu • the rags pass from one tub to the 
uexi: tub, and they gradually get all the 
dirt taken from them. When I've been 
playing in the garden, and come in to 
wash my hands, I wash them first in one 
basin of water, and when that looks dark 
I don't try to make my hands clean in 
it. I empty it out and get some fresh 
water, and in that way, by washing in the 
clear water afterwards, I can make my 
hands very clean.'' 

"Thats very well said, and now comes 
the prettiest part of all in paper making. 
The pulp flows through a pipe into a long 
one-story bouse where there is a machine 
called a Foudrinier (pronounced Foo- 
drinia) machine, and there the milk 
white pulp tails on the machine at one 
end of the room, in a beautiful little 
waterfall ; then it goes on like a brook of 
milk six or eight feet further, and it falls 
again, and as it flows along it becomes 
gradually whiter and soon it looks like 
wet white newspaper laid on a table; then 
it passes between some rollers that are 
kept hot by steam ; then it passes along 
and up and down over some more rollers, 
and then it comes out beautiful white, 
dry paper, all rolled up in a big roll. 
They can make these rolls of paper just 
as big as they can handle. They oould 
print on one of these rolls, a newspaper a 
mile long if they wanted to." 

"I'd get tired before I read a newspa- 
per that big, papa." 

"Well, instead of tiiking the trouble 
kup theie big rolls, they generally 



have a machine attached to the b'g ma 
chine that hns some knives fattened to a 
wheel, and these knives are so fixed that 
as the wheels revolve, they cut out the 
sheets of paper just the size they want 
them. Then the sheets are folded into 
bundles and tied up and sent to the print- 
ers." 

'•That's first-rate, papa. How I would 
like to see the big machine that fills the 
house, the foo — foo — 

'■The Foudrinier machine. Well, I'll 
take you to see it some day." 

"And now, I know all ahont how psper 
is made, I'm so gla.l." Papa. 

THE SWEET STORY OF OLD. 

" I THINK, When I rea l tliat sweet .stury of old. 
When Jesus was here among men, 

How he called little children as lambs to his fold ! 
I ibould like to have been with him then. 

I wish that his hands had been placed on my 
head. 

That his arms had been thr \\a arouiid me, 
And that I might have seen his kind look w hen 
he said, 

• Let the little ones come unto me." 

Tet atill to his rootstool in prayer I may co, 

And ask Tor a share in his love ; 
And if I thus earnestly seek biin below, 

I shall see him and hear hini above, 

In that beautiful place he has gane to prepare, 
For all who are washed and forgiven ; 

And many dear children are gatheiing there, 
For oftueh is the kingdom of heaven." 



For the Observer and Commonwealth. 

"WELL DONE, BOYS." 

Many years ago there was a militia 
colonel in western Pennsylvania, who 
was very popular with his regiment. lu 
those days very little was expected of the 
militia. It was in part taken for granted 
that the yearly reviews were no more 
than regular holidays, when and where 
the male citizens between eighteen and 
forty-five, we can not say citizen soldiers, 
formally acknowledged their fealty to 
the state, and had a good time generally. 

But it was always remarked on these 
occasions that Col. U.'s regiment was 
much superior, in both drill and appear- 
ance, to any of the others. Besides 
this, they always showed greaj, enthusi- 
asm for their Colonel, and wh^Aever he 
rode up in front, whether a-I^K or in 
company with other officers, he was sure 
to be saluted with loud cheers. Indeed, 
there is little doubt but that they would 
have followed their leader even into bat- 
tle, so much had he their s/mpathy and 
confidence. 

All this was very plain to any observer; 
but the reason of it was understood but 
by few. It was attributable to the Col- 
onel's general good nature and pleasing 
manners, but more to the special pains 
he took to ohterve and commend earnest 
effort! and partial success. He let no 
occasion pass unimproved, and always 
had a pleasant word or smile for the de- 
serving. Even mistakes and failures, 
where better was intended, were oftener 
met with an apology than a reproof. 
" Well done, boys," was the usual greet- 
ing to the well-meant efforts of his men ; 
while their failures were only noticed in 
this way : " Not so bad, not 60 bad. 
Let us try and do better next time." 
And in this way encouragement was al- 
ways mingled with instruction, and cheer- 
fulness and hope were ever prodomiuact 
in the mind.s of the men. 

We often think if parents would pur- 
sue this course with their children, suc- 
cess would oftener attend their efforts to 
instruct them in their duties, and the 
welfare and happiuess of h'Ah be pro- 
moted. 

Parents, and especially fathers, sup- 
pose you try the Colonel's method, and 
" \ ' -TP'''" Tf ^;ii K„ 

than to punish, whioli is painlful to both 
parent and child, or to scold, which is 
pernicious to both. Try it. 

Delaware. 



said, ' but it i- not right to day; I want 
you forrayc'iief of staff, in this class, so 
put thosa away, and G:id niy place for me, 
«hi!e I am writii g down jour names." 

Feeling a new sense of responsibility, 
the little "chief rif staff ' found the place 
in his teacher's Bible. The lesson for 
tne day was on the '-new commandment," 
and the little fellows listened with close 

attention as Mis.s C called it the 

eleventh, and bade them think often of 
the. Saviour's law of love. 

'•Frank Turner has turned ov'jr a new 
leaf bince he left my class,'' observed Mr. 
Kemp to the superintendent a few weaks 
after. "I wish I knew .Nli.si r!.'s secret 
tor managing unruly boys." 

"I think it is a very simple one," said 

the superintetideiit. ".Miss C has 

learned that love is the fulfilling of the 
law. Her loving persuasion has done 
more for Frank tban our stern authority . 
Let us hope that she will be able to lead 
him to Je.sus, the cverloving." — Sunday 
School Timti 



"I WANT TO BE A MINISTER" 

More than a century ago there lived 
in England an orphan boy with promising 
talents, who often said, "I witit to be a 
miaL-iter;" but having no mor ey to carry 
out the great desire of his heart, his 
youthful spirit was often bowed to the 
earth by disappointed hope. 

Oace a wealthy lady offered to pay the 
expenses at school if he would study and 
become a minister in her Church ; but the 
boy loved the Church of his fathers, and 
could not be induced to leave his spirit- 
ual mother; so he respectfully declined 
the lady's kind offer. 

So, afterward he visited a learned min- 
ister of his own church, aud asked the 
good pastor's advice in regard to study- 
ing for the ministry ; but here he obtained 
no encouragement at all. Now the 
friendless boy went to God, and while he 
was entCBged in lervent prayer the mail- 
carrier knocked at the door of his closet 
and handed him a letter from a friend of 
his father, with an offer to assist him in 
his studies for the ministry. 

