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date (1846-10-21) topic_Emancipation_Abolitionist newspaper_issue THE TRUE AMERICAN. 




^^^^ 



Devoted to Universal Liberty. 



VOLUME ir. 



Published weekly, at Two I)iiLi,Ana and Fiftt Cbnts 
p«r annum, in ailvaiice, vt Thuku D'LLAbs ir nui t^iil 
wiihin ti;r. . ' ^ 

Five . for Ten IVillare. 

To T?o., . , -s, in S'lavo SKties, one dollar f r 
year in adVAnce, ur iwo dollars after three monllifl. 

SubacrtptioJtt Out of Kentucky payable in advance. 

Reiniuances at tlie rl«k of iho Editor. 



and /' / ' .--inels, C.- 
delpbia. 



V. E. comer of Walnu 
Hid Ridge Ri dd, VIU^- 



The Slave Power,— No. XII. 

WHAT UA9 THE NOIlTn TO nO WITH IT? 

The FiCtli Chapter of the Consiiiulion of 
Massachusetts, in lis second section, de- 
clares as follows : 

" Wisdom and knowledije. as well a? 



virtue, diffused generally ainone^ the body what we read of, duels, assassinations. 



of the people, being nccessan/ for the pre 
servation of their rights and tiherticsy and 
as these depend on spreading the opponu 
niiiesand advantages of education in the va- 
rious parts of the country ^-and among the 
different orders of the people, it shall be the 
duty of legislators and matrisiratcs, in all 
future periods in this ComnionweaUh, i' 
cherish the interests of literature and .« 
ence, * » • to counter. ' 
cate the principles of hurii r 
benevolence, public and" jui-HL ijmh 
industry and frugality, honesty and punc- 
tuality in their dealings, sincerity, good 
humor, and all social allections, and gener- 
ous sentiments among the people.*' 

Massachusetts established her Constitu- 
tion in 1780, when she was, to all intents 



street broiU, Lynch law, and so on ? Such 
proceedings as burning negroes would per- 
haps hardly be expected, even in ifiis Slate 
of things; but here reasonable expectaliun 
is surpassed, and they do occur. 

We of the North know nothing of these 
doinffs, except so much as the newspapers 
■ ' ' I N'l! us, t)ul these con- 

:it n cnongli fuufcrn- 
 1 moderation of the fel- 
r whose sway we live. — 
. V n - M ' ., I lis a small collection of an- 
ecdotes of brutality from such papers, em- 
bracing a period of three years. Their de- 
tails would make a book, which we have 
no thought of doing. Sometimes they ge- 
neralize llie facts. '* Why,*' says a .Mobile 
paper, ** do we hear of slabbings and shool- 



and purposes, a sovereign Slate. W'hilc ings almost duihf in some part or other of 
her people were thus under her own gov- 
ernment alone, she was of opinion that they 
could have no security for their rights and 
liberties^ any longer than tfiey should be 
intelligent and virtuous. What was true 
for her then, is irne for her now. — 
What was true for her, was, and is, equal- 
ly true for her sister States. None of them 
can have any security for their rights and 
liberties under the rule of an ignorant and 
vicious population. 

Yet such a rule the slave power una- 
voidably creates ; and, the slave power 
having obtained the ascendency in our 
government, under such a rule do we at 
present live. Does that not concern the 
North ? Has il no coucern with the char- 
acter and competency of those who govern 
it ? If the slave power had not obtaiu'-'d 
the usurped ascendency which it now 



our State ?** ** Almost every exchange pa- 
per that reaches us," says a Mississippi 
Journal, ** contains some inhuman and re- 
volting case of murder, or death hy viol- 
ence." The New Orleans Bee thinks that 
*' if crime increases as it has, il will soon 
become the most powerful agent in destroy- 
ing life;" and Judge Canongc of the same 
city, said from the bench, ** without some 
powerful and certain remedy, our streets 
will become butcheries overllowing with 
the blood of our citizens." It is this state 
of society from which legislators come, and 
bring their accomplishments and habits with 
them. So the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives of Arkansas, not very long 
ago, settled a question of order by stabbing 
a member mortally with a bowie knife, on 
the floor of the House. So Mr. Campbell 
and Mr. Maury of Tennessee, and in the 



wields, still, has the North no concern same month Mr. Btdl and Mr. Turney of 
about the character and competency of those 1 the same Stale, fought at listicuHs at Wash- 
who, by the (/onslitution, share with it t!m j ington in the Hall where they sat as Rep- 
functions of government, and are to vole on ] reseniaiives. So Mr. Peyton of Tennessee, 
questions the most material to its welfare ? ; and Mr, Wise of Virginia, went armed with 



Of the thirteen original States, the pop- 
ulation of the four V[\on northerly, in 1840, 
was 1,141,081, and the number of white 
persons in them, over twenty years of age, 
who could neither read nor write, was 
7,530. or less than one in 191. 'J'he free 
population of the four southern ohi States, 
was 1.970,220, and the number of free 
white persons, over twenty years of age, 
who could neither read nor write, was 
106,728, or one in less then twelve. — 
Massachusetts had 4,418 of tliis ignorant 
class, most uf tliem in the few towns where 
foreign emigrants collect. . Virginia, with 
a total of free inhabitants oidy fifty-three 
thousand larger, had 58,787. In New , 
Hampshire, the proponi m of persons 
unable to read and write to the whole 
free population, was as one lo more than 
three hundred, in South Carolina and 
Georgia about as one lo thirteen. In Con- 
necticut, one in 590 coidd neither read nor 
write ; in Norih Carolina, more than one 
in nine. These are the fads, supposing 
the census to have been correctly taken 
ill these p.irticulars ; but considering the 
auspices under which it was made, and the 
class of errors which vitiate it, of which we 
gave some rather striking specimens tlie 
other day, it is lo be presumed that the 
representations, alarming as it is, is alto- 
gethtt more favorable lo ihe slave Slates 
than the truth would warrant. 

The case could not be otherwise. lu 
slave States there can be no system of uni- 
versal ptddic instruction for the free. !l is 
not the interest of the large proprietors to 
elevate the character of their poor neigh- 
bors, for the consequence would be an 
abatement of their own importance and po- 
litical power. But waiving lhat, the di- 
vision of estates is such as to put the ar- 
rangement out of the question. In New 
England, the people in moderate cireuni- 
stances are every where, covering the face 
of the country, so lhat a school-house is 
brought within convenient distance oi" everv 
man's hearth ; while in Virginia, if a poor 
man could get schooling for his child on 
the other side of the next plantation, it 
would take him the whole day lo go and 
come. The thing is impossible. 

We have not the statistics necessary lo 
show the relative provision made for reli- 
gious instrnclion in the Free and Slave 
States respectively. They would no doubt 
give a similar result. In New England, 
the traveller is never out of sight of the 
spires of churches, betokening that every 
New England family is brought up in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord. In Vir- 
ginia, still older than New England, and 
in the Carolinas, not much kss ancient, 
out of the cities one travels dismal mites 
without once seeing thai cheering token of 
civilized humanity ; and when, every now 
and then, it is met with, its wretched, tum- 
ble-down condition indicates scarcely less 
painfully the degree of importance attached 
to ihe use to which it is devoted. Of a fine 
day the women and children may make a 
journey from some "Swallow Bam" to 
some distant church in the woods to say 
their prayers and get a word of exhortation 
from some transient preacher, but neiglibor- 
hoods, where the insliiulions of the Gos- 
pel may be regularly supported, and wliere 
from Sabbath to Sabhath men may meet to 
recognize their mutual relation under the 
roof of the common parent, and learn the 
lessons which may make them mnlnally 
helpful during the week, such neighbor- 
hoods, in a region cut up into lartre pro- 
perties for slave cullivalion, must needs be 
few and far between. 

AVe are not going to write a chapter on 
the morality of the free people of slave onlmary superujrity 

countries. But wh:U is to be expected ot | j,, speaking of 'Massiu.on. we hazard 
a population, of ^vhich a considerable partj ii,tie by saying that he was the prince of 

French preachers, and as in writing, so in 



pistols and dirks into a Committee-room of 
Congress, and threatened to kill a witness 
while giving his evidence. So Mr, Senator 
McOndie of Soulh Carolina, and Colonel 
Cummingof Georgia, worried and scandal- 
ized the decent part of the nation, season 
after season, with a publication of their suc- 
cessive plans for putting an end lo each 
other; — a thing which, after all, they con- 
trived not lo elfecl. 

Such would not be the Representatives 
of an enlightened and solf-res^peciing con- 
stituency. What has the \or{h to do with 
s/averif? As much as it has to do with 
good government; as much as it has lo do 
.witJi tfiedifFerenre ueivvceii uL-Iiij^ ^ovcriicd 
by enlightened and orderly, or by ignorant, 
lawless and vicious fellow-ciiizcns. 

FrcncU Pnlpit Orators. 

Saprin, (a Froteslant preacher,) is des- 
cribed as having a strong, clear antl harmo- 
nious voice. He possessed two oratorical 
artifices — using that leriu in the best sense 
— namely, thai of beginning his discourses 
in a low and subdued lone, and that of paus- 
ing at the end of sentences lo observe the 
eflecl upon his hearers. He wept from 
pure feeling, in addres.sing the wicked. — 
'i'his we could easily imagine from examin- 
ing the appeals in his published  liscourses ; 
but ihey would not at all suggest ihe de- 
scripiion given of him by one who heard 
him. " His preaching resembles a plenti- 
ful shower of dew, sollly and impercepti- 
bly insinuating itself into the minds of his 
numerous hearers, as the dew into ihe pores 
of plants, till the whole church was dis- 
solved, and all in tears tmder his sermons." 
Ill almost all his productions he displays 
great metaphysical subtlety, which one 
would not suppose lo flow in so soft a 
method. Here loo, in fact, is discernible 
his greatest fault, for he appears lo laisc 
difficulties in order to solve them. In the 
general course of his argumentation there 
is an air of vivacity and glowing energy, 
and in his appeals, ardor, pungency and 
force. His mode of winding up a dis- 
course by reiterations and amplifications of 
a portion of the text, or some one prominent 
idea, is powerfully impressive. 

BossrET, though eminent, is worthy of 
more admiration as an acute controversialist 
and sagacious historian, than a pulpit ora- 
tor. He has indeed many noble passages 
which show that he had great strength of 
opinion, aiid but for his prejudices and ad- 
ulalory spirit would have soared much high- 
er. He abounds in exclamations, apostro- 
phes, and fulsome flattery to the great. — 
We are lired in him and other French Eu- 
logisttf of '* Gittnde Reine," ** Augusita 
Mnnarque,*' and other offensive particular- 
ities introduced in celebrating the Virgin 
Mary, the Apostles and Saints. But with 
all these extravagances, there is much 
force and grandeur ; and though he often 
descends lo ihe very ground, he must not 
be denied the distinguished epithet of the 
" Eagle of Menx." 

Boi RDALouE has, by some critics, been 
assigned a far more eminent place in the 
temple of fame than Bossuet ; not only be- 
cause he is much freer, and, indeed, almost 
entirely free from ihe faults to which we 
have jusl adverted, but on account of the so- 
lidity and earnestness of his reasonings, the 
beauty of his arrangements, and the novelty 
of his thoughts. He displays great resources 
of mind, has much of ooinl and power, and 
sounds will: great effect the note of alarm. 
But notwiiiisiandiug his fertiliiv, the elo- 
; quence and energy of Bossuet at limes ren- 
I der itdiflicnlt, in adjudicating their res^ec- 
I live merits, to assiirn lo either a very exira- 
ordi 



LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY, WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 21, 181G. 



task and balance their minds, are the more 
accessible to every noxious excitement; 
and the poor, unfurnished with mental re- 
sources, and seeing labor accounted dishon- 
orable, are robbed of that self-respect which 
ia ih^nardian of all the virtues, and con- 
fined for their enjoyments lo the gross 
range of physical indulgence? What is to 
I be expected of ihe slave-master in his oth- 
1 er relalions, when, according to the slave- 
j holder, Mr. Jefferson, " the whole com- 
j merce between master and slave is a per- 
petual exercise of the boisterous passions, 
' * * the child looks on ; catches the 
lineaments of wrath ; gives loose lo the 
worst of passions, and thus nursed and ed- 
ucated, and daily exercised in tyranny, 
cannot but be stamped by it with odius pe- 
culiarities ?" What is to be expected, but 



is brought up widiout acquaintance with 
the very elements of knowledge, and a much 
larger, with extremely limited opportuni- 
ties for religions instniction ; among whom 
the rich, living on the compelled labor of 
others, are accustomed to the exercise of 
force, and having no regular occupation to 



the character of his pulpit discourses, he 
must be regarded as approaching nearer 
than any other in resemblance to Robert 
Hall. They ai)pear to have been similar 
in their methods as preachers, and ihere 
are strong analogies in ihe compositions. — 



The entire description of Massillon by H'- 
Alembert on his admission into the Royal 
Academy of Faris, might with little nlter- 
a;ion be applied to Hall. He attracted and 
cdifie l all classes of men, for although he 
commttnly spoke in a language clear from 
its philosophical accuracy and reasoning, 
and in the highest degree both refined and 
eloquent, he spoke to the heart, and united 
pathos with sublimity, and his character for 
benevolence and pastoral fidelity, was as 
bright as his genius. — Sorlh British Re- 
view. 