Thus his desire was gratified, and he 
became one of the most useful ministers 
of England. Hi.snamewas Pl,i;iip Dod- 
dridge. We commend this example to 
all our readers. The Lord wftts many 
ministers. Great numbers who are now 
boys must soon preach the gospel. Let 
every hoy ask this question, whether he 
should not engage in this work. We 
should be concerned boih about the duly 
of serving the Lord and how we should 
serve him. If it is a boy's duty to enter 
the ministry, he should strive hard to 
enter it as well as he should strive hard to 
enter heaven, and he should pray for the 
Lord's guidance in the one case as well 
as he should pray for it in the other. 



THE LAWILOt'E. 

HOW TO CONTROL AN UNRULY BOY. 

"That boy disturbs the peace of the 
whole class," exclaimed Mr. Kemp, as he 
pointed to a restless little fellow at one 
end of the seat. "Sit still, sir,'' he add- 
ed sternly as the boy, who really seemed 
to be all hands and feet, began to drum 
with the one, and beat a tattoo on the 
bottom of the seat with the other, 

"lam about forming anew class for 

Miss C ,'' replied the superintendent, 

looking somewhat sadly at the perplexed 
teacher. "Shall I take Frank Turner 
and give him to her ?" 

"I don't think a lady can manage him," 
said Mr. Kemp, "but I confess I should 
like to have him away from these good 
boys." 

So Frank was duly^placed in Miss 
C 's class. The superintendent de- 
tained Mr. Kemp a moment after school 
to make a suggestion. 

"Say nothing to Miss C about her 

scholar. I want him to have a fair 
chance with her, and begin with a white 
record." 

iMiss C — — , a fair, sweet young lady, 
calm and gentle in her mein, took her 
seat on the next Sunday, in the middle 
of her class, six restless little people, 
with eager eyes looking at her, ready to 
drink in her teachings; six immortal 
souls that should live forever. Putting 
up a silent prayer for help to Him who 
is able to give it, she began her work. 
Frvnk, his black eyes dancing with fun 
and mischief, attracted her attention first. 
He had a pocket full of little paper balls, 
which he was slyly throwing here and 
there. He was just aiming one at Mr. 
Kemp's head, when Miss C — ■ — 's little 
gloved hand was laid gently on his own. 
"That is very good fun, Frank," she 



THE OPEN DOOR. 

" Behold. I hive set bsf)ro thee an open 
door." Kcv, 3:} . 

A poor widow lived in a Highland 
glen. Her only child had w..ndcred from 
her into one of the cities of Sc Ulanll, 
and was there leading a life of sin. The 
mother went after her lost one; the 
daughter relented, and was returning to 
her home. But temptation assailed her 
by the WMy, and she went back to her old 
haunts. The desolate mother returned 
to her cottage alone; and yet she was not 
alone, for she called on the widow's God. 
He was entreated of her. As she sat 
one sleepless night, watchinp the decay- 
ing embers of her scanty fire, she heard 
a footfall on the floor. She turned at the 
sound. It was her repentant child ! 

The first glad surprise and full confes- 
sion over — " How came it, mother," said 
the daughter, '"that at this late and 
lonely hour I found the latch of the cot- 
tage unfastened ?" 

"That latch has never been fastened, 
day or night, since you left me," was the 
mother's reply. " I feared that if you 
came, and found it fast, you might have 
turned away for ever." A mother's for- 
giveness, a mother's welcome, were ex- 
pressed in that open door. 

This touching incident illustrates the 
gospel of the grace of God. 

The lesson ol the entire law of Moses, 
a lesson taught by God himself for fif- 
teen hundred years, was, that no unelean 
creature might by any means come near 
to him. Sin is our uncleanness. And 
sin, if not put away, would have proved 
a closed door — a door which we never 
could have opened, thongh we had spent 
our strength on it forever. '• But now 
once, in the end of the world," we read, 
" hath he [Christ] appeared to put away 
sin by the sacrifice of himself." (Ileb. 
9:26.) Aud his mission accomplished 
its object; a sacrifice so costly was not 
offered in vain ; sin, that barrier between 
sinful man aud his God, is there no 
longer. We are all invited to draw near; 
the fact of our being sinners ia no hin- 
derance in our path ; in the precious blood 
of an atoning Sacrifice, there is forgive- 
ness for all sin. The word of the blessed 
gospel is thus a word of universal ii vi- 
talion. It proclaim.s an open door ; and 
that whosoever will may enter. 

The widow's child did not stand with- 
out, crying, " Mother, unlatch the door." 
A mother's love had done that, while 
she was far away. She found the door 
unfastened, and went freely forward. 
Even 60, before our repentance, before 
our prayers, before we had a being, the 
mighty work of redemption was done. 
" When Jesus had received the vinegar, 
I be said, It i= finishi^l : and },a Viownd his 
id, and up f. : ti ly: 

^ 3u.) Let us pass in, tneu, . h th"? 
unfastened door. '-Hiving boldness to 
enter into the holiest by the blood of 
Jesus, let us draw near." (Heb. Ill: 19.) 
Let us seek the Lord "while he may be 
found ;" let us "call upon him while he 
is near." (Isa. 55: (5) It is our wis- 
dom, yea, our eternal life. 

We have another reason for this '• bold- 
ness." When the repentant wanderer 
passed through the unfastened door, she 
found a mother behind it. Aud we fiud 
a Father behind the cross of Christ. The 
cross is the way to the Father. How 
beautif ul is this expressed in the words, 
" to enter into the holiest by the blood 
of Jesus!"' The holiest in the Jewish 
temple was the nearest possible approach 
to God. The "outer court" was near ; 
the " holy place" was nearer; but the 
"holiest" was hi» very presence. The 
ark uf his covenant, the mercy-seat, his 
glory, were all there. To enter into the 
hjliest DOW, is not therefore to come to 
God as a master ; neither is it to come to 
him as a friend. Both are near, but 
there is a nearer. It is to come as Je 
sus himself came, crying, " Abba, Fath- 
er." (Gal. 4:li.) To make us partakers 
of this, his own blessedness, t e Sou of 
God laid down his precious life. He 
would have us draw near, as he drt'w 
near, and call upon God as he calfed 
upou him; " My Father," he says, '  and 
your Father; ray God aud your God." 
(John 20: 17 ) 

The unlatched door revealed the moth- 
er's heart. It was the expressi.in of its 
unfailing compassion — uf its warm and 
abundant welcome. And the cross of 
Christ, in like manner, has laid tare be- 
fore ui the heart of tlie blessed uod We 
have spoken of the door which Jesus 
opened. It cost him bis life to open it. 
He " put away sin by the sacrifice of 
himself. " And he who thus loved us, 
iind gave himself up for us, is " the im- 
age of the invisible God." (Col. 1:15) 
The giving of the Son of his k ve to die in 
our stead reveals the Father's heart. We 
may well have boldness to return to him, 
saying, " Father, we have sinned." And 
if we distrust these slippery hearts, 
knowing too well that they "go aside 
like a deceitful bow," let us not therefore 
despair. There is yet hope for the lu- 
ture, fur he will be our help. Ouly let 
us seek that help, saying each one for 
himself, " My Father, be thou my guide." 

But some perhaps will say, ' ' Tell us of 
our duties; it is enough if we discharge 
them; we need not to be told of a Savi- 
our's cj;pss." True, the discharge of duty 
is enofll^ ; but let us understand what 
duty is. " This is the work of God, that 
ye believe on him whom he hath sent." 
(John (i: 29) The widow's child did 
not say, while in the great city, " I will 
abide here, aud do my duty." Con- 
science told her, " Your first duty is to 
go home." And she obeyed its voice. 
Once there, all was right. A mother's 
loving smile encouraged her: she re- 
turned that love by her daily affectionate 
ministry ; she smoothed that injured par- 
ent's way to a better and happier world 
Our first duty, in like manner, is to go 
home. And this we can do only by be- 
lieving and following the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Let us then wander no longer 
from the blessed God ; let us know him as 
a Father ; let us believe in his forgiving 
love, as shown in the gift of his Son to 
die for us. All else will then be right 
with us, 88 respects both God and man. 
We shall do God's will as his dear chil- 
dren ; we shall seek man's welfare with 
the affectionate solicitude of brethren. 
To be led to God as a Father through 
the opened door of Calvary , is to find " the 
blessing, even life forevermore." (Ps. 
133 : 3.) 

Be it your prayer and mine then, be- 
loved friend, that he may thus speak to 



us, thus deal with our heaj^i^ thus seal w 
as his own. " 'f ye, beitip- evil, know 
how to give good gifts unto your chil- 
dren, how mucfi more shall your Heav- 
enly Father give the Holy Spirit to them 
tha'. ask him ! " 



farm aatj ^nm. 



THE CROPS OF LAST YEAR. 

Tug following facts an 1 estimates re- 
specting the jie'd of corn, cotton and 
t()'.ac30 in the Southern States are taken 
from the Monthly Report of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in Washington, and 
are based upon reports received as late 
as December lOth ; 

THE CORN cnoR^. 
Virginia suffered severely by the 
drought, which dwarfed the stalk and 
blade, aud interfered with its perfect ear- 
ing, yet the ears were generally well 
filled in proportion to the jiruwth of the 
stalk, except in worn-out lauTf?. Drought 
was severe in North Carolina, reducing 
the crop materially as a whole. In lieau- 
fort county, and io Hyde, adjoining, 
counties with deep, moist spjl, rich as the 
prairies with organic matte., 1 good crop 
was gathered, while in Gas* ■ and upon 
the central ridge, thence to" ' :e county, 
a region of moderately prod' ■ ' ve, easily 
improved, aud serviceable S ' for vari- 
ou.-i purposes, the yield wa ._ich redu- 
ced. The corn region in tl "tute is the 
coast sectiou, parts of whic: . o even Il- 
linois can excel in depth of —'^ m;* 
ter or abundance of j^rowji. 
erly cultivated ; tu7 next b'. 
long-leafed pine, is bett--. 'jr cotton; 
the next x)ue is espec .suited to 
wheat, and the mountain -i t - ion to corn 
Bgain, grasses aud truits; and the yield 
of the present season is in accordance 
with this peculiar adaptatiocr. In South 
Carolina aud Georgia the long season of 
hot and dry weather reduced materially 
the yield io the aggregate, with the same 
variation, in different cirovsmk^nces of 
soil and culture, as in States further 
north. 

A fair summary of reports from the 
entire district affected by drought would 
be: Fields badly tilled, overrun with 
weeds, or with a thin sandy soil, or a 
heavy clay not ameliorated by culture, 
were scorched and partially, or wholly, 
laid waste; while deep soils river bot- 
toms, rich slopes of virgin soil, and fields 
kept clean of weeds and frequently cul- 
tivated, gave satisfactory and even large 
returns. 

The crop of Alabama, and that of Mis- 
sissippi, suffered still less, yet is not an 
average one. Texas shows an increase — 
in some counties the largert crop ever 
grown is re^ported — iu one (Coryell) the 
average yield is placed at for'y bushels. 

The October freeze injured corn in 
Kentucky, both in shock aud in field, 
and wet weather was the caus^of loss in 
low lands. In Missouri, the crop was 
generally fine in rolling prairie and in 
timber lands, but poor in lev*l prairie, 
from excess of rain. 

The aggregate of the crop exceeds that 
of last year, and the quality is good. A 
reduction of seventeen per ceut. is indi- 
cated in Illinois. From several coun- 
ties come very gloomy reports. 

In .Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
and Iowa, the reduction in  |uality was 
still greater, and also the ([uantity per 
acre; in the latter two, the indease of 
acreage, the result of immigration, and 
the making of new farms, will nearly 
neutraliz'; the diminution of yi.^ld, and 
make the aggregate produo'f about 
equal to that of last year, a' 
ot .Mi.'iub«i.t_a . 

- Tb.n only Stat-- repo i . -ise 

of quantity are- Minn-'s ji i, . , .5 .:ari, 
Florida, Nebra.ska, Kansas, Tf^as and 
California. Louisiana and lowa give 
nearly an average. The principal corn 
growing section of the West will average 
a reduction of fully twenty per \jent. in 
yield per acre. With all the" increase 
of farraem to produce, and population to 
cons'Mue, and with an actual enlargement 
of area under culture, it is certain that 
there is actually less corn produced this 
year tlian in 1868. ^ 



The drought of the Atlantic Cbaft was 
far less injurious to cotton than to corn 
Superior cotton soilp, well cultivated, 
rarely suffer for want of rain ; jnferior, 
shallow and neglected soils, which pro 
duce small crops under the most favora- 
ble circumstances, are often injured, and 
in the present season have in many cases 
yielded meagre returns for theTrittle la- 
bor expeuded. Everywhere the acreage 
planted is greater than last year; the 
product per acre in the sea-coast States 
is materially less, with very few excep- 
tions. The relative proportion Jif lint to 
seed is from some cause less tb^n usual. 
The use of fertilizers has lafgely in- 
creased the vield of these Sfcrtes, has 
given a better stand in fields where the 
plant had a feeble start, and stimulated 
to rapid growth and early maturity. In 
one experiment reporte I, the first pick- 
ing of plants fed with guano i^ielJei, 
September 11th, a ten-fo'd inorelise over 
a similar area of undressed soil, and at 
the end of the season the enriched soil 
had produced just double the^if»«4Kit of 
that unenriched A judicious system of 
fertilization is practiced by th'e ' few, 
while the many obtain increased crops 
through a mure rapid exhaustioo of the 
soil, by the aid of guanc ani-various 
compounds rich in ammonia. 

The grasshopper, in some parts of 
Texas, iujuted cotton that was planted 
'ate. Drought affected it unfavotahly in 
the lied River region. W 
rains and overflows wefe foc'i 
But for these drawbacks the j. ,,^ .. ..uiu 
have been very large. Still the aggre- 
gate is much larger than tha' ■;. 
Reports of five hiindred pot. .lUt 
to the acre, where good culti-.i .ollowed 
a careful selection of seed, are aot un- 
frcqueut. Some counties return an aver- 
age of three hundred pounds p.^'^--H ."-e 
The culture in Texas is extcnuing far 
b,?youd i's limits in 186(1, 01. • ■ i-unty 
which made no return at that date return- 
ing four thousand three hundred bales, 
and others, producing it for the first time, 
average three hundred pounds j i r acre. 