Prices of Cotton at X'lvcrpool. 

The following table ofquotalions is cop- 
ied from Wilmer and Smith's European 
Times, under dale of July 24th : 

Current prices, July 24f/i, witA those of 1845 
and 18-16. 
4 a43 



Bowed ordinnrj', 
middling, 
fair, 

poo»l fair, 
good, 

OrIe:iiis & Mobile orJ., 
niidJIiti]^, 
fair, 

I fiir. 



ti'ii m'ks, 

Lu. - ■ 

ber ol 

Taken un -;':-.. ui.i:i'Mi iii..^ ua\-. , 
Do. same period of 1845, 
1846. 

Con ni pt i o n from Jan. I st to 

July 29th. 
Exportji same time, 
Imports same time. 
Estimated blocks, July 29, 
1845. 

Consumpliou from Jan. 1st to 

July 29th. 
Exports same time. 
Imports same time. 
Estimated stocks, July 29, 



3^a4 
4ja4^ 

4ia45 
4^a5 

4ia4i 
4ga4] 

.18 



4ia4i 
4^a4^ 

6 a.H 

7 a8 



suit of mankind as the production of iron 
or salt. Its increased consumption and 
growth will depend much upon the preser- 
vation of peace and the extension of civili- 
zation. The North American Indians, in 
proportion to population, are increasing 
their consumption of cotton goods; and at 
the present time, probably, equiil that of 
the Turks, of 2 lbs. per head, especially 
with those iribes with whom the United 
States have treaties. 

He adds lliat the Chinese manafactured 
cotton' goods in ihe sixiecnlh century, 
and that 5,000 hales of cotton were import- 
ed into the United States, then colonies, in 
1770. The views here quoted a-e inter- 
esting as well as imi ortant. They are es- 
pecially calculated to arrest the aiicntion of 
planters and manufacturers. 



409.225 



877.5S0 bales. 

11.663 " 
845,900 " 
789,230 



957.550 bales. 
38.SR5 " 
1,361.(100 " 
1,038,600 « 



Cottoxi and ita Consumption. 

A correspondent of the Washington 
Union furnishes some inieresling statistics 
and estimates in relation to the prices of 
cotton, the future growth and consumption, 
and other points connected with our great 
staple. He thinks that the increased con- • 
sumption of cotton in future years, will be 
influenced by two causes more than any | 
others, — namely the extension of civiliza- ! 
lion, and Ihe increase of population. In \ 
lime of continued peace between the most \ 
advanced nations, those causes will continue 
in most active operation. Among civilized \ 
nations the consumption of cotton goo ls | 
greatly varies. In France, it is estimated | 
lhat each person consumes $4 worth of I 
cotton goods per year. In England, from ' 
$5 to S5. In Turkey, and some other 
warmer climates open lo Kuropean trade, 
the consumption is estimated at only 2 lbs. [ 
of raw cotton, converted into cotton manu- i 
faclures, per head. In England, France, 
Prussia, Austria, and the United States, 
the raw cotton consumed is said to be from 
8 lo 10 lbs. per head. 'I'ake ifie 2 Ihs. per 



Correspondence of ihe TriUiiia 
Wheat nnd Flnx — Flax Cultire w 
DrrsHint; Mncliinc— F«rmcr*» I^ibrary— 
Flax Culture In Ireland. 

Falls Niagara, July 31, 184G. 
I saw on Mr. Sherwoood's farm what 
may be common in ibis Slate, but was new 
to me. It may be worthy of iniManon un- 
der like circumstances His wh4ai had 
beeiiWintei itilled and thrown out, so that 
many f-paces were bare, and »v«uld have 
been left to grow up in foul grass and 
weeds. 'I'o these he had entenaiiied an 
inveterate antipathy, and carries on against 
them a deadly warfare. The expedient he 
fell upon in this case was to sow over the 
whole field inflax. 'j'lial efleclually filled 
up all vacant spaces, and kept down all 
noxious growth. He says the flax-seed 
and wheat may be gotten out together, and 
easily separated in tlie common process of 
cleaning. As for tlie linl or tibre of the 
flax, the common system in this country is, 
I understand, to throio that awny. There 
is something remarkable in the statistics of 
this article. From the 46,089 acres in flax 
in New York the average product in 1844 
was, but (j'Zk pounds per acre, while it 
has been shown lhat an acre mar be made 
lo produce from 350 to 500 pounds. Is 
there any thing worse than this in southern 
husbandry ? . How much is thrown away 
and lost of the lint from thedeamess of la- 
bor in handling and perhaps want of knowl- 
edge, or of labor-saving machinery in the 
preparation for market, il is impossible to 
say. There is, by-ihe-by, a valuable paper 
in the August number of your ** Fartners^ 
Library^* on the subject of flax culture 
generally, and the preparation of it for 
manufacture, with an interesting tahidar 
8t:itenient from a work on the Industry of 
the Rhine. Il is there stated by the author, 
Mr. I5anfieli!, that a niaciiine of simple con- 
struction, and demanding little outlay, has 
been invented by Mr. Kuthe of Lippe-Dei- 
mohl, which '* afl*ords a gain of fifty per 
cent.," which he says "as in the case of 
the Thresliing Machine, is of no impor- 
tance on a single morgen, (about three 
quariers of an acre,) but on 500 morgens 
llie saving amounts to no less than S5000. 



head — llie con.^nmplive capacity ol I urkey r 1 ■ 1 ■ ,1 . 

, , , u II 1; '1 .1 r n I of these machines dressing lax or 
— as the standard, we shall find llie lollow- ; ,, - , , ■ ,, , 1 ■ , 

■ „ 1. I I I..) I . tol » lor a who e neighborhood, mishl prove 

ipff result, when applied to llie population , , , • 1 ^ 

■ --■ ' . _ ' ' , prontabic to Ihe proprietor and a grcai con- 

I venience to the puldic. 

Flax has the reputation among airricullur- 



of Great Urilain, China, and European pos 
sessions in Asia : 



The population of China is cs^timat- 
e l III, 

British i^usscssions in Tndin, 



252.866.000 
112.688,132 

-ii,ioo,oao 



isls of being a great exhauster ; so it 
may be when cultivated exrhisivly fur the 
seed. The seed is sold oP ' 'H 

the rest thrown away. \ re 
some of the country re uh rs of your 



374,954,123 

The population, multiplied by 2 lbs. of Weekly paper, by giving place to the foi 
cotion lo each, will give a total of 940.908,- lowing from the number of the larm^rs' 



i04 lbs. This sum, diviiled by 400 lbs. lo 
the bale, will give l,62i,';70 hales. Il is 
estimated lhat about 000,000 bales are pro- 
duced and consumed in China and the 
European possessions in India. This 
wouhl leave 1,021,770 bales, made into 
goods, to be supplied from the spindles and 
looms of Europe and America. The do- 
mestic manufacture of cotion goods has 
been steadily giving way before that pro- 
duced by improved machinery in more ad- 
vanced couniries. As far back a.s 1837, 
the export of cotton goods lo India, from 
Great Utilain, amounted to about ten niil- 
lioiia ()f dollars in value ; while the export 
of cotton from thence, with lhat from the 



Library for ihis month ; a work, by-lhe-by, 
which ought to be read and sindietl for 
amusement and instruction, by every young 
man in America, who expeets ever lo be a 
cultivator of the soil, or who feels interest- 
ed in American Agriculture, whaieyer may 
be his position or profession. .You will 
find the extract to which I refer in the Au- 
gust number, pages 08 and 09. 

" Dr. Kane said that he felt great pleas- 
ure in acceding to Mr. lilacker's request 
thai he should endeavor to explain lo the 
Farmers present the principles upon which 
the employment of the refuse of the flax 
crops, as manure, is proposed. It is really 
very simple ; and felt salisfled lhat, in 



iNlanritius, to all parts of Europe, did not lhat neighborhood, where so much activity 
amount to so much in value by five or six and intelligence were applied to the im- 
millions. Some years since, India expori- provement of Agriculture, it only required 
ed a greater amount of cotton goods than that the reasonableness of any practice 
she received from abroad by eight or ten ' should be shown, in order lhatils adoption in 
millions. As the consumptive capacity of j practice might be secured. Every Farmer 
China and the European possessions in In- ; present was aware that crops exhausted the 
dia, in the present state of trade and inter- j soil ; that the plants take oul of the ground 
course, is greatly over-estimated at 2 lbs. I a number of materials, and that it is neces- 
of raw cotton per head, and as the average, ! sary lo restore a similar material to the 
probably, does not exceed much, if any, | ground, in order to keep up its fertility; 



over 1 lb., including native manufactures, 
the facts show lhat a vast increase is to be 
attained to reacli 1,024,770 bales for the 



therefore the manure which the Fanner 
puts in with or before his seed is, in a de- 
gree, the raw material of which the grown 



consumption of the population embraced in [ crop is to be maile. It is just as much a part 
China and European India, which will con- ! of the plant as ihe seed itself. When a Farm- 
tinue to augment in its demaml for cotton • er sells and sends away his grown crop, to 
goods as civilization and irade extends over ! be used for food, as in the cise of Wheat, 
those vast countries, exclusive of the Kns- or Oats, or Fotaiocs, he thereby sends away 
sian and other divisions of Asia. If the ' and sells the essence of ihe manure which 
population of the world he put down at he had put into the ground; and, as he 
nine hundred millions of souls (it being va- ' thus gels paid fof the manure, when il is 
riously estimated at from eight lo nine hun- ^ exhausted, he must put in as much more 
dred millions,) and supposing all nations j for the next crop, which is to be dealt with 
were sufiiciently advanced to consume 2 in the same way. 



lbs. of cotton, on an average, per head, ihe 
total consumption would amount to 1,800,- 
■ OOOf^HW lb*., whi«-h. e^iimHling 400 lh«. (o 
I the bale, would give a consumption equal 



Noxv, in the case of Flax, there is the im- 
portant peculiarity that it is not eaten; and 
hence diwK not rdurii to the land any ma- 
nure in the ordinary way, while it lakes 



i to 4.500,000 bales per annum. It is be- 1 out of the soil just the same materials as 
lieved that ihe present quantity grown in { Oats or Potatoes ; so that it is really a very 
all parts of the world does not exceed i exhausting crop, if we only look lo the 
3,500,000 bales. This leaves a margin for j growing of it. Hut the Flax crop diflers 
an increase of consumption equal to 1.000.- ' from oilier crops in this — that the value of 
000 of bales to make it equal to 2 lbs. per Oats or Potatoes, and all food crops, de- 



pends on what they take out of the ground ; 
while the valuable part of the Flax is the 
fine fibre, or thread, which has taken noih- 



head for the world. 

He remarks, further, that all increase of 
civilized Europeans or their descendants, 

whether in America or in their colonies, j ing oul of the ground. If yon burn away 
adds from 8 lo 12 lbs. of raw cotton for ; a bundle of flax-straw, it w'ill leave behind 
every additional member of the same, a large quantity of white ashes, which con- 
Should the day ever arrive when the pres- sists of the dilferenl substances which the 
cut nine hundred millions of inhabitants of j plant took out of the ground ; but if you 
the earth can be sufiiciently advanced to 1 burn away a bundle of well-dressed Flax, it 
consume, say only 4 lbs. per head, the pro- will leave no ashes. Now, what has become 
duction would then have to reach nine mil- ^ of the ashes ? They have evidently been car- 
lions of bales lo meet it, and if 8 lbs. per , ried ofl" with the waste parts of ihe plant in 
head, it woidd have to reach eighteen mil- the steeping and dressing. They are thrown 
^ lions of bales. When we consider that it away ; and yet they are" materials of which 
I is only strips of country, varying from j the plant had robbed the soil, and which 
I abotit 30 to 35 degrees on either side of the ; should be given back to the soil, in order to 
I equator, which can be employed in Ihe I keep up its fertility. To the practicid far- 
^ irrowih of cotion. and lhat much the largest mer it is. therefore, of the greatest impnr- 
increase of population in the human family ' lance lo recollect this principle— ihat the 
IS taking place in the higher and healthier fibre or valuable part of the Flax is not 
latitudes, where cotton ccnnol be grown as formed bv the exhaustion of the soil; but 
a staple, combined with the new purposes [ that the niaterials which the plant takes out 
to which us manufacture and consumption . of the soil are all found in the steep-water 
IS continuylly applied, it becomes apparent I and the chan*; and that, if lliese be returned 
that the cultivation of this staple must cpn-jto the soil, they will restore its fertility, and 
tinue as permancnily and neccs.sarily a pur- 1 that thus the 'Flax crop may be rendered 



one of the least injurious lo the ground, and 
most remunerative to the Farmer. 1 am 
aware lhat ihere are many persons here 
ready lo speak as lo the practical use of 
Flax steep-water as a manure. I shall, 
therefore, rest satisfied with having stated 
the principle on which it rests, 'i'he Flax 
crop can be rendered little or not at all ex- 
hausting, by a proper use of its residues 
as manure; but il must be recollected 
that, unless these residues be thus econ- 
omized, the Flax crop is one of ihe most 
severe the land can have, and lhat the loss 
of substances to the soil is actually greater 
than with a Corn or Potato crop,** 

In 1840 there were in ihe United Slates 
but 1,628 persons in any way employed 
in Flax husbandry — capital invested but 
$208,087. Eighteen States are put down in 
the Vent^us blank. Query. Is not here an 
opening for enterprise and for divertingsome 
of the labor and ingenuity of the country 
from Cotton and Grain, already produced 
in ruinous excess? The subject is at least 
worthy of inquiry, as is every thing which 
may diversify agricultural employments, 
rendering, each one, thereby, more profita- 
ble. 