Arkansas has made an average crop, 
upon a s mewhat increased area; but 
Tennessee, a small portion of which is 
ever cultivated in cotto , has a smaller 
yield than last year. 

The picking commenced earlier than 
usual, and the later bolls ripened more 
thoroughly; the season for gathering the 
lint has been quite uniformly fav. r«.VIe, 
a circumstance always greatly c i...acive 
to increase of the crop aggregate, and 
favoring a freedom from "trash"- and 
dirt. 

The aggregate product, in acc irdanoe 
with returns received to this date   lit- 
tle more than ten pei- cent, ab r the 
yield of 1 808, or about 2,700,00 com- 
mercial hales, or fully three milliovs of 
bales of four hundred pounds eac 

TOBACCO. 

The latest returns indicate a red • ion 

of one-third in Virginia and MaT; -nd, 

one-sixth in Kentucky, sixteen tnt. 

in Michigan, with a slight decret in 

Indiana and Illinois. Massachi t-', 

West Virginis, Michigan, Wisconsin -ud 
the States west of th-^ 'lississippi, , 
somewhat enlarged their produotioD' 

0 



fair summary of these returns would e m 
to indicate an aggregate 1 eduction of 
about twenty per cent. 

The drought iu Maryland and Virgiuip, 
and October frosts in Kentucky ai d 
other western State.", are promineiit 
causes of depreciation. The damipe in 
Trimble County, Kentucky, amounts to 
hundreds of thousands of dollars, and 
affects tobacco in the houses and on "he 
scaffolds as well as in the fields. 

The quality is variable. In some lo- 
cations, where the quantity has heen re- 
duced by drought, the quality is superior. 
In other.', both quantity and quality are 
greatly reduced. 



Cheering Prospects at the South. 

The IVoodjord iVeekly Icarus that 
the planters throughout the Southern 
States are in fine spirits, and making 
heavy preparations for planting a large 
crop of cotton ne.'it year. There is a suf- 
ficiency of money there to meet all pres- 
sing demands, and as soon as the niaj-)r 
part of the crop of this year is disposed 
of, money will be quite abundant, and 
every article of trade from the West, 
that is needed in the South, will bring 
high prices. 

Culture of Wheat. 

Oliver Dalryinple, the great wheat 
grower of Minnesota, says he is by no 
means discoura.^ed at the low price of 
wheat, and will sow 2200 acres next 
spring, the ground for which is already- 
plowed. He sold nearly the entire crop 
of the present year at au average price 
of $1 per bu.-thel. 

■ nother account says that farmers in 
■! i.nesota are paying twenty four per 
cent, interest for money to hold their 
wheat, not wishing to take eighty or 
eighty-five cents a bushel for it. 



A ^' A L U A B L E BOO K. 
DR. DALE'S JUDAIC BAPTISM. 

We announce with pleasure the reception of this val- 
uable work —ami are prepared to riinilsh It at shortest 
notice. 

Price $3,.50— to MinUters $3,00. 
(X)NVKNT .SYSTKM EXPOSED : 

PRIEST Ji y D NUN 

bj author of "Alraont a Nun." A most highly Intereat 
Ing anil tnitliful book— showing the intrigues and de 
ccptions of Priests and Nuns in attempting to Influence 
young minits toward their system,— btautltully bound 
an l elegantly priuteil. Prloe tl,tHi. 

Address A. DAVIDSON A CO. 

Nu» M It Fonrtb straat, LoulavUle, Kf. 



Beet Sugar. 

Few are aware of the extent to which 
the beet-root sugar manufacture is now 
carried in Europe. In France there are 
now 470 beet-root factorie«, 110 in Bel- 
gium, and 255 in Prussia. Thirty years 
ago only CO,000 tons of beet sugar were 
made in all Europe; last year, 2 500,000 
tons were produced in Switzerland alone, 
[n Austria. Rus ia, and many other coun- 
tries in Europe, proportionate amounts 
are made. This aid to agriculture also, 
which at first was not thought of, has 
proved the very best kind of food for 
horned cattle, and thousands are raised 
now where hundreds only were before. 
In the district of country surrciiudiug the 
city of Valenciennes, where before the 
production of beet sugar, 700 oxen was 
the total amount, 11,500 were raised 
last year. 



Ramie Seed Called For. 

The Ramie grass, said to be suitable 
for the manufacture of paper, is about to 
be cultivated in Egypt, several Pachas 
having written to the United States to 
obtain the seed. The papyius, from 
which the name of paper is derived, was 
first grown along the banks of the Nile, 
for the use of the s:ribesof Alexandria. 



A. DAVTD80N. J. W. NODRSA 

A. DAVIDSON & CO., 

(Late Davidson A Robinson.) 

BOOKSELLERS, STATIONERS 

AND PRINTERS, 

Tt FOURTH STREET, 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 

Being experienced In the business and nnd»rstand- 
Ing the wants of our customers, we flatter oorseivea 
we shall be able to meet the demands of ail buyers In 
our line, and respectfully solicit (xam, nation of oar 
stock. Thl.i will lie found to embrace the very heat 

•cellaneous anq^ School 



. . I . nk tfooks, Tla!% and 
J^aiicy Papers and Sta- 
tionery of all kinds, 

which we will sell at lowest prices. 

Special attention paid to flhlng orders for 

S\BBATH SCHOOL BOOKS. 

Merchants and Teachers supplied at loweat whole- 
sale rates. Address all orders to 

A. DAVIDSON & CO., 

austvtf. 7S Fourth Street, LoolSTlU*. Kj 



BKLLEWOOD 
FEMALE SEMINARY, 

The next session of this institution, located at An. 
chorage, or Hoijbs' station, twelve mtlet* from Louis- 
ville, Ky., on the Le.xiugton and Lliuciuiiatti KaUroad, 
will open on the FIKST MO.SDAY In WKPTEMBKR, 
and coutmue forty weekji. 

Kev. W. W. HILL, D. D., Principal, teacher of Mental 
and .Moral Sciciire, I,oglc, RheUjrlo, Astronomy, Evi- 
dences of Cbrijitiauity, Ac, &c. 

MissVALI.lE K. HA.'^SA, Assistant Principal, teach, 
erof Mathematics, English (Trammar, Botany, &c Ac 

J. D* la BAKUKTTE native of France, teacher of 
French, Painting aud Drawing, Latin and Natural Set 
ences, Ac, &c. 

Mils MOLLIE McKEE, teacher of Primary Depart- 
ment, Needlework, Eral)rolderv, ,tc, Ac 

Prof. EDWAJIU MAIIR, teacher of .Music on Piano, 
ZIthar, Uuitar. Ac., Ac 

Mrs. B. K. PUWEK8, teacher ot Vocal Music, with 
Piano and Uuitar, Ac, Ac 

The new tnitldtng to supply the place of the one de- 
stroyed I,y tire will be complete and really for occupancy 
by the Ifith of August, at a cost of tl i,uou. It is far 
more comm . dious aud beautiful than the old one, and 
will seat, wlA desks, one hundred aud dfty pupila. 