As much better as this whole sohject i| 
undersioo l in Ireland iluin in this country, 
yet even there, not satisfied with the great 
improvements which have been realized by 
the establishment of a *' Flax Improve- 
ment Society,^* at one of the most recent 
meetings of lhat very Society it is stated 
lhat 

*• The assistant agriculturists, lately ap- 
pointed, were called in and examined, with 
a view to the selection of some from among 
them, to be sent to Belgium for the pur- 
pose of obtaining information. .Mr. John 
Hagan, ,of near Hillsborough, County of 
Down ; Mr, James McAree, of Tynan, 
Country Armagh ; and Mr. Wm. James 
O'Hara, of Hronghshane, County Antrim, 
were selected, and will proceed to the Con- 
tinent in the latter end of June, where they 
will meet the Serretarv, and be placed in 
die districts most celebrated for the culture 
of Flax. They will have lime, before the 
crop is ready for pulling, in Ireland, lo wit- 
ness the operations of polling, ripp/ing, 
i/eepintr and grassing^ on the Flemish 
olaa, as well as ihe watering of last year's 
iTOp, saved on ihe Courtrai method., and 
the pulling and stacking of this year's crop 
nn the same system. Tfie sum of 
"ach was alloited, for iheir travelling ex- 
penses,*' 

Is American enterprise lo be proverbial 
diroughout ihe world in everything except 
in — Jigriculture ? X. 



Durability of Timber In a IVet State. 

*' In digging away the foundation of old 
Savoy Palace, London, which was built six 
hundred and fifty years ago, the whole of 
he piles, consisting of oak, elm, beech, and 
' 'hestnut, were found in a perfect state of 
souiidne.is, as also was the planking which 
covered the pile hesrls.'* 

This paragraph is taken from an English 
paper. The cedar swamps ol Cape 5lay 
afl'ord even moie remarkable proofs of the 
: durability of limber in a wet state. 

On the norih side of Maurice River 
■ Creek, the meadow s and cedar sw amps, as 
I far j^) a s the last land, are filled w ith buried 
leeilare to an unknown depth. In 1814   " 
•1815, ajf allempt was uiitdc ttrTsiiik a w 
 -url) near Dennis Creek Lauvliutf, but, alii 
i-ueountering much ditlicull^Mi 



cutting 



vere at last comD|Tli;d to give up the at- 
empt by findiiigJEl the depth of twenty 
feet, a compact lUffBs of cedar logs. 

It is a coustaDt business near Dennis 
Creek to *'mine cedar shingles.** Tiiis is 
done by probing the soft mud of the swamps 
wirii poles, for the purpose of discovering 
Iniried cedar limber; and when a log is 
lound the mud is cleared olf, ihe log cut up 
into proper lengths with a long one-liandleil 
saw, and these lengths split up inlo shin- 
tiles, and carrietl out of ihe swamp ready 
for sale, 'I'his kind of worji gives constant 
employment lo a large number of hands. 
The trees found are from four lo five ft-et in 
diameter; they lie in everv possible position, 
and some of them seem to have been bur- 
ied for many centuries. Thus, sturnjts of 
Irees which have grown to a great age, and 
which have been decaying a century, are 
fouuil standing in the place in which they 
grew, while the trunks of very aged cedars 
are lying horizontally under their roots. 
One of these instances is thus deseribe l lo 
us in a manuscript from Dr. IJresley, of 
Dennis Creek, who has himself *' mined** 
many thousand cedar shingles, and is now 
engaged in the business: 

"Iliave in my mine a cedar some two 
and a half feet over, under a large cedar 
slump six feel in diameter. Upon count- 
ing the annual growths of the slump, I 
found there were thirty of them in an inch ; 
so that there were 1,080 in the three feet 
from the centre to the outside of the tree. 
The stnrn[) must thus have been 1080 years 
in growing. To all appearance, the tree 
to which it belonged has been dead for 
centuries; for after a slump in these mead- 
ows decays down to the wet, there is no 
more decay, — none, at least, lhat is per- 
ceptible. Now, we have 1080 years for 
the growth of the slump, and 500 for ils 
decay, and 500 for the {jrowih of the tree 
under it; for this must have grown and 
fallen before the tree to which the stump 
belonged sprouted. W^e are thus carried 
back for the term of perhaps 2,000 years, 
of which 1,500 are determined, beyond 
question, by the growth of the trees.*' 

The better opinion is, lhat these trees 
have gradually sunk through the soft mud 
of the swamps, after having aU:iined their 
growth and fallen. Many, however, have 
decayed in their erect position, for the 
swamps are full of stumps standing as they 
grew. 

Within a short distance of the mouth of 
Dennis ('reek, aiul a! out three miles fnnn 
anv crowing timber, can bo seen at low wa- 
ter, in the bed of the stream, numerous ce- 
dar and pine stumps, about six feet below 
the surface of the meadow, with the bark 
still ailhering to some, when the mud is re- 
moved. As one passes up the creek a few 
miles the slumps approach the surface, and 
near the edce of the live swamps they be- 
come very numerous. — Trenton Gazette. 



Dnr.ss or Mexu-a"! Womkn. — downs are not 
known. A chemise with short sleeves nnd a short 
pi'iticoat, with thr ribom for the head, and some- 
times folded over the bosom, is their entire oullit.   
It Klarlles one t*rct|uentiy lo hear the noble Casti- 
liaii rolling from lips whency nppiMrances would 
lenrh you to expect notIiin ; but tin: harsh cul- 
lurals of our filMiritiineH. Many of tliem are darker 
than onr Ii)tli;inK, aiiti ihe African btood ia plainly 
marked. — Boston Po^t. | 



TrrrrrTTniT-tTTm? Tit If^nMh -founded an estalv 
lisbmeat ou tho D^rUlwcA cuii»t. ui •^i  i.,. 

mouth of the nver of that name. They have ob- 
tained from the sovert ijarn of the imleprmlent king- 
durnof Borneo tlse rii;bt to c^tabli-h a station, des- 
tined to resemble their establishment at Sin^pore; 
and in u icw 3'ears this settlement will be rising to 
a^j mucli imporLiiice as this pro^iperous city. Ii U 
known that, in IHID, Sir 'I'liomas Kaftlcs obtained 
permission to found a settlement in a liltle Indian 
i^c, between the southeast coast of Malacca and 
tlie isle of Sumatra. Now, at the end of twenty- 
seven years, this modest ciitablishmrnt has become 
the eily of Singapore, containing 50,000 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 20,000 are Europeans, nnd transact 
every year business lo the amouiilol one hundred 
and twenty millions. In IrulU, wlicn we compare 
the progress of England with the want of enterprise 
of our (jovcrnmenl, wc feel indignant and almost 
ashamed. 

The cultivation of rice has been attempted on 
the salt lantis near the mouth of the Rhone, and 
has met with perfect success. This cultivation, 
wiitli^t yielding great produce, has the additional 
advutilage of entirely freeing the land of the salt. 
This land is alluvial soil of the first quality, and ii 
nnw made excellent for all kinds of productions. 
This year, three hundred hectares (a measure 
equal to two acres seventy -five square poles) have 
been turned to rice fields, and tliis example will 
be promptly followed. Thus, in Iho space of a 
f.^w months, tlianks to this fortunate aU«^inpt. tlie 
agrii ullure of France will have been enriched by 
a new product, and the lands of llie Delta ot the 
KUouc will have increased ten times their value. 

There are now in Paris thirteen young men, 
natives of Senegal, who are receivin. r, at the ev- 
pcnse of the French Government, an education, 
which will enable them, on their return to Africa, 
to contribute to liie civilization of their country. 
■Seven uf lliesc young men are in boarding schools, 
three at the schools for science and trade, and 
ihice at the inslilutiori of Plocrinel, and they all 
justity the sacrifices Fr.inc*; has made in their be- 
half, by their diligence and good conduct. This 
fact Id worth noting, as a proof that there is no 
nature upon which education may not exert an 
ititluence. 

Stkah Xvvioation i*y thk Pacific. — .\ let- 
ter from Valparaiso mentions the arrival thwe. on 
the 19ih of May.of the British steam-frigate Samp- 
sun, Capl. Henilerson, in eiirhty-ei*rht days from 
Port-'inoulh. She stopped at MMdeirn f»n' co.iU, 
and in the- Straits of iMagellnii she sent men on 
shore lo cut wood to supply her exhausted fuel. 
She remained at a Chilian selilement for si-veral 
days. She j rovcd nn excellent sea-boat, both un- 
der steam and under sail, •nil run frequently at 
I'l'- I I. * I- ( knots an hour. (Jnpt. llendor- 
. t hat if he iiod-xepic nibbed his 
iTOt he might have made the 
\ 1 :\ I ,1 1 i i .ji . uiMiI lo \''alp:iraiso tn thirl v days. 
She encountered a succession of severe ^MMllier 
in the Strait.s«t' Magellan, wineh cau»!ed much de- 
lay, most of which she would have avoided had 
she been supplied with fuel. She was refitting at. 
Valparaiso, and waiting ("or orders from the Ad- 
miral, who was on the coast of Mexico. — Boa, Ad. 

MrMonAHLE Events ix Octohek — Oct. 1, 
1807, first sdvv a steamboat sailing on the Hudson. 
On that day, too, the Scotch atlempted, in 1099, 
to ftirm a connnercial scttlenieut on the Islhniusof 
Darien. when King William *.if Or-jnge iusiryrted 
the (lovernor of Jamaira neiiher lo aid nor corres- 
pond with them. Oct. 2, Major Andre taken; 3d, 
Treaty uf Limerick; 5th. Daitlc of the Thames; 
8th, Pennsylvania caailers last U.S. 13aiik; John 
Hancock died; 9th. Pulaski killed; llth, .San Salva- 
dor discovered by Columbus. 1192. Oct. 13th, Bat- 
tle uf Queenston— Uruck killed, Mural sliot; Hth, 
Battle of Jena — William Penn horn; 15di, Napo- 
leon arrives at .St. Helrna; Ifilli, Battle of Leip- 
sic; Bishops Kidley nnd Lattimcr burnt; Koscius- 
ko dicil; Marie .Antoinette, Cjueen of France, be- 
headed; 17th. iihip Frolic taken; Burgoyno sur- 
renders to Gates at Saratoga; (will it not he plea- 
sant if we shall have to chroiiicic, somewhere be- 
tween Oct. (ith and IHli, the completion at Al- 
bany, hy 12s delegates, of (he l est an l ahletit 
constitution in the Union?] 10th, Lord Cornwiillis 
and the English (7.107 men) surrender to Wash- 
ington at Vorktown; 25th, B.ittle of Bennington. 

Micii'LET, in his address to the electors of Ed- 
inburgh, at Ihe hustings, alluded in tlie following 
manner lo comnterce and this country: — 

*'lt is my lirtn heJief lhat the great principle of 
freedom ol' trade is the real, tlie salutary anlagon- 
ist of war. It is my I elicf lluil. if ever, in the 
course of ages, we shall find nations agreeing to 
adjust diflercnces, not by the sword but by arbitra- 
tion — that if the greatest of these evils — hitherto 
perhaps a necessary one, but still the greatest of 
all evils which man has inflicted upon man. shall 
ever disappear from the world, it will be through 
Ihe agency of ronmicrcial Ireetloni that such a con- 
suratnalion will he accomplished; and I believe 
that this pledge, lids first fruit of our entrance on 
a sound system of trade, is tliaft treat^which has 
averted a war between twu kindred nations, and 
which will, I trust, leave to them henceforth no 
other object of dispute than the emulation which 
of the branches of the great British family bIkiII do 
more to extend Ihe blessings of civilizaiion, of lib- 
erty and good government throughout the world." 

TuK IIeaiit axo the Swohd. — ft w recorded 
of the Duke uf Luxembourg, lhat on his death- 
bed, he deelsred that he would have cherished 
more deeply the memory of having given a cupof 
cold water to our of his fellow-creatures in poverty 
an)l distress, than all the victories he had a(!bieved, 
with their scenes of blood, desulalton and death. 
An admirable lesson is conveyed in ihis brief ex- 
pression uf opinion. 

Heart-work is better than head-work; and it is 
a better temper to be fervent in charity than in 
disputes. 

ilt'ssiA. — It is announced that the Emperor in- 
tends to al olish slavery in some provinces in which 
it still exists. W hen he was at Waisaw, he creat- 
ed some surprii e t .v walking in the sireels without 
toeing accompanied, and without protection. He 
crealeil siill iiuife surprise, also, hy entering a pub- 
lic colTi-e-liouse, frcquentetl by disalTected persons, 
and partaking of rclrcshmeni*. The peisons pres- 
ent uncoveied l efore hiin. and he returned iheir po- 
liteness. Every one of those persuns would have 
been glad to h'lve caused his death ; but as he was 
alone, and uiiJefeuded, they disdained to (ouch him. 
I'his speaks vulumea in favor of the Polish 
character. 

Aim high, but with prudence, act with perse- 
verance, let no obstacle drive you from the path 
of honor and duly, and you may be sure of even- 
tual success. Riches are not within the reach 
of all ; competence is; and the latter is pret'era- 
ble. in every respect, to the first. Remember that 
Deity helps those who help themselves, and lhat 
utility is the great end of human exertion. — (ireen 
Mountain Freeman. 

The GooHEaKnuT Case. — It may be recollected 
that, some time since, a little girl named Macdon- 
ald, was taken np by a gentleman'" named Angus 
Cameron, of Carden Island, for pluckiuir u goose- 



NUMBER 14 



Imi'OHtaxt Disrovr.RT. — Reproduction of the 
Potato. — The Newark Advertiser sjys that the 
Uev. N. S. Smith, of Ihe city ot New York, has 
 liscovered a method of raising excellent potatoes 
from the eeeds of the ball of the plant. About 
four years ago he planted the seeds of nn ordinary 
plant, and obtained potatoes about the size of a 
pea. These he i)lanted the next year, with the 
seeds from their plants, and both yielded potatoes 
of an increased si/.e. Again, the Ihiid year, he 
planted the second year's potatoes and their seeds, 
and had the pleasure of gathering potatoes large 
enough for the table, of the finest fiavor and text- 
ure ; and entirely free from ihe rot, although 
]danted alongside of those having the disease. 
He finds that the potato raised from the seeds, in- 
stead of the routs, is as hard and good in the 
spring as when dug from the drill. 

A Icller from Rome, of July 26, says: "A pic- 
ture of Michael Angelo, and another of Raphael, 
have just been discovered here — the first repre- 
senting the placing of Christ in the tomb, and the 
other the portrait of the celehrnlcd Cardinal del 
Monte, similar to the fresco in the Vatican. Both 
works were purchased amongst a number of old, 
valueless pictures, one hy Mr. McCall, a young 
Scotch painter, and the other by M. Cardeni, a 
broker. 

CuAHiTT. — How noiselessly the enow comes 
down! You may^see it, feel it, but never bear iu 
Such is true charity. 



berry from his garden wliile passing hy, and that 
two Magistrates convieted her in a penalty for 
stealing. The litile girl's father brought an action 
for damages against the parties, at tlie present As- 
sises, and we leain from the British Whig, that 
the Chief Justice charj^ed in favor of the plaintiff. 
Among other things he stated, that it is so com- 
mon a matter to pluck fruit when passing an or- 
chard or ganlcn, thata clergyman might have com- 
mi'ted the fault charged to the child, and not have 
thought he did wrong. The Jury, afY^r a short 
ahscTiee, returned a verdict in favor of the plain- 
till* damages £03 10s. This is a very proper ver- 
dict, and may teach petty tyrants that they cannot 
oppress the weak and poor with impunity. 

[Hamilim (C. W.) Journal. 

Havus Ofv. — Kissing other people's wives fl 
a hazardous business. We see hy the Louisville 
papers tiiat a lleverend gentleman there has been 
held to bail in $500 for kissing Ihe pretty wife of 
a young Frenchman, one of his tenants, when he 
went to receive his rent; and a correspondent of 
the Boston Traveller, writing from Nc':vburyport, 
gives another illustration as follows : « 

The Court of Common Pleas is now in session 
here. One case on the docket excites great inter- 
est among the good people of Ihis vicinity. It is 
a c:i: e of violent assault, by a young married man, 
on a friend and neighbor, for kissing his wife. 

A young gentleman of unexceptionable charac- 
ter. cnTnged in business in one of our South-wes- 
. who usually spends his summers with 
in Newburj port, in taking leave of his 
".lie two years siiu'v. \fiiUinil lo give a 
jiarting kiss to a young married woman who re- 
sided under the same roof wilh his parent, and 
with whom his faiuily was on the mo.-t friendlv 
terms. The husband was at that lime absent; but 
on his return, being apprized of the liberty that 
had been taken, he resolved on vengeance. 

It was not, however, until this summer that he 
had any opportunity of gratifying his passion. 
During the young man's usual summer visit to bis 
friends ho was one evening decoyed, without sus- 
picion of the fell purpose, into a neighbor's house, 
where he met the angr - husbanil, with his wife 
antl his brother, and was beaten in a most das- 
tjirdly manner. After being thrashed with a cow- 
Iiide until the skin was nearly broken in many 
| lace.s, he was knocked down, stamped on and 
tcrril ly pounded. 

When his assailants were interrupted by the 
timely arrival of a neighbor, who had been called 
by a member of the family, one of them was 
kneehng on the young man's breast and beating 
hiui in the face in a most brutal manner. He was 
fortunately rescued; but not until he had received 
severe injuries, from which he may not fully re- 
cover for some time. 

The assailants have been prosecuted, and it is 
hoped will receive full justice from a New-Eng- 
land Court. 

IvFLCEycE OP Art cpo?j Morat.s.— Dr. Kurtz 
writes from Berlin : " I am frc juenl!y struck with 
Iheexerllency of the police regulations in this city. 
It would require a long letter to give you a correct 
idea of the order and regularity with which every 
thing is here conducted. Here are no rows or 
unut^ual noises; no drunken people stnggp.rinff 
through the streets; no unruly noisy hoys; no 
confusion of any kind. There arc pultUc gardens, 
promenades, places of amusement, &c., without 
end; but no riots, no loud, boisterous, profane 
swearing, and the like. Statues, works of art, 
flower-beds, trees, streams and jets of water, &e., 
are to be met with every where, but noliody viol- 
ates or soils them. Order preiails every where, 
and violence and mobs are a strange thing. With 
us, the democratic principle prevails; but here the 
principle of subordi nation and obedience; and this 
pervades all classes and alt departments." 



Valley of the AVye.— WludcUlT. 

An hour*s walk from Chepstow brings you tolhe 
base of tlie celeliraled WinilclitT. The winding 
path which conducts you to the summit of this ma- 
jestic warchlower of naiurc. is one of the genllcst 
ascent, and arcbed, almost the whole distance, by 
the interlaced foliage of young trees thickly lining 
ea-jii side. The euiineoce is densely crowned witli 
pines, so lhat ihe vusl pnnorama does not burst u{»- 
nn y »i^ ftt upon gajning the ftummit. It is not 
until vou have desremleil by a few v^inding Imf- 
Kleps inlo a kind of bnlcony. partially juliing over 
ibe clilT, lhat a sct-ne of owe-inspiring niaf^nificenco 
opens to the vision, well calculated to inspire senti- 
ments thus ei pressed by Coleiidgc in view of it: 

*■ Oil. what a goodly "rrnp ! 

Grey cloiuis ihnt simdowing spot Ihe sonny fields 
And river, now wiili busliy toeks oVr-browod, 
Now wiixling, t rift)l ami full, willi nalcrril ljatik»; 
Ail') ^pu'.n and Inwii^, ihu abbey and the wood, 
And rots nnd )uiii)lel9. ami inini city spire ; 
I'he channel thore, ittn islanil and white tiiila; 
Dim rnsbly, and cloutl-likc and shorele«4 ocean. 
It fecinrd like Oiniiipoteni.*c ! God, melliouglil, 
Hud tmilt him lliPrc a tempV ; Ihe whole worfil 
Seemed imaged in its vaft cireninreTenc^ 
^ No wish proiautid my ovcrwhf-Imed ticurt; 
llIrM linur ! it wns a luxury' to br.'' 

Silling in this ruile balcony, 01 rocky pulpit, with 
a canopy of thick foliage extended over your head, 
from the trees above, you find yourself on the apex 
of a crescent mountain of green, the opposite horn 
of which, gracefully gathering in its woody clifl^^, 
I converges to a point of silken lawn, which dips into 
ihc Wve, whose channel beitils lo the curve of 'lit 
niouniain wall. Over this point the eye passes on 
I to the sleep wall of another crescent clilf tn the dis- 
tance, on which the grey walls and ived towers of 
I Chepstow Ca«lto are described. Over this, again, 
ibe Severn winds, checkered wilh islands and in- 
I dented with protnoritories covered with woods ; and 
' beyond, (ho Iwild shore of Bristol rolls its still waves 
[ of verdure ac atnsl the horizon of the vision. Far- 
I ther to the riuht opens the widening sea, flashing 
j into distinctness l eneath the sunlight, 'i'he most 
: beautiful feature in this land and-water-scape ts in 
I the immediate foreground. 'I'his is the farm of 
I Lancaul. in the tiosom of the river, which almost 
surrouuiis it. The peninsula, of which it is com- 
I prised, is in the shape of a heart, gently sloping 
from a Ingh neck or ridge lo the river. I counted 
  tweniy-five fields, all wiout;ht in different tints, and 
j looking like a lake of framed pictures in the midst 
I of the stern mountains. 'J'he mown fields were so 
j pellucidly green, that the tree* were mirrored in 
; them, like ves-els anchored in ihe still blue water.— 
And there were sheep I itigor leetiing — I could 
not discern which — on the banks of lha river ; and 
they looked, for all the world, like tufts of wool 
strewed on the grass. Still the sense of height was 
not oppres! ive, nor was the evidence of it, in lha 
iiiininulivene.ss of objects beneath, unpleHsant. 
Atrijjht angles with Ihc neck of iho iH-ninsular 
picture-farm, and immediately opposite the tcrmin- 
aiing points of both hums of the crescent mountain 
upon which you slaml. arise Iwo vast concave walls, 
or crescent ridi:es, the two nearest horns of which 
meet in, and form, the neck of the peninsula and 
descend gently the line r f ils velvet banks lo the 
river's brink. Perhaps the valley or the channel of 
the Wye may be best described by sayinc. that it 
forms the leller S in every three mile*, and is the 
auiogiaph of the earthquake imd deluce. chronic- 
ling, in these eternal rocks, one of the awful convuU 
sioiis which rent the earth before man was made, 
and ere the elements bad dissolved the fierce part- 
nership in which tlu-y co-worked lo find iheir own 
places, and to fill the world with works of .sutdimo 
magnificcnco for ihe contemplation of reasoning 
beings. 

Il wos like descending into the lower walks of 
life, in many senses of significance, to leave this 
high place of nature, erected without hands for the 
worship of her fTod. Immediately at the verj foot 
of Ihe elilTis a lilllee coninic that out-fairies the fair- 
ies themselves. Il is a little gwlbic thing of moss, 
wilh its hundred grasshopper eyes of stained glairs 
winking at the sunbeams that \f^y through the 
vews and elm leaves at il. In ibis little sylvan 
temple refreshments are served up m parties who 
biive sharpened iheir appetites by asceuding and 
descending the clitf. 'I here are several aparlmenU 
for ihis purpose, all of which are eonittrucled of moi-s, 
and lined willi cbiiirs. x'lfts- •^ --. "'"^^^ look as 
if Ihcy would lenf out again if left m the rain. The 
table in the largest of these apartineuls, is a section 
taken oul of ^ wabiut-tree thit once grew 

in the court of Chepstow Cuslle. I should ihink 
it was six fe^l in dinnieter and one foot in thickness, 
sinnding on legs of the rudst " log cabio" order. — 
Its surface was polished to the luslure of porcelain, 
and seemed to conspire 10 give a reli h lo the 
(fimplest repast spread upon it hy the traveller or 

tourist. ElIIIC Bl'HHITr. 

Tiutern Abbey, Av^. 22, IR46. 



•*O0D AND LIBERT V." 



LEXINGTON. WEDMSSDAY, OCT. 31. 



Notice.— Calm Habtsiiors ii iio longer our Agcm 

The True American. 

We have to announce the dUcoiuinuance of the 
Tbcs A«irica5. Orders have been received 
zom C. M. Clay'a Attorney, to let it cease with 
the present number. 

The necessity assigned for taking this step is 
pecuniary. Mr. Clay's Attorney does not feel wil- 
ling to meet the regular expenditures of the paper. 
It* discontinuance, therefore, ia deemed indUpens- 
ii'!e by him. 

We (and we speak solely on our own author- 
ity) regard ihis discontinuance, as merely a sus- 
pension, and express our firm conviction that ■ 
paper will be established in its place in Kentucky, 
permanentlt/, in a few weeks. 



To our Frlcuds lu Kentuck)** 

The above announcement will surprise you, as 
much as it surprised us. 

Neither the Agent in Cincinnati, nor we. hod 
anything whatever ti  do with the pecuniar^.' con- 
cerns of ihe paper. Wc did not drcaui, last week, 
that the necessity for its dincontiiiuance was so ur- 
gent, and. had we the means, it should not be dis- 
continued. 

We part ^rora the paper with the deepest sor- 
row. You know, as well as we, that it was rapid- 
ly increasing in Kentucky, and lliat, wherever il 
circulated, it extended the cause of freedom. 

During the last three months, especially, there 
seems to have been quite an awakening in all the 
border slave Slates on the great question of human 
freedom. We have letters from nearly all quar- 
ters of them, of ilie most encouraging character- 
letters, not only expressing the warmest sympathy 
for the paper, but containing proHtrs of a hearty 
co-operation in the cause. 