For terms, address 

Kit. Dr. W. W. HILL, 
Anchorage, or, Hot i 8' Station, 
ff 2S Jefferson county, Ky, 



BUY THE GENUINE 
CAPITOLA AND SENTINEL 

COOK STOVE. 

I^All our stoves warranted..^ 
W« manufactare all kinds of COAL ORATES. 

J. S. LITHGOW & CO., 

Nos. 85 AND 67 

Third and Main Sts., 

LODISVUXK, KT. 



LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE 

AND 

ME.MPHIS AND LOUISVILLE 

RAILROAD LINK. 
Trains run to and from Louisville as follows : 

Leave. [Nov. 14, 1S69.1 Arrive. 

7:J0 A. M. Naahvllle, Memphis* N. O. Mall. 10:00 p. a. 

*:30 p. M. Memphis, N. O. * .Mobile E.xpress. 11:15 A. M. 
U:3u A. M. Nashv A Southeastern E.t. .Mall. 1 :3.1 p. m. 

8:30 A. «. Uichiuond* Mt. Vernon Ex. Mail. 2:u5 p. M 

8:16p, m. ...Hardstown Accommodation.... S:3o a. u 

WMemphls, New Ori^an.^ and Mobile Express, and 
Nashville and Southeastern Express Mail run daily. 
AU other trains daily except Sumlay. 

r»"For Through Tickela, Baggage rhe 'k. i, and in- 
formation as to .'sleeping Cars, Through Connections 
with l allroa 1 and Stage Lines, Jkc, appiv at 'I'lcliet OBl- 
o «, corner Third and Main streetH, corner of Fourth 
and Main streets, Louisville Hotel, Wiilard Hotel, tialt 
House, and at Depot, corner Ninth and Broadway. 

deoStf ALBBKT KINK, Uen'l Supt. 



A NEW BOOK! 

Messrs. A. Davidson A Co. have just received a large 
supply of "Falth'8 Battles and Victories" — a new book, 
by Kev. J. S. Grasiy, of Shelbyville, Ky., which they 
are reatly to furulah to the trade on the most liberal 
terras, or will send by mail to any a Mress for $1. 



SUNDRIES. 

25 cases Concentrated Lye. 
I barrel White Olue. 
2U dozen Hair Krushes. 
6 gro8. Tooth Brushes. 
3 " Toilet Soaps. 
5 " Cookiii|ij Lxtracts. 
Iteceived and tor sate by 

OEU. U. CAKY, 



CLARK BRADLEY, 

COACH AND CARRIAGE 

MANUFACTURER, 
No. 20 Main Street, 
Between 1st and 2nd, Locisvillb, Kt., 

OLD STAND — 27 YEARS STANDING, 

S3* Manufactures and keeps constantly on 
hand, a general assortment of Carriages, Ac. 
Ac, of the latest fashion. nov tf 1 



A LOAN OF 

$1,500,000 

PAYABLE IN GOLD. 

With Interest at the Rate of 

EIGHT PER CENT. 

PER ANNUM, 



THOMAS 8. BALDWLN J 
(Late KKtM, Baldwin Cc./^ 

0 L O T H I N G. 
Corner Main and Teotb i^treet*, KiobmonjI 
dec 19— If Above Post Offlee. 

DR. ROBERT G. CABELL, 

OFKER.S his PaorKsaiOMAL Skbvicim to 
citizens of Kichmond and Its vicinity. 

Office, between 7th and »th streets. 
mh8-tf oriV;.....! 



DR. JOHN vNOX. 

RniDENCK corner oi Marshall and 12th street. 
KICHMOND, VA. 
MuSAQES len on the slate at the drug storeB 
of A.SCOTT, corner of Bread and fwenty-J 



YAIiLE S EMI - :iMyU^ L . — tiiii. "•reel, will receive prompt attention. 



p. H. KEAN. D- A. KEAN. 

F. H. KEAN & BROTHER 

WHOLESALE 

GROCERS, 

COMMISSION .MERCHANTS, 
AND Dealers in Provisions, Flour, and 
General Produce. 

ALSO AOENTS FOR TDI 

THE FRANKFORT COTTON MILLS, 
Mo. 49 West Main street, bet. Second A Third, 

L0UI8VI1.LE, Kt. 
PROMPT, personal attention GIVEN TO 
FILLING ORDERS. 

E3- Consignments 8olicited, and satisfaction 
guaranteed. ept. 8. 

LAMAR FEMALE SEMINARY. 
a boarding school for youuo ladirs. 
Rev. O. p. stark, Pbincipau 

This In.stltutlon Is pleasaullr located In the city of 
Paris, Lamar county, Te.xaa. The luilldlng Is the lar- 
gest au l most cominodlou.s In the State. 

Thedesif^n of this Institution Is toaltord young ladles 
every facility for aoquinng a lliilslied education. The 
course of study enibntces all that is usually pursued In 
flrst-cla.ss Seminaries. 

CompeU'iit and experienced teachers are employed, 
who will aim to be thorough In their various depart- 
meuUi. 

Expenses, (Inclnding board, tuition, room. rent, fuel, 
washmg, Ac.,) for the scholastic year of ten months, 

(United states currency,) f 24u 00 

The next session will commence on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 1st, 1S« ). 
Circulars sent on application. aeptlMm 

WHARTON & ELLIOTT, 
Whole!-aIe and Itetail Dealers In 
FIXE AND FASHIONABLE FURNITURE 
104 Main St., between Third & Fourth, 
ap20— 3m Louisville. Kt. 



j BUCKEYE 

I Bell Foundry. 



6EU$ 

ESTABLIi-HEU IN 1837. 
Church, Academy, Factory, Farm, Fire- 
Alnrm Bells, Ac, made of Pure Bell Metal, 
((-'oppcr A Till,) warranted in quality, tone, du- 
rability, Ac, and mounted with our Patent 
ImproN'ed Kotatlni; Hangings. Illustrated Cat- 
alogue sent free. VANDUZEN & TIFT. 
102 & 104 K. Second St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 
feb i:-ly 1 



FRANK C. WILSON, 

PHYSICIAN ASD SUIIGKON. 

No. 2iS East Walnut Srurr, 
LouUvllle, Ky 

Onio« hours from -I to 6, P. M. 
0«t 13 i mos 



G.R BARNES'. 



IN GOLD, 

In N. Y. or Europe, as may be Desired, 

FREE OF U. S. TAXES. 

Principal Maturing in 

THIRTY YEARS 

from August, 1869, 

AND PAYAB' E IN GOLD 



IN THE CITY 



NEW YORK. 



u F-E. 



apl 13— 



Wholesale and lie tail Druguist, 
81 Fourtb.st., bet. Main and Market. 