What can be done, we know not. But we arc 
resolved, if a small amount of means can be ob- 
tained 40 a« to promise any thing like permamncyy 
to start a paper in the place of the True American. 
The good we have gained by so hard a toil must 
not be abandoned. The larger good, almost with- 
in the grasp of the friends of freedom, by a con- 
tinuation of their eflbrls, must not be given up. 

We need not say, to our readers, that the task, 
undertaken by us, was surrounded with difficutiies. 
We had prejudices to encounter at every point, 
and from almost every class. But conducting the 
True American, as every such paper should be 
conducted, upon the largest spirit of human love, 
and human toleration—understanding the suspi- 
cions and hates of sUveholdcrs, and treating them 
with kindness and forbearance, even, while they 
were seeking to destroy us — meeting their passion \ 
with calm appeal — and doing nothing, directly, or i 
indirectly, to peril their peace, or injure their ; 
prosperity — we were slowly, but uurely, gaining a 
hearing among them. We have several letters \ 
giving cheering evidence of this fuct, from men of | 
large propertj- and decided influence in the State. | 
We quote from one of them: 

"I cunnot call myself a friend of emancipation. | 
or a supporter of your paper; bui having read it ' 
for the Ia8t two months, I am Sjili.-fied that tlic ' 
subject of slavery ouglil to he dticus^ed, and t.hat 
you arc discussing it in a just and proper manner. 
This is no sinall confession foi me to make. I • 
have seen your paper nearly every week for six | 
munths past, but I have tossed it from mc with 
that sort of contempt that a mar fcclr. for a thing i 
he despises. Some six or eight Wtcks ago .M.-. — ; 

and myself happened at duriiig ,i heavy rain. I 

B took up your pa[M r and read it; when he | 

had done, he handed tt to me, savin*?, 'ril swear, ' 
this Icliow is nearer ri^^hl than I thought he could 
be' I read it; and since that ti.-iic J have regu- 
larly read over every paper that Iihs been issued, j 
and I have found increased satisfucti'^n and light ' 
in doing so. I Fay now. as a shivcholder, as my I 
neighbor B., and several other slaveholders say, I 
thiil llie question of slavery ought lo be discussed, \ 
and that if discussed as you do il. no citizen could ■ 
in fairneas object, I thought to write you this, not : 
for publication, but in justice lo myst'lf and some 1 
of my friends who have opposed you in every way ! 
we could." ' 

We could multiply quotations of this rhararter. 
Nay, more — our subscription list itself— perhaps ■ 
the best test — shows a slow, but steady increase 
among slaveholders. 

But it iscmongthe non-slavcholdcrs of Kentuc- 
ky, East Tennessee, Western North Carolina, and 
portions of Western Virginia, that our increase 
has bee i most rapid. We use this word rapid, c^' 
couri e. in a limited sense, and yet we know not • 
that we ought to do so. Our subscription hat with 
this cla^s is really large, and its increase, at par- [ 
ticular places, is most remarkable. At one post 
office in Barren county, where we had only three 
subscribers after the mob, we have now fifty ! 
In other counties where we had, a vear ago, one 
or two friends, we send now ten, fifteen, twenty, 
thirty, forty, fifty, and up to a hundred and fifty, 
papers! And from every quarter, without one '■ 
exception, we have received from non-slavrholding j 
subscribers the most animnting accounts of the j 
progress of the cause of emancipation, and of the . 
earnestness with which the True American has 
been sought after and read by nearly all classes, j 
One of these true-hearted men writes us: | 

"I give yon my grfat approlmtion of the True | 
American, and now say 1 like it next lo my wife. I 
I give it the preferen^'e to all others. I think it ' 
is conducted with ability and with spirit. The 
6 litorr«Is arc good, and the contribution*! furnished 
and pieces selected, Kcnerally. are of the right 
sUmp. It is doing the work in Kentucky, and 
no mistake." I 

Let no one suppose we make these quotations 
to gratify any idle vanity. We will not pretend 
to be exempt from this common feeling, or to be 
indifferent to the soothing voice of a friendly ap- 
plause ; but at this hour, when we are about sep- 
arating with friends who have stood Uy us on 
trying occasions, and who. like us, unknown, 
have fought faithfully the good fight, we can tru- 
ly and honestly say, that our feelings and thoughu 
centre alone in them, and the cause. 

The question arises now, shall they have no 
organ ? Shall there be no anti-slavery paper in 
Kentucky ? We cannot, we reprst, tell what th« 
future may bring forth. But if it be possible for 
us, by any sacrifices or industry, to secure such 
an organ, and establish it ptrmayimily, it shall be 
done. 

Friends of freedom in Kentucky, in bidding 
you farewell, temporarily, wc trust, \vc would ex- 
hort you to be firm and unyielding in your de- 
fence of the rights of man. You have done much 
for them already. You can do yet more. There 
is nolliing which a tireless energy and an honest 
heart may not conquer, — no diilkultics which 
they m;iy not successfully combat, — no oppression 
whieh they may not overcome. Gud gram you 
now this tireless energy oud honest heart ! 
Farewell. 

To oar Frlendii In the Pr«e Stntea. 

You will learn from I'le article above that the 
True American is to be discontinued aAer the pre- 
seiit number. 

We underatand and appreciate the motives 
which induced you to subscribe to it, and moat 
cordially do we thank you for your sympathy and 
aid. 

The work to which this journal has been de- 
voted, is no trifling one. It required, on the part 
of its conductor, a full and accurate knowledge of 
slavery— a thorough comprehension of the viewe, 
interesu, passions, and prejudices of slaveholder*— 
nnd a like familiar acqu:iiiitanee with the condi- 
tion, fecUngs. and thoughts, of the while laboring 
classes, and such a use of thia knowledge as to 
•luhla lum to ipealt u u to h* haard by 



largest possible number, without exciting anger or 
di^^Hkc. To do tliis. and, at ihe same lime, not to 
yield one iota of principle, was no easy matter. 
We have endeavored to accomplish thia object, in 
part, at least, by limply speaking the truth, as 
wc hold it, in love. The progress of tbo paper in 
the slave Slates shows, we think, that we have not 
labored altogether in vain. 

We believe— we could almost p:iy we know — 
that a journal conducted as this paper has been, 
w'ould go far, in the course of a few years, to be- 
gin the work of emancipation in the slave States. 

We will not cnlaigj upon the importance of 
having an anti-slavery organ in tlie slave States, 
nor speak of the joy which pro-slavery men will 
feel at the discontinuance of the True American. 
Both will be apparent enough lo reflecting minds. 

We cannot allow this sad occasion lo pass by 
without offering our poor advice to the friends of 
liberty out of the slave Stales, in one or two parti- 
culars. You should practice and manifest towards 
theadvocatesof freedom in the fil.ive States the larg- 
est liberality, and cultivate, at the same time, the 
strongest patience. Wc have stated to you the 
difficulties under which we labor. They require 
that every string upon the harp of human sym- 
pathy should be touched, and that, too, without a 
jar. While doing or attempting this, some of 
you have not fell its necessity, and others of you 
failed to understand its object Offence, conse- 
quently, was taken, and we, occasionnlly. censured. 
We complain not, but, we think, in nil these cases 
that you uhould have taken it for granted that we 
had a good object in view, and that we were using 
right means to accomplish it. Then again, wc 
have been educated under every disadvantage, 
and may not oHen, or always, see the light as 
clearly as you do. Is il wonderful, under these 
circumslances, that wc should fail to cxprcRs the 
whole truth? Is it remarkable thnt wp sliouLdcrrl 
For tltin failure, you should have, as a maiority have 
done, manifested towards us the kindliest sympathy 
and the truest liberality, rejoicing that your breth- 
ren, under all their disadvantages, had advanced 
as far as they have, in the cause of freedom. 

But yet more, friends of freedom, should you 
cultivate patiexck towards the cause in the 
South, and its advocates. Our work cannot be ac- 
complished in a day. It will require years. Is it 
right, then, that you should repine when you do 
not behold at once the fruits of our labors? Is it 
right that you should grow weary of heart, and 
faint, when, after a few years' toil, you see no 
great results? You must have faith, and consent 
to work in that faith. You must be willing to die 
with your armor on, even though no one victory 
gladden your sight. What, indeed, is a life in the 
world's history 1 Let us rejoice if we can plant 
way-side seed in our day, if others, who are to 
come after us, shall taste the ripened fruit of the 
tree we planted. Patience! It is a great and rare 
virtue. It is essential to all good men, and to 
every good cause. Let us cultivate it. Let it 
mark the conduct and character of the defenders 
of freedom every where. If it does, and they are 
othcrwiec true, they will triumph. 

Most deeply do we mourn tlio occasion which 
compels us to abandon, temporarily even, the de- 
fence of the good cause. Willingly, joyously 
would we devote our lives lo it, content to strug- 
gle on, unknown, if thereby we could lift up the 
degiadcd, and make human love and human lib- 
erty mure and more the bond uniting man to 
man. 

For your aid in helping us to do what we have 
done, wc thank you with all our heart! Heaven 
speed the coming of the hour when we shall see 
the dawn cf the day of Ln-ivehsal Freedom, 
and thus know, by the glorious reality, that our 
efforlit have not been in vain ! In this hope, we 
bid you an affectionate farewell. 



Ohio. 

The election in this Slate has resulted in the 
choice of William Bebh. Whig, as governor. — 
The Senate is a tie. The lower house has a 
Whig majority of two-r^pcrh;xps four. The Uber- 
ty vote is double what it was last year. 

Pennsylvania. 

We hive heard from more than half tlie Stale, 
and it would seem as if the Whigs were carry- 
ing all before them. They have so far gained 
four members of Congress, and ihcir organs in 
Philadelphia claim a majority in both branches of 
the Legislature. 

Marylaud. 

Claggett. of Piince Goorge, and Hoop, of Car- 
roll, were defeated at the late election. It will ( e 
borne in mind that these two men exerted them- 
selves to stop all liberty of speech on the sub ect 
of slavery, in Maryland, as members of the last 
Legislature. The Baltimore Saturday Visiter, 
and its editor. Dr. Snodgrass. were their especial 
objects of hate. Verily, the people can be trusted. 



Vermont. 

The Legislature of this Slate has elected Hor- 
ace Eaton, Governor; Leonard Sargent, Lieut. 
Governor, and Elisha P. Jewell, Treasurer — all 
the Whig candidates. The vote for Governor 
stood— Eaton 136; Smith 75 ; Brain ird U. So 
the Government is fully organized, in Whig hands 
as usual. 



Messaffe lo Gen. Taylor. 

The National InleUicjcncer says, that Major J. 
Graham would leave Washington on tlie morning 
of the 15th inst., with instructions from the War 
Department to Gen. Taylor to terminate the ar- 
mistice with Ampudia, as soon as he received the 
orders. 



From the Ptopte's Journ^. 
•*I lghi t more Ll(;Ut I 

SUCn WERE TUE LAST WORDS OF OOKTHK. 

The God-enamel'd flower 
At early dawn looks up. 
And gently would unfold 

Its pencilM cup ; 
Whilst the sun it saith, 

"Arise and chase the night, 
Wipe off this tear of dew — 

More light ! more light !" 

When twilight steals away, 

The wood-bird, singing, grieves^ 
And calls the evening buck 
To tint the leaves ; 
It sailh, '* Oh. linper yet, 

I still, in airy fligJit, 
Would bathe mv golden breast — 
Stay, stay, O light •" 

And thus the soul cries out. 

When dawn begins to break, 
And in the sky it sees 

The firet gray streak: 
"Away, aw:ty. dark sins, 

Ye've held me lonj in nignt ; 
I long to walk in day — 

More light! mo.c light!" 
Then comes the life's broad noon, 

With sun and sultry beam ; 
And oft the soul doth err 

In act and dream : 
Sun-spots arise lo dim 

The pcrfectness of sight. 
Unsatisfied, it cries — 

" Temper the light !'* 

Then evening slealelh on — 

The last hours of the strife. 
When angels beckon us 

To leave this life : 
Then as Ihe soul soars up 

To heaven's most holy height, 
It crieth, plaintively, 

" O Lord, more light ! 
More light ! more li^'ht ! to see 

What mystic path 1 tread, 
What dan^tTH hover o'er 

My heart and head ! 
Oh. stretch thy Ruidini; hand 

And lead mc ihiou^rli thui night; 
Tbeu bathe me in a flood 
0£ p«r£tci hjht 



It U not Dead. 

ThTe is power cnou:;h in Kentucky to redeem 
it from slavery if it could only be properly roused 
and directed. 

It is but a few years ago thatwehnd in the Le- 
gislature of the Stale a warm contest, indirectly, 
upon slavery. Many of our best men took part in 
it. But the sentiment of our Legislature was, that 
no addition should he made to the number of our 
slaves, and in this sentiment the people of the 
State most heartily concurred. 

We remember well the discussion. Mr. Cal- 
hoon, of Breckenridge county, and Mr. Bullock, 
of Louisville, both men of abihty.and accomplish- 
ed speakers, were pitted against each other, the 
former for slavery, the latter against it. 

Mr. Calhoon is represented to have been severe 
upon the German and Irish portion of Mr. Bul- 
lock's constituents. The language altribu'ed to 
him in the papers of the day, make him refer to 
i them as " sufficienlly servile and dependent to an- 
swer all tbe purposes of slaves." We doubt if 

I Mr. C. expressed himwlf so strongly; we arc cer- 
tain, at least, that he would not so speak now. 
! lie has a generous heart, and would lift up rather 
{ than crush the down-trodden. He has liberul 
j views, and knows that no State can be permanent- 
! ly prosperous that tolcratca slavery. AVe dare say 
( there was a time when he did not feel and express 
himself in this spirit ; nay, wc doubt not about his 
saying something which caused Mr. Bullock not 
I merely to defend his constituents as Liborers, but 
^ to speak on the whole subject with an indepond- 
I ence and eloquence, which must do him lusting 
I honor : 

i Mr. Bullock replied, in substance, that he had 
! no cause to blush for his constitucncv. That It 
. was true he represented on that floor men wlio 
I had bt en bom in other climes— that Ireland, Ger- 
. many. Holljnd, France and Italy, had all contrib- 
uted ta make up one poputatioti; hax tU»i ho Jitl 
notTcgrct it. He rejoiced that they had sought an 
a!:\ lum in the United Sates, and had found a home 
in Koiilucky. He could boor testimony to the 
frtct. that they were gent raHy honest, enlcrprizini,'. 
industrious, and useful citizens. He repelled the 
idea that ihoy were mean, dependent, and servile ; 
but said that many of ihem. by means of honest 
industry, had iKvonio useful and highly respctljMe 
\ members of society, and such as he was proud to 
I represent upon that floor. Is il, said Mr. Bullock, 
i the ob;ect of the gentleman (and such seems to Ik? 
I the drift of his policy) to drive out this meriiori- 
j our class of our population, to make room for the 
del^ased. degraded, and refuse slaves of the South ? 
If the alternative were presented, he would not 
hesitate as to his course. If the question were ne- 
cessarily presented, whether we should dispense 
with the free white labor of tbe countr}', or submit 
to an inundation of negro slavery, he could not 
hcfiitiie as to his choice. The one corxtribufes to 
our wealth and rexpectability the other vjould he 
an irtt ubua upon ihe country, and prey upon its 

I resources. • 
Thia was spoken manfully. It is evident, in- 
, deed, that Mr. Bullock understood thoroughly the 
position occupied by Kenturky, and the effect 
I which slavery had upon all her interests. Nor 
I did any appeal to prejudice, or any charge that 
' Louisville preferred while labor to slave labor, nor 
! the assertion that slavery is a necessary and natu- 
I ral relation, and ought to be perpetual, move him 
■j one jot from the line of his duty. He rejected all 
j these pro-slavery dogmas ! He proclaimed slave- 
j ry a great political evil, and would gladly sec the 
j ccnnlry freed from the blighting curse ! lie said, 
j in rq.ly to those who defended these dogmas : 

■j The provision of the Constitution he held lobe 
j sacred and binding; he could not be induced to 
disturb the right of properly, or interfere with the 
relation of master and slave. But he looked upon 
I slavery as a great political evil, and would gladly 
! see the country freed from the blighting curse. It 
I would be. paid Mr. Byllock, a glorious day for 
I America, when the proud vessel of the republic, 
freighted with the last cargo of American slaves, 
' should spread her canvass for'^he shores of Libc- 
I ria. A nation of freemen would pau.^c to contem- 
plate the sublimity of the scene. The blessingsof 
Heaven would be invoked by an incalculable host 
of uplifted hands; the rejoicing lustre of millions 
of eyes would he turned upon it. and all the -ar- 
ring elements of parly strife niehed into one gen- 
eral prayer of joy, and thankfulness, and safety. 

This debate arose upon a proposition to repeal 
thel iw prohibiting the introduction of slaves into 
KentU"ky from Other States, for purposes of traf- 
fic. Mr. Bullod^rgued that the consummation 
of the proposed wlasure would be suicidal to the 
best interests of the Slate, by draining it of iu pro- 
duce, which was wealth, and supplying it with an 
unneressary slave population, which was poverty. 
In reference to one of its social evils he said, in 
substance: "Repeal the law, and Louisville, the 
commercial metropolis of the Stale, will become a 
slave-market, second only to the district of Colum- 
bia ; a7td the chinking of chains, far i^ed for human 
limbs, will be heard daily in her streets." 

There are, scattered over the Stale, many of 
our ablest men, who, in spirit, concur with Mr. 
Bullock, and who are for emancipation now. upon 
some one of the various grounds so often slated bv 
us. Wc doubt if. at this hour, there exists any 
real difference of opinion between this gentleman 
and iiis former opponent, Mr. Calboon. But why 
are they silent ? How comes it thai so little is 
said by them '. Patience ! Patience ! they only 
bide their time. They wait only for the opportu- 
nity to speak, and to speak boldly. 

Anli-alavcry sentiment, then, is not dead in 
Kenturky. It sleeps. When hfting themselves 
up, and learning that the hour now is. that free- 
dom — universal freedom — may be safely defend- 
ed, the advocates of this sentiment will blow a 
blast thai will startle those of us who have been 
fighting so long alone, as it were, against the curse. 
Let us hear it. Let us work, that we may hear 
it. For, as sure as wc do work faithfully and hon- 
estly, so sure shall we live to see the day when all 
this shall coine to pass; and when, besides, men 
will Nay aloud, and in public places, as if there 
were some honor in the thing, Oh, I was always 
for freedom. On such a day, I spoke boldly for 
it, and did not mind the passion and prejudice of 
my neighbors. I was always for liberty I" 

Government Flitanclerlnfp. 

Mr. Secretary Walker finds serious dilTIcully in 
raising money at the East for government pur- 
poses. 

Every party ought to insist upon the doctrine, 
as far as it is practicable, of paying as wc go. — 
Nothing so effectually checks extravagant ex- 
penditures in private or public, as its rigid enforce- 
ment. The people who act upon this maxim, 
rarely find their government involved in u^fcless 
war, and the government that knows its people to 
be 80 determined, as rarely seek lo engage in it. 
Butwc arc out upon the open sea now, and there 
ia no telling where wc shall land. 

It seems, from the New York papers, that pub- 
lic ttintiment is very much against the banks loan- 
ing money lo Mr. Walker. All parties say, Let 
government try its own policy- *' There is no ill 
nature,'' says the Journal of Commerce, "about 
the business, and there is no reason why govern- 
ment should not try its own policy as well as the 
people; none why the people should be made sick 
to save the administration from taking its own 
modicine." Tliis neutral, or commercial paper, 
adds : 

The truth is. that the Secretary made a prmd 
mist. ike, and that alter practical men had (old him 
the truth, in putting out his treasury- notes without 
interest. He seemed lo think that the treasury 
notes were a sort of "divinely appointed" cur- 
rency, which would circulate without the common 
virtues of *• unauthorized" money. If he h.id is- 
sued the notes with five and a half per cent, inter- 
est, five or ten millions of them would have been 
aWorlK^d by temporary surpluses, and he would 
have been a great financier in high ere lit. But 
he could not be drawn into suffu-ient practicable- 
ncss to do this, and so a different verdict is set 
down against him. In the meantime the currentK 
set hard against the revenue. A great quantity 
of gooda oxa being exported* £ar ft drawback of 



the high duties ipaid upon them, which may or 
niay nol be •* relinded within the United Slatx-s," 
at a tower duty upon a lower cost. Besides, the 
Iresh importations are now oil going into ware- 
house lo awiiit the first of December, except so 
much as is necessary for immediate consumption. 
The duties, therefore, for ihe next two months, 
will be diminished, and the debcntnres increased, 
while the Mexican war will call for cxailly 
the opposite state of things. When the Sub 
Treasury law goes into operation fully, it will be 
thoroufihly complied with throughout the country. 
Many Whigs have recently become converts to 
the system, and all h/inds will have a chance to 
see how much good it accomplishes. The finan- 
ces of the people are in a fair w;iy to stand well, 
but the common treasury is in a doubtful predica- 
ment. 



Sloi-m at Ihe East. 

Baltimore was visited by a severe gale, October 
Hth, and murh loss of life and property occasion- 
ed thereby in the city and Chesapeake Bay. The 
cellars and lower floors on the wharf were over- 
flowed by the tide, and canal-lwats and small wa- 
ter-craft weresunk in the river end l riy. At Wash- 
ington, also. !he storm was very severe. Indeed, 
It extended all along the sea-coast and did, every- 
where, seriovs damage. 

Thr Army* 

The reader will find in another column full de- 
tails of the Intile of Monterey, together with the 
official report of Gen. Taylor. 

The bravery of our troops, and their ability to 
cope with any foe, nobody questions. They fight 
well, and will ever do so when called into the 
battle field. 

But what eltt" have we gained by the victorv of 
Monterey, than the simple fact of establiithing the 
valor of .^mercan soldiery ? We are no nearer 
conquering peice. We are not as near. Forour 
position is such, that we are more exitosed the far- 
ther we advance into the heart of Mexico, and 
less able to'sui^due, her. Indeed, if the Mexican 
people werr rewlved to pn-vent it. their sulnuga- 
tion would be s physical impossibility. 

Let us examine, briefly, the condition of affairs 
in Mexico. 

We have taken Monterey, and defeated Ampu- 
dia. But Gen. Taylor was unable to hold the 
11,000 .Mexicans, .\mpudia*s force, as prisoners of 
war. It is true, he made thia demand; but it is 
equally evident that he did not persist in it. And for 
a very obvious reason. It would have taken his 
whole army to guard his prisoners, in the first 
place, and in the second, it would have required 
all his means to have victualled or supported them. 
He was obliged, therefore, to let them go, and 
doubtless, did the best circumstances would admit 
of. So far. then, as results are conce rned, the vic- 
tory at Monterey amounts to little or nothing. 

But there arc more serious difficulties in the 
way. As Gen. Taylor pushes his force into the 
interior, hia linej of military defence become atten- 
uated and weakened; as the Mexicans are pressed 
nearer the centre of home, all their resources be- 
come condensed and strengthened. Suppose the 
Americans go on to Sallillo, they will have to pasa 
through the sane battle scenes that were witness- 



Felt ealm amid the tides of Thought that roll 
'J'hi'ir niiiihty voiumcs through its sounding deeps. 
Not until now have his unresting eyes 
Pierced steadily the thick old gloom that lies 
On and arouixl him from his natal day. — 
And seen, with ftiiih tliat knows not lo despond, 
The heaven of beauty that lies bijght beyond, 
Outiipreading wide, and stretching far away. 
The earlier ages ore glanced at. The times of 
the Patriarchs, and the fuilh. love, and truth that j 
dwelt in the green groves of ihe primeval land, are 
II and beaultTulIy described. Then follows 
earth's earlier nations, and then Greece and Rome, 
worn out suljects almo?!, and made stale by the 
bombast of our fourth of July orators, yet handled 
by the poet with delicacy and enthusiasm, ^inge 
be 

In that fair land, whose shorea 
Of old renown the blue  ^t;eaii laves. 
Where ihrough Arcadian v.ili.i Eurutas pourt 

Hia con-ecrated wave^, 
Kose nations up like meteors — bright and grand* 
And iiiiiihliest enterprises there were plann'd, 
And perlecti-d ; and there the arts of war 
And peace grew up together ; and afar 
From vexing luinidt, *jieaih green roofing trees, 
White headtd men connM hit(h philNsojiliies, 
And built up systems ; and the human niind 
Heaved like a lettered giant, when he feela 
New streiiRth, that may defy the gyves that bind 
Hia limbs, but in th* unusual eflljti reels. 
And fniiiis. and lulls. So it was then : there came 
No freedom to the spirit, but in name ; 
The soul ihiit roam'd, on daring wing, obroad 
Thtou$(h sfiace, buili temples **io the Unknown 

God;" 

The wisdom that made eloquent the grove, 
Inculcaieil no Law of Perfect Love; 
'J'he heart thnt swell'd at deeds of high renown. 
Sank 'mid its own debasing vices down ; 
'J'he arm that soonest rose 
Against encircling foes. 
And struck for Liberty its fiercest blows, 
VVuH the Kflinc arm that gave 
His galling fetters lo the slave. 
And drove the good and jusi to seek a foreign grave. 
V. 

Where o'er Etrurian vnllcys spread 
Serencst f kies of soiieet tilue,— 
Where leaping Alpine torrents fed 
MeanderiiiK streams, that glided through 
Uool poplar shades, and stole among 
Low thickets wiih the vfine-grajies hung,— 
Where yellow Tiber roll'd between 
Banks living in eternal green, 
And all of sweet, or C'«nd, or fair. 
Was on the earth, and in the air. — 
The seeds of nations wandered, f^etilin; down 
And st'iking root, soon ntany a quiet (own 
Sprang up along the green acctiviiierf. 
And in the shadows of embi)wpriii)  trees. 
And here, reposing ihrouch the hot mid-day, 
Or in co d mom and breezy eve away 
SecdinK brood fields, or from the generous soil 
Gathering rich fruits without u'ertasking toil, 
A happy people lived: happy, if ease. 
And plenty, and the simple pow'r lo please 
Kude fancies, and to satisfy desires 
As rude, be hnppiness. Populous cities rose 
Kre long, and tn them ihe unlndy fires 
That madden, and call down unnumbered woes 
On earth, were kindled ; and the hearts of men 
Became the altars of Ambition then. 



.Strife for dominion next 
That clime of Iveauiy vext; 
.\nd men unknowo before as foes, 
In fiercest bale arose. 



[to close. 



ed at Monterev. If they win, what then ' Why And rush'd, with sword and spear, in deadly slrife 

they cannot tak the Mexican army as prisoners of ■ T'! " T'' "'T' "^i'-' i , 

*^ Cuirafes, helm, banneret and shield ; 

war, and they will be left, conwqucntly. to go on And. crushing whatsoe'er would bar, 

and make resislaace at some other point. Sup- Together roll'd ihc tides of war; 

pose, however, making a virtue of necessity, that A"''' '»'''R''"g- 'ose on high 

r'«„ 'P-...i«,P ti,. ^ . - , I r ' Theclash.the cuise, the groan, the furious battle-crv. 

ijcn. t aylor. til* next victory he wins, enforces a w .i . n i i*, . """'c-"/* 

surrender of the Mexican troops, where is he? 

What can he do? He ties his own hands, and 



leaves himself without the possibility of reaping 
any substantial benefit from his victories. 

Again. It is evident that the Mexicans arc not 
wanting in courn';e. Physically, they arc inferior 
lo our people. They will neither do nor dare as 
much. But then they can be taught to acquire 
much of that discipline, and active vigor which 
makes our tro 'ps so irresistaUe. And just now 
we are doing our part in teaching them this les- 
son. Our beat oIBcers adnut that they have already 
as skillful gunner!', and that their parks of artillery 
are ncaily as well managed as ours. The conse- 
quence is, or will be, that every battle will teach 
them lo fear us less and less, and if there should 
be an effective organization of the central govern- 
ment, enable Wicm In resist our forces with a cer- 
tainty, almost, of checking, ultimately, their pro- 
gress. 

It appears to us, under the present aspect of af- 
fairs, that the conquest of Mexico, if the Mexicans 
be at all united, will be no easy matter. We are 
certain, we cannot effect it, under tliis supposition, 
without incalculable loss of life and treasure. It 
is dillicull lo understand the policy of our Govern- 
ment; but if it be bent on war and conquest — if it 
look not to British interference, or a settlement of | 
our difficulties by diplomatic arrangement — no one 
can calculate when the contest will cease, or what 
it will cost. 



Ijlterary Notices. 

We hsd intended noticing the following interest- 
ing discourses. 

1. Mr. Shreve's, delivered August 17lh, at Han- 
over College. Ia. 

2. Alex. Brown's, sermon on the duty of instruct- 
ing sUves. 

Wc have not lime, or to tell the truth, we are 
not exactly in heart to talk about the sulject mat- 



Soon the calm Heaven biok'd down 
On pUins wiih dead o'ersirtivvn ; 
And many a peareful wati-r 
Ran red and thick with slaughter ; 
And where tbeir battling armies met, 
A mtiiiion-mad, that blow to Kt^ike, 
The slurs of the young nations set- 
Conquered and cnnqueror alike: 
All ssnk but one. 
When that fierce strife was done. 
And hi; h nl ove their ashes s(Min 
Eariii's ^rande^t and her mtghilest empire rote: 
How blight and duzzling its majtislic noun I 
How dark i:s close ! 
Above its lei^ions proudly waved 
The eajle banner of the free, 
Yet sank its sons by vice depraved, 
Betie.ith the foot of Tvannv : 
Down-irsmpled. scorn'd, defied, enslaved-— 
Well fit a lyratit's tools lo be. 
Ttie Eentler virtues struugbd long; 
LeBuiiiii; and Art logi-ther flood ; 
Anil TiiHy '» sjieeeli. Slid iVIjru's a^ng, 
Hsd lessmis for the biavf and K'*(hI; 
Aiid the mild St ir. whose orbii lay 
In old Judean heavens away. 
Came, and slo id over ibem. but shone 
On heiids of niiiht. and henrls of stone : 
Then open'il wide the frozen North, 
And poured her hordes by mitlinna forth— 
And what was loitering ern (hev came, 
Soon yielded lo the sword and flame. 
Mr, Gallagher is filled with a generous and hu* 
mane spirit. War fir him has no charms. He 
loves not its demon spirit, and will not cater to its 
false pretensions. He exclaims 
Wnr!— War again! 
Not now for freedom, but for blood! 

Nor was this slrugale vain : 
For thick the warm and purple flood 
Han over many a trampled plain. 
Where men like demons fought, 
Like demons fell, 
Ai if their fiery henrU hail caught 
The hottest passions of intense-*! hell. 
Weakened and taint at length. 
They fell wheie they had poured their strength; 
And as they sank exhausted down. 
The priestly milrc, and ibe royal crown 
Above them ro«e ; and theirs again 
Were galling yoke and clanking chain : [main. 



ters of these discourses, in the same earnest spirit in 

in which the authors treat ihem. So we must let : And humbled, bound, oppress'd, the nations still re- 
Mr. G. closes his poem as follows: 



them pass. At another time we may refer lo these 
discourses, and dwell at length upon the views ofihe 
authors of them. 

GiillsiglicT*a Poem. 

William D. Gallagher delivered a poem before 
Hanover College, la., which we have just received, 
and which we like much. 

There is nothing like earnestness after all. Your 
critic may sit down and tear lo pieces u hat seems 
to us very beautiful and true. We have no relish 
for this spirit. We see in this poem of Mr. Gal- 
lagher's, what we deem faulU ; some petty ; some 
large ; but beyond there is a power, an eameatness, 
in the poet which makes us, from the beginning lo 
the end of his poem, go on with hun as with a 
friend and brollier. 

The poem is entiled, " The Promise of the pres- 
ent," and the following is the argument : 

I. .Man's hope in the Present. II. A retrospect 
—tbe Past — The Patriarchal Ages. HI. Man in : 
the first nniions of the Sarili. IV. Greece — Phi- i 
loHophies of tbe Aihenians — Man under the Grecian | 
Democracies.— -V. The Etruscuns. and earlier na- 
tions of Italy — 'I'heir fall, and the rise of the Roman 
Empire — Advent of Chistianity — Irruptions of the 
Northern Hordcj, and fall of Koine. V'l. The 
Middle Ages — U.iwning of ihe New Civilization — 
The Motlern Natiims— Italy — Italian \u and Poe- 
try — I*Vancc — lulidelily— The rienth Kcvuluiinn 
— Priesily UominancO, VII. A transiiiim lo the 
New World— 'I'bv' Pilgrim Fathers — .Man under a 
prospect of Self (lovcrntnent — America. VII. De- 
scendants of the Founders of our Free Instiluti  ns — 
Past, Present. a:iri Future. IX. Progret-s of the 
true principles of Liberty— I'ho Human Masses — 



'J'he Promise of the Phksest ! Hour by hour 
I see the upgrowing of a perilous pow'r, 
Whose mightiest enerey, whene'er it cnme, 
Will strike the pale and startled nations dumb. 

Nol here — nol here alone. 
Pants the torn bosom for a be:ter day. 
But wheresoe'er the light of truth hath shone, 

In the Old World away. 

Paliently. well and long 
The many for the few have toil'd in sweat,— 
Not deeminf; lt[;hlly of the accursed wrong, 

But feejinti; lhat nor yet 
Had come the day of reckoning and wrath. 
But now, Iteside the tone and desolate palh 
Of slave and [ ea iant, — where the rice-swamp* 
spread. 

Or where his hone and crust the Chartist hath, 

Or wheie Hibernia's sons in bondage iread. 
Or hy the Danube's icy wave, or where 
The dusky Syrian roves with bosom bare. — : 
Whet r'er a proud and trampled spirit bleeds, 
A desperate purpose nerves for desperate deeds ; 
And outraged millions, rising from the dust, 

Plac#^ in on-looking Hesiv'n th^ir hope, thoirtruat. [ 
And pant to minijle in that glorious fij»ht. [Kighl, , 
Which shall beat down the Wrong — lift up tbe . 
The voice of f^cnate*. and the breath of Kings, 
Order and law, shall then he fragile things,— 
For. as fierce tempests, lashint; as they sweep 
Tumultuous billows on the sounding Deep, | 
Strike down the mightiest tieels, and scatter wide 
The proudest armaments its waves that ride, — 
So huinsn passions, ofierrific birlh, 
Sliiill Hvvet p and desolate ihe broad green Earth, 
Until the fiahl be fought, the victory won, 
And Equal Justice smile on all beneath the sun. 



Sold to i ny Ikis Debts. 

We noticed, a short time since, the Ruddcndin- 



I heir triumph in on-coniing conflici.-Lniversal appearance from Charleston. S. C, of a certain 

alderman and Bank Director, on account of debta 
The opening of the poem is fine. The lines : which he could not pay, and who was married lo 
fall upon our ear, as if he who spoke them ^ mulatto woman, by whom he had six children, 
knew them to be true. And there is f^ith— that f'. "'^"'^ ^^''^^ mulatto woman was 

.;, f f . . , „ si-AVE ! and conscquentiv the six children are 

ktnd of faith which the true poet know, ao well slaves also • The result is, the creditors of the ab- 
how to mspire— in their very ulterance, which sconding alderman have made arrangements to 



makes the reader feel as if he had 

— — poiver lo wre»itle wiih the Wiong, 
.And loaehieve the Kight. 
Thus does the poem begin : 

NETEn. since Time began 
The pi)rl8U of Llernity lo ope, 
Hath the forevcr slrugnliiig heart of Man, 

Been quickened by such hope 
As anirnalea aiid fills each tihre now. 
Never liefore hath his commanding; brow 
Wiih equal radiance b- en britiht ; 
Nor the hi^h impress borne so flrtng 
0( pov^'r lo wrehtle with the Wrong, 
And to Hcliieve the Ult-bt. 
Nol unlit now hath his myateiious soul, 
Tb« cirouit of Eteruity that a wee pa. 



seize the wife and children and sell them for her 
husband's and their father's debts ! Think of that, 
ye pious and christian people ; in this republican 
and christian country, a man's wife and children — 
bone of his bone, and blood of his blood — are to 
be sold to pay his debts! Here is one of the le- 
gitimate fruits of Slavery; it first encourages a 
man lo libidinous habits with his sUves, and then 
when misfortune overtakes him with a group of 
his own begotten slave children around him, he 
sees the remorseless creditor come and aeiie upon 
the issue of his loins, and the wife of his bosom, 
to sell them in the shambles, like beasts. There 
I will be a tearful account lo settle, some day, for 
; this horrible state of things, and every man who 
I does not lilt up his voice against it, will have some ' 
^ 4hue in thai acfouat— Wtuhini^tan PairioL * 



Co. TfSpondinct of the Ctnannati HrraUi. 
Glasoow, Kr., Sept. 27, 1846. 
-. liailey.—i^lT. it has been .some lime since I 
d-T pcd you a line. I now do so. My only apol- 
ox ibr niy neglect is not that you were forgotlcn, 
bui that we have been trying to increase the cir- 
cui tion of the True American. And in order that 
yoi may form some idea of the progress and sue- 
Ci's;r that has attended our etTorts, I shall advert 
back to what was the feeling hero some few years 
a^r-. and show you what you may conclude it is 
now. The evidence I shaU adduce is this. A few 
yc^rs back, a physician and member of the Pres- 
byterian church tame to this county, who received 
and showed lo his friends, a tew numbers of a 
paper published by yourself called, " Facts for the 
People." It was thought by some that such do- 
cuments were inadmissible, and that his presence 
WAS not necessary in this community; according- 
ly, on the evening of the day following, this notice, 
or, as it was called, request, was handed to him 
by one of the ofHcers of the commonwealth for the 
county : 

Dr. Hickock — You are requested by the under- 
signed and luany others, to settle up your business 
if you have ony to settle, in ten days from this 
time and leave this State. If you will do so wil- 
lingly, we would be gratified, if not, you have to 
leave or abiile the consequences. 
Gi.ASoow, iUth June, 1843. ' 
'i"he above was signed by 88 names. He set- 
tled up, or at any rale, lelt the county within the 
time named in the above notice, and I suppose did, 
as I have never heard that he has been in the 
State Kince that time. 

At that time, 1 do not know of hut one copy of 
an anti-slavery paper taken in this county, or in 
this (Green Kivcr) country, as it is called, and 
that was the Philanthropist. A few years before 
that lime, say about \H\iG or 18:17, some fourteen 
cojiies of that paper, as I understand, were taken 
ill this part of Kentucky. But the principal antt- 
slavcry men moved from here from that time to 
1843, so that you may readily understand the state 
of feeling about the time the above notice whs 
brought forth. After that time, the few anti-sla- 
very friends \cfl thought it unsafe tor the principle 
acted on in the case given to be considered as a 
precedent. Accordingly, as you will recollect, 
twenty dollars were placed in your hands, to pay 
for twenty copies of the Herald and Phihnthl'Opt»t, 
as we could procure the subscribers and torwurd 
the names to you, as it was shortly after the time 
that you made the offer of that paper to clubs of 
twenty for $20, say in March, 1844. In about 
twelve months from that time, with considerable 
difliculty and much ctVort, that list of subscribers 
amoiinlcd to Iwenty-one. And about that time, 
(1845,) or a little after, the prospectus for the 
True American was pubhshcd in the Herald, and 
as several of the subscribers' years were about ex- 
piring, they concluded they must patronize the 
True .\mcricun, as it was proposed to publish it 
in our own State. So, accordingly, in June of 
last year. flO were forwarded to C. M. Clay, for 
five copies of that paper. It received no additional 
subscriber until October, after that pai er made its 
resuctcitated appearance, and gave evidence that 
the ISlh of August only suspended its animation, 
and not produced its death, as some supposed. 