1 



SHELBYS ILLE 

FEMALE COLLEGE, 

SHELBYVn.LE, KENTUCKY 

APOPl'LAR INSTITUTION for the education of 
youuj? ladies, in the Kngllsh Branrties, .Music, 
French, lierman, Latin, Painting, Einbrolderj-, etc 
Terms moderate. Send for Circular. Address 
Janstf M1I8. C. W. STUART. 



REVISED 
PRICE LIST 


Pen Only. 


I'en with Sliver and Eb- 
ony Holder and Box. 


Pen with Gilt and Ebony 
Holder and Box. 


Pen with Kubbor Kevcrse 
Holder and Pencil. 


K-5 

I3 
0 

r.l 
1? 
" S 
a. .1 

  


Pen with Sterling Silver 
S;rewUx n Oaae A Pen'l 


No. 


1 


75 


1 •iS 


1 50 




1 75 


3 00 




2 1 00 


1 50 


1 75 




2 25 






3 


1 2d 


1 73 


2 00 


'i'so 


2 50 


4*26 


•( 


4 


1 60 


2 -2.5 


2 50 


3 00 


3 00 


4 60 


f ( 


6 


2 00 


2 75 


3 00 


3 50 


3 50 


5 50 


«( 


6 


2 -M 


S 00 


3 -25 


3 75 


3 73 




it 


7 


2 .511 


3 25 


3 75 


4 


4 26 




tt 


8 3 00 


4 00 


4 50 


4 75 


5 00 




tt 


9 8 00 


4 30 


3 00 




7 00 




" 10 5 00 


e 00 


7 00 









is 



6 00 

6 60 

7 60 

8 00 
10 00 



Sent by mall, or express, on receijit of price 
II by mail, inclose stamp for return postai^e. 

Gold pens repaired, if sent by mail with 60 
cents and stamp each, aud new Pens exchang- 
ed for old ones on liberal terms. 

Plain gold rings of any weight and quality 
made to order. 

Complete stocks ol line watches, jewelry, sil 
ver, and plated ware, and emblematic pins and 
charms always on hand. 

Watches audjewelry repaired an l warranted 

Clergymen supplied with pens at half the 
above prices, and special reductions on all oth' 
er goods. 

CP. BAKNES A BItOTHKK, 
221 .Main street. (Louisville Hotel BlockO 

feb 28-tf i Louisville, Ky. 



B, A. ROBINSON. CHA3. H. PITTRT. WM. A. R0BIN80K. 

R. A. ROBINSON & CO. 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS, 

184 Main Street, 

louisville, ky. 



JAVES I. LKHON. J/lHVS K. LEMON. 

JAMES I. LEMON & CO , 

DKALKKS IN 

WATCHES AND JEWELRY, 

CLOCKS, 

SILVER AND PL.A.TED WARE, 
73 Fourth street, 
Undkb National Uotbl. LOUISVILLE, KY. 

WWatches carefuUyrepaired. ldec22-ly 



JOHN WATSON, 

LEATHER AND SADDLERY WAREHOUSE, 

No. 286 Main Street, 

Between 7th and 8th, Louisvilli, Kt., 

Would invite the trade to examine his stock, 
which be will sell at the lowest prices, consist- 
ng iu part of— 

Sols Leather, Pad Skins, 

Upper Leather, Enameled Leather, 

Bridle Leather, stirrups, Bitts, Buckles, 

Harness Leather, Saddles, Bridles, 
.skirting Leather, Harness, Trunks, 
feb 8 Carriage Makers' Matanalg, Ac. 1 



A. Davidson. J. W. Nockbe 

A. DAVIDSON & CO. 

BUOK-iELLERS AN D STATIONERS. 

72 Fourth Street, 

Louisville, Kt. 

We desire to call the attention of those wishing to 
fill up or procure libraries, to our large and coniprehen- 
slTe stock of Religious and Miscellaneous Ooolia— afew 
of the newest of which are enumerated below. 

Commentary on Confession of Faith, by Rev. A. A 

Ilodge, D. D 11 75 

The Atonement, by Kev. A. A. Hwlge, D. I . .. 1 60 

Palth s Battles and Victories, by Kev. J.S.Onu)ty 1 00 
Uiary aud Kemiuiscences of Henry Crabb Kobin- 

son, ■! vols 4 00 

Frederick \V. Robertson's Sermon's new e(L 2 voL 3 00 

Country I'arsou Sericn, cheap cd. s vols 10 00 

Pri«8t and Nun, by author of Almost a Nun 2 50 

Almost a Nun, by .Mrs. J. .McNalr Wright 1 50 

Lldilon's University Sermons 1 50 

Hible Wouders, by Rev. Ur. Newton 1 ia 

Life of Samuel .Miller, 1). i)., V! vols 4 ou 

Days of Knox, by author of Dark Year of Dundee 2 50 

Christian Leaders, by Rev. J. c. Kyle 2 50 

Deus Semper, by author of Semper Deus 1 75 

Kemimsceiices of Indians, by Kev. CP. Washburn 1 26 
Yeatenlay, To-Day aud Forever, by Kev. £. H. 

Bickersteth 2 00 

Lauge ou Romans -. 500 

Jenney Geddcs 1 26 

Kcce Ccelum 1 26 

tWA liberal discount to Miulsters, from above prices. 

Besides our stock of Ttieologlcat ancl Mlscellaneoiu 
Books,we have a most complete line of SABBATn-scHOOL 
and ScuoOL Books, Blank Books, Papers of all kinds. 
Plain and Fiincv Statiouery, and every description of 
IIOLIDAY WOODS, which are usually kept In Book- 
stores. 

The attention of Merchants Is especially Invited to 
oor Stock. 

Address all orders to A. DAVIDSON 4 CO, 
12 Fourth Straet, Locisvu^.c. Kt. 

Ootii, to 



The undersigned, aa represeutatlvea of the ST. JO- 
SEPH and DKNVKKCITY RAILROAD COMPANY, 
have the honor to offer for sale the 

FIRST MORTGAGE BONDS, 

OF THE 

ST. JOSEPH AND DENVER CITY 
RAILROAD COMPANY, 

On their Une of Railway which connects SL Joseph 
with Fort Kearney by rail, amounting to |l,5O0,uaa. 
All that can be Issued. 

These bonds are secured by a Urst and only mort- 
gage to the Farmer*' Loan and Trust Company of New 
Y'ork, aa Trustees for the holders of these bonds, on 
the proparty of the Company, from St. Joseph, Mo., to 
MarysvlUe, Kansas, Inclnding Its railroad, rights of 
way, franchises, equipments, rolling-stock, (engines, 
cars, coaches. Ac,) machine-shops, depots, lands, and 
all kinds of property belonging to the Company hi Do- 
niphan, Brown, Nemaha, and Marshall counties, in the 
Stat« of Kansas, a distance of 111 miles, which la 
mortgaged to secure the bondholders at the rate of 
|1S,508 par mile, on a COMPLETED RAILROAD. 

They have the further security by the terms of the 
Trust Deed, whereby the Farmers' Loan and Trust 
Company, as Trustees, are made the sole and absolute 
custodians of the bonds before they are loaned, and 
are not permitted to deliver them or their proceeds un- 
til they have proper evidence that the road Is graded, 
tied. Ironed, and ready for the rolling-stock, and then 
only at the rate of $1 2,000 per mile for so many miles 
as shall be thus completed. This la arranged In sec- 
tions of live milea 

Bonds, to be valid, must be countersigned by the 
Farmers' Loan and Trust Ck uipauy. 

Parties purchasing any of these bonds have a safe 
and sure guarantee that the money tkey have mvest- 
ed finds an equivalent In value In a completed rail- 
road, costing to build and equip more 'hiui double Uie 
amount they have Invested, all of whica -.'red tu 
pay the principal and hiteregt of the iwnds tke  
purchaaeiL 

The security la undoubted. 

The St. Joseph and Denver , •■ ^^fi 
111.' ci^ n nf » h« n»niii i»«W!rT^^rj»w ^ao- 
■■ja'l,' wi.r. all Its (.xte , 1 ounectlotui. North aud 
Kast, and the St. Lonls au.: St. Joseph ItaUroad, with 
Its powerful connections South and East. via. St. Louis, 
both lines converging at SL Joseph and connecting 
bume llately with the St. Joseph and Denver Ctty Rail- 
road, traversing through Eastern Kansas to the heart 
of Nebraska and Intersecting the Cnlon Pacific Rail- 
road mam line at the City of Fort Kearney, THUS MA- 
KING THE SHORTEST ROtTTE KNOWN, TO CALI- 
FORNIA AND THE " PACIFIC STATE.S." 

The Une 41 miles west from St. Joseph Is in complete 
and successful operation, and the line to MarysvlUe Is 
being rapidly completed. 

The line from MarysvlUe to Fort Kearney U being 
rapidly pushed forward. 

A Branch road Is being built from the St. Joseph 
aud Denver City Rallroa l at Severance to the Kansas 
PacUSc Railroad, glvmg at once a direct route to Den- 
ver City. 

The bonds are In denomlnatlona of fl.ooo and tsoo. 

They are Coupon bonds, but may lie registered In the 
owner's name at the Farmer's Loan and Trust Compa- 
ny, ami by the surrender of the Coupons can be con- 
verted Into a Registered Iwnd, with Interest payable to 
the registered owner. 

The coupons, or the Interest Is made payable on the 
16th days of August and February In each year, hi 
New York, London, or Frankfort-on-the-.Maln. at the 
option of the holder, and at the following equivalents : 

For six months hiterest on tl.ooo bonds: 

At New Y'ork »40, gold. 

At London X8 4s. 4d. 

At Frankfort-on-the-Maln loo aor. 

On the 1900 bonds one-half of these amounu respect- 
ively. The Uiterest la payable free ot United States 
taxes. 

The principal Is payable In New York, lu gold, Aug. 

15, IMS. 

The Company have an authorised capital of 
110,000,800— to which nearly |-i,iioo,ooo has already 
been sul scrll ed, and Is being expended on the road, 
and in audition to this the Company have a grant 
from the United States Uovemment at Wsahmgton of 
l,«ou,i oo acres of laml, ten miles in width— on either 
side of the line—  lt la conceded that these lands are of 
a superior ^rder and among the t e8t In the country)— 
which, at t2,6ci per acre, forms an asset of the Company 
of the value of |4,ooo,oiio. 

The Company, with Its entire property, valoaii at 
16,000,000, free from debt, asks this loan of tl.soo.ooo. 

We offer these bonds at the low price of V7X and ac- 
crnol mtereat In currency, wtch the reserved right to 
advance the price without notice. 

Qovernments and other securities received In pay- 
ment, without commission, at their market value. 
Bonds sent by express, or packages received In pay- 
ment, wiU be free of charge. 

Pamphlets, maps, and Information furnished on ap- 
plication. 

Parties desiring safe and lucrative investments 
sliould lose no time iu investigating these securities, as 
the loan Is t eing rapidly taken up 

W. p. CONVERSE & CO.. 

Commercial Agenta, 
54 Pine street. New York. 



p'OUNDKD 1H.M. ^ 
SNYDER A IREY. 

SCCCKSSOR3 TO 

S N V D E k , BOWERS & C 
RICHMOND. 

STOVE AND ARCHITECTURAL 

IKON WORKS, 
No. 1,000 Cary Street, Comer lOth Street, 
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA. 
Dealers In 

SCOTCH AND AMERICAN PIG IR(i 
FOUNDRY SUri'LES. 
rt*ct 17— yrg : 

aoBT. H. HADBT. IAS. T. MAOBT. BOBT. 

R. H. MAURY A CO., 

BANKERS AND BROKERS,' 

NO. 1014 .MAIN &TREET, BiQH'^ 

' ., ■ jld, silvi-:iT^ 

-.a. IB, CITY, and RAIL- 
ROAD BONDS and STOCKS, Ac., bought and 
•old on commission. 

Deposits received and Collections made on 
all accessible points In the Ilnitc'l States, 
aug^tf. 2 



TANNER & CO , 

Fiscal Agents, 
49 WaU street. New Y'ork. 



WM. B. ISAACS, 

WM. O. TAYLOR, J. C. WILLlAMu 

WM. B. ISAACS & r. , 

BANKERS. 
Richmond, Viroinia. 

Dealen. in CtJlN, BANK NOTES, STOCKS, 
BONDS, and other SECURITIES, and KOR.( 
KION and DOMESTIC Exchange. 
OEPOSITES received. 2 sep 18— tl 



^ ^ NEW MUSIC ! ^ ^ 

RIBI 
iiif al 

, Kin! 



SUB 
ceivinif all the lawst and best Music, 
Thomas, KInkel, Frey, Keller, Bishop, etc. atlesstbsi 
It is is.si 



 y iiifi 



tiBSCRlBERS to Peters' Musical Monthly arr fe-| 

shop, etc, al 
onecentper page. It Is ls.sued  n 'it*- .'it- 
month, is printed on line white ^aper, 1....- 
music plates, and contains over $5 worth of our lati 
and lieHt music In every numljcr. 

Single numbers, 3" cents : $3 per year. Back numl 
bers supplied. Volume IV., from July to Decemberr 
sent by mall on receipt of $1.50 ( 

•1. L. PETERS, Music Publisher, 598 Broadway, 
Y'ork, Opposite the Mftropolltau Hotel. 
Oi'^CIergymen and Teachers supplied at 12. 
deo22-tf 



BOOKS 

rOH SABBATH SCHOOLS AND FAMU:f8.^ 

THE AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY puh 
lisb over Four Hundred Boolts tor children 
ptire and evangelical in character, and not to j 
excelled iu cheapness or beauty. 