From that time to this, its friends have labored 
somewhat more successfully, and they have be- 
come inspired with more zeal for the cause, and 
indeed some are looking forward, believing the 
lime will soon arrive when they shall have evi- 
uf-ncc that their labor has not been in vain. And 
as I gave you some of the evidence on which lo 
predicate what public sentiment was in 1843, I 
must necessarily give you what we consider some 
evidence of what the state of public sentiment now 
is. From the time given above to now. your Her- 
ald has some seven subscribers, the Baltimore Sat- 
vrday Visiter three, the True American sevenly- 
ty-two ; also the Anti-Slavery lieporter has some 
twenty copies, or more, that comes here once a 
montli : besides the New York Tribune, and the 
M'ulchman of the Valley, and several others, good 
pa )er9 of the kind, but not so effective as tbe first 
iL ntioncd in the anti-slavery cause. 

Another thing is. on the counters and tables of 
■ 31 yrnl of our merchants and mechanics may be 
8C 11 copies of the True American. Herald, and 
A ti-slavcry Reporter, and in our Court House I 
h; .'c noticed several copies of the above named 
pe  ers lying on the tables within the bar, or in the 
litt.ids of several member'! of the Court. I saw, 
du.'ing this week, nt one time, four of its members, 
including a distinguished Judge, with copies of the 
True American in their hands, reading il within 
the bar, and during the past week, during the ses- 
sion of our Court, I think more than half of the 
time aome of the members were reading some of 



1 gia, they broxight their case into the Supreme 
Court of the United States, where it went off" on 
a technical objection. An overwhelming force 
was poured into their country. There was noth- 
ing further for them; and they were removed 
from ihcir homes to 9 distant region beyond the 
Missisi^ippi, there to remain, under just such an- 
othcr guaraniif as those of which they had alrea- 
dy experienced the value, till Arkansas sh.iil bo 
populous enough to be disposed to extend her 
jurisdiction over them as Georgia had done before. 
I'nder the direction of General Scott the removal 
was as humanely conducted as the cruel circum- 
stance of the case allowed. Their lands were dis- 
tributed by lottery among the people of Georgia, 
and the inclVaceable stain remaitis on the honor 
of the nation. iLs character btands settled by a 
decree of the highest national tribunal. In Sep- 
tember, 1831, three missionaries were sentenced 
by a Georgia Court to four years' imprisonnicnt 
in the penitentiary for residing among the Clicr- 
okecs, without taking the oath of allegiance to 
that State. The case was carried up to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, who decreed 
(May 3d. 1832.) that the imprisonment was ille- 
gal. Iwcause the law of Georgia, assu^ning juris- 
diction over the Cherokee country, was contrary 
to laws and treaties of the United States, and 
therefore null and void. The missionaries were 
discharged ten months after, but the poor Indiana 
were without redress. 

The Seminole troubles, of twenty-five years' 
duration from first to last, are fresher in the 
minds of this generation ; a bill of twenty mil- 
lions of d(dlara (and how much more nobody 
knows) has helped to keep their memories ahve. 
At the close of the war of 1812. a number of 
runaway slaves from Georgia and elsewhere 
collected in Florida, then a Spanish possession, 
fifteen or twenty miles above the mouth of 
the Apalachicula river, where they fenced in 
lands for farming, provided themselves with 
arms, and built a fort. The place, of coutKe. be- 
came a resort for fugitive slaves, and as such at- 
tracted the notice of our government. Genera 
Jackson, then commanding on the frontier, was 
instructed to notify the Spanish commandant at 
Pensacola, that the fort must be destroyed, and 
he issued orders to General Gaines to destroy it 
accordingly, and to restore the negroes to tlicir 
maetera. Col. Clinch attacked it by land, and 
Commodore Paltcison by M;a. It waa Uumu up 
with hot shot, and above three hundred negroes 
were killed. The survivera were sent home to 
their masters. The army and navy of the United 
Slates had been out on a slave-huntins expedi- 
tion, and had caught and butchered the blacks at 
the expense of the slavery-hating freemen of the 
North. The Indiana rcsi-nted the death of some 
their friends in the negro fort, and thus begun the 
fir.st Seminole war, which involved us with Spain 
and England, and for some time threatened seri- 
ous consequences with those powers. 

General Jackson's campaign of 1818. quieted 
the Indians for awhile, and in 1H21. Florida be- 
came ours by purchase. The Indians in thia 
territory, believed then to number about 2,000 in 
all, scattered in little villages and hamlets, were 
collected inlo a Ira tt. near the centre of the pen- 
insula, where, notwithstanding the neighborhood 
of a strong military post, they continued still lo 
harbor negroes. For this and other reasons their 
presence was unwelcome, and in lfi'^7. a propo- 
sal was made to them, on the part of tbe United 
States government, lo remove Ix-yond the Missis- 
sippi ; which, however, they positively refused to 
entertain. In 1832, ihe business was taken up 
again more resolutely, and by the treaty of J*ayne'e 
Landing, they consented lo an arrangement, ac- 
cording to which, if a delegation from themselves 
to explore the country provided for iheir sellle- 
ment should return with a favorabJe report, they 
should consent lo emi^rale. 

This treaty w:is dificrently interpreted hy Pres- 
ident Jackson and ihe Indians. A large pari of 
the nation, bunting with a sense of former wr *ngs, 
and believing themselves to be now over-reached 
and outraged anew, refuf^ed at ail events to re- 
move. The President sent a military force to com- 
pel their acquiescence, and al Ihe close of 1835 
another Seven Years War broke oul, in which a 
few miserable savages defied the whole jiowcrund 
resources of this vif»orous nation. The Pr« 
estimated the number of the Seminnle warn 
four hundred. The Secretary at War rnte 
high as seven hundred and fiHy. 'I'he disbi 
agent in Florida reckoned the whole popul 
including men, women and children, Indinns 
negroes, al three thousand. Against thorn, iti r 
diiion to the regular troops, had been nmrshallc'-. 
as early as 1840, more than fourteen thousanu 
volunteers from the neighboring St jtcs,' and ir» 
the middle of that year ihe expense already incur- 



t.ie above named papers. All I shall say on that \ had been estimated al twenty millions of dob 
subject is. that three years ago, I did not see any i^rg -j- gut the runaway negroes, more or less, 
such thing. The best of all is some of the 88 ; ^vhom a few hundreds of ouilawed Indians could 
that signed Ihe foregoing notice, are now aubscn- j harbor, were lo be raught again al whatever cost 
hers to the True American, and. I know, are con- Qf American life Hud treasure. ** I have lo ask 
•tant reiders of both it and the Herald. I ynur particular attention," wro'e the Secretary of 

This increase has not been without effort and ' 'w^r lo the Comm-inding General, Januarv 21st, 
co-t, but our success has exceeded our txpcrta- ; 1930, " to the roeasures Indicated to prevent tbe 
tions. especially when we commenced our eiforts. ; removal of those nejnoca. and to ensure their rcs- 
Anothcr thing is, that we regard as ominous of | toration. Voti will allow no terms to the htdions, 
success, that of these 72 subscribers to the True f^^^ry Arm^ slave in their posstfrion, btlon :' 

American, and the other papers named, they are 1 i„g to a white mnnjsiriven vp." This was the 



generally the working men ol tlie community, men 
who regard labor as honorable, and are not ashamed 
of it. Wc hope your own Stale will show the 
world that you love Liberty and Justice, and 
that your fellow-citizen. Lewis, will receive such 
a vote, that your position will not be mistaken ou 
tilt great question of Liberty and slavery. 

The evidences that we see from the Northern 
or Free Stales on this great issue, inspires us with 
hope, (and the issue mainly depends on you,) 
that Liberty is yet in reserve for us* 

Yours, J. L. G. 



The BlRve Power.— No. XIII. 

WHAT HAS TUK TTORTH TO DO WITH 1x1 

The North htis something to do with the na- 
tional legislation, which has charge of all the great 
aflairs of the national body, and presents it before 
the world and before history as a ruHian or a 
Christian people, according as a rullian or Christ- 
ian policy guides its counsels. 

Outrages of the slaveholding administrations 
follow each other so fast, that the latest soon 
throws those which have preceded into forgetful- 
ness. 

It is but fifteen years since the moral sense of 



great siiie qua mm of pacification. Without it, 
there must be interminable war. The North had 
plenty of fives and money lo spare, and these 
must insure Georgia and Alabama against the loss 
of a single runaway negro. What worthier test 
could there be of Northern loyalty 1 What filter 
use for Norlhern blood and money? t 

They did not quite get us into a war with Eng- 
land about the self-ein:incipated slaves of the Eu- 
terprize and Creole, but it is no thanks to Mr. 
Calhoun or his Thrasonic hackers that they did 
not. It seemed at one time getting to be a very 
j pretty quarrel, and had John Bull been a more 
i favorable subject for Southern valor to practice 
I upon, it may be that wc should have pressed if'to 
i tlie tithe part of a hair. 

What has the Snrth to dn with the Slave power ? 
Just as much as belongs to its share nf t^c wnste, 
annoyance and disgrace which the cupidity of the 
wayward and domineering Slave Po\ver is contin- 
ually bringing on the country. 



* Report oC the Afljittnnt General, in Houtt Documtnl, 
\o. 8, aCih Conttrfs^, ad S^w nn. 

t Spct-cli of Mr. Kverett oi Vermont, in the HouFe, July 
t4ih. ISIU. 

tAii order of General Jessnp, of Aueiisi lP37.re- 



the country and of the world was shocked by the i "P'^'-'-'f f npiur.-,! pro| |.riy ni the Scin^.iolcs foimmne. * 
, , , * r I CI T »■ « thai ■• llicir n/gro^i. eniil*r. niitt hordes, w II l i-Iiiii»( 10 



barbarous Ireatnient of the Cherokee Indians. By 
I fiuccesstve cessions of territory, they had become 
reduced to a tract of five millions of acres, between 
I the Slates of Georgia and Alabama. Sixteen suc- 
cessive treaties had been made with them by the 
United States, recognizing their competency to 
j treat as independent communities, and guaranty- 
ing to ihem the soil which they bad determined to 
i retain. Under the instructions of Christian inis- 
j sioiiaries they had abandoned the practices of sav- 
j age life, betaken themselves to the stationary pur- 
I auiu of grazing and agriculture, and settled into 
an orderly ami well conducted community. The, 
I had schools, churcllea, hooks, and a printing-press 
I and newspaper. 

But the people of Georgia, one in every dozen 
of whom could not so much as read the plainest 
English the Cherokees could write, coveted their 
neighbors' houses and lands; and in 1827, an act 
uf the Legislature of that State asserted the right 
of taking a forcible possession. The next year, 
»^Ieorgia extended her Jurisdiction (ah f .hc cnUed it) 
over the territory, annexing it by parts to certain 
of her counties, and at the same time enartine 
that no Chcrokco kliouM a yaity ui a witness 
in any of her courts. The following year she en- 
acted further, that if any Cherokee chief should 
attempt to prevent the people of his tribe from 
emigrating, he should be liable to imprisonment 
for four years, and that if any Cherokee should at- 
tempt to prevent a chief from selling Ihe whole 
country, he should be imprisoned not leas tlian 
four nor more than six years. 

What was thc'government of the United Slates 
do .Tg all this while, — that government which, for 
'•"I. lable considerations, and by more solemn trca- 
ti' than there arc months in the year, had stipu- 
ia d to protect them against all the world ? It 
w ^ doing the cowanlly injustice, wliich the slave 
p . ver dictated.* and her natural allies :-tood by 
her, for tiie Cherokee country was charged wiih 
he-'ing given refuge to runaways. In 1830, the 
InJians aj/J ealed to General Jackson for defence 
ocninst what they justly characterized as "a wan- 
ton usurpation of power, sanctioned neither by tbo 
common law of the land, nor by the laws of na- 
ture ;" and were answered (letter of Eaton, Sec- 
rct.iry of War, April 18th. 1829.) that they were 
to expect nothing from him, but mu^^t either sub- 
mit to Georgia, or to a removal to lands l eyond 
the Mississippi; and suiting the action to ihc 
word, the President presently removed the troops 
which had been stationed for their defence. By 
application for a writ of injunction against Gcor- ' 



fifgrf 

corps bv which th -y arc rapuircrf." Tlii* wai jin army 
which we of the Xorlli paid to ki-c-p in llif fif-Iil But u-hat 
A'it ifie North lo do with slaves T Aceordmir to nnoUier or- 
iler, (Scpi. 6ih.| ■■ ihe Si-iTiiiiolL* iireroe* rnpnireit l-y ihc ar- 
my, w:II be taken on armu'tl of Govrrnrnfit, and hchl «ub- 
jecl to the order of the Secretary of War." 



The ordinary time reqoired for a trip from New 
York to China, is from ten to twelve months ; but 
by Whitney's projected railroad and steamers, the 
trip may b« made in iwenty-one days ! — Jilaine 
Ctdtivafr. 



A Coach cmier Sail.— The New Orleans Pullttrn