Also, the C'HoiciST Booia tram other . ilj 
era, furnished at catalogue prices. 

Sabbath .School LicHABtBi) furnished iijjf 
ranted to please. 

Ticltets, Reward C.irds, Class Boij 
Books, and other Sabbath scliool 
ways on band. 

DISCOUN T allowed to the Tj 
granted to DESTITUTE SCHC 

THE CHILD'S ?I 

A Monthly Paper, always recei 
by the children. Eight copij-" 
Address T. L. 

inay7-tc fll4 Main sj 



TO Tl 
THE u. s . ru 

two psHe 11^ 
-blent 



all* 

fui' iiower 
' .av t b«^ 

tlr^ to PBKfKCT'' 

an : greatest friend^ 
s'!u ptiou, 1 think I c!W 
J' A»VV merits which shol 
( V fanner in the land. 

^As the fuliowing season" 

, we are i repared to lurir? 
._ei»— both right and left. W.^ - 
attention to our stock of WIIE/"! 
made by the Hagerotown Agriciij] 
ment Co , which is "The Best," 
plies. They are fully warranted" .1 
liberal terms. ^ 

Send for circulars and price lists. lif 
our '• retail trade" vvi I be strictlt case 
no orders for small lots ol castings, ic, wil 
filled unless accompanied bv the cash. 

WA IT .fe KNIUHF, 
Ij&'i Franklin st., Richmond. 



ISAAC D. JONES, 

ATTORNET OENBBAL OF MARTLAMD, 

In addliioo to his official d;;tieH, practices io tlie 
Ck ut ts of BalUfliore, In the .Maryland Court of Appeals, 
and lAi lUe Sup&MU? Court of the U. H. 



Office : 2d Jloor, « uer Chesapeake Bank, 



Corner North and VajatS^ street, 
land. 



Ifjr- 
1. 



NOTICE. 

The session of the UNION THBOLOOIOAL SEMI- 
NARY of the General Assembly, under the care of the 
Synods of Virginia and North Carolina, wlU begin Mon- 
day, September IStli, at 12 M. Students are urged to 
be punctually present at the beginning. The Faculty 



Rev. R. L. Dabnkt, D. D., Professor of systematic and 
Polemic Theology and Sacred Rhetoric 

Rev. B. M. Shi'TH, Professor Oriental and Biblical 
Literature. 

Rev. TH08. E. Pbcx, p. D., Professor Eccieslaatleal 
llUtory and PoUty. 

Rev. S. B. Wilson, D. D., Professor Pastoral Theology 
and Biblical Introduction, has deceased since the last 
term; and his place will be flUeil bj the Trustees. 
' The Seminary furnishes tuition, I'ooms, and furniture 
asATis to all students ; and, moreover, by scholarships, 
Ac, extends aokqcatb aio to all studenta whose peco- 
mary circumslauces require it. The price of boarding 
Is from tl5 to tl6 per month. Washing, ti,5 ). Wood, 
l^,'*! per cord. 
Catalogues giving all details wlUbe sent by mall on 
K L DABNEY, 



appUcation to 
an li^t 



f 'lerk of Faculty. 



SELECT 

BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL, 

HILLSBORO, N. C, 
Hisses. Nash and Mm.*) I^cixock, PaD 'clPAi& 



, iU'il- 

itf 



m»ji; Spring Tonn of l8;i' ■' O 
1 ry, and continue twomy 

e l oii'i«43'.lcatlo«L '" 

NEW FEMALii ACADEMY, 

Cuj,,"EPr.R C. H , VA. 

Having leased b r a t«rm of years tLe large 
and commodious residence of Mrs. C. W. Ash- 
by, 1 will open a select Female Acatemy, at 
Culpeper Court House, on the Uth of Se, )teni ber 
next. '*~* 

Careful attention will be given to physical 

and mental culture— to morals and religion 

With an exiierience ol nearly thirty years, I 
pletise myselt to s faithful discharge o.'^ my du- 
ties.' 

TKRM-S PBB SESSION OF TEN MO.^THS : 

English, Irora f30 to SO 

French, Latin and Greek 20 

Drawing 20 

Music 60 

Boarding 200 

Payable one-half in advance, and one-ball 
Februiry 1st, 1870. 

Circulars to be bad by applying. 

»ug 4-lf CHARLES H. N0UB8B. 



B ELLS. 

MBNEELY'S FOUNDRY, at Wwt Tbot, 
N. Y., [opposite "Troy,] established In '. ;• , "inu 
which made the reputation ol I M Uii.ls, 
manufactures 

C'BCRCB, AcADKHT, Factobt and Chime Bills, 
made of pure copper and tin, fully guarantied, 



Haviog had all the papers aod docu- 
me^ts relatiDg to this loan ezamioed by 
competent coiiosel and pronounced com- 
plete and sufficient, and having pers(»u.l- 
ly examined the i-ame, which we i»d 

regular and perfect, and havine had out', and buno with "tdb best Patent Rotabt 
° ' " It AIotrKTiNos IN CSE. Wo are uow iiiau iifactu ting 

own engineers examine the road and prop- 
erty, whose reports are satisfactory, ■we 
do, with the utmost ooufidenoe and satis- 
faction, recommend the Ei^ht per Cent. 
First Mortgage Gold Bonds of the .St. 
Joseph & Denver City Railroad Compa* 
ny as a safe, sure and profitable invest- 
ment, worthy the attention of capitalists, 
investors and others. 

W P CONVERSE & CO , 
TANNER & CO 

tVMap of the rood and pamphlet coi ttalning par- 
ticulars, may be seen at the office of the "CHaisTtAM 
OBsiavBB AND OowOM WEALTii, " Na 74 FOsuth Street, 
LoolSTllle. Ky. OeCL L 



KioTe bells than any thri-e founderies in the 
coiuitry, have received more competitive First 
Hcemluins than any other foundeiy, and our 
unsolicited testimonials average ore hundred 
and fiftv annually. Catalogues sent free. Ad- 
dress at West Tuor, N. Y., _ 
mch 24-ly E. A. & O. K. MENEELY. 



TROY, V  v. -{Established 18S2,)a large as- 
sortment of Church, Academy, Fire Alarm, 
and other Bells constantly on hand and made 
to order. Large Illustrated Catalogue sent tree 
upon application to 

.JONES * CO., Tbot, N. T. 

marchlT-l s 

J. W. RANDOLPH &■ ENGLISH, 

1320 MAIN STREET, PICHMOND, VA,-j 

Booksellen, Sf ationeii, Book-fiinderfu 

A. fi BLANK BOt S MANU*"ACTORY. 
I ec «— 2 



Christian observer and free Christian commonwealth, 1870-01-19

4 pages, edition 01

 Persistent Link: https://kentuckynewspapers.org/catalog/xt7tx921d528
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Location
  Published in Louisville, Kentucky by Converse, & Co.
   Jefferson County (The Bluegrass Region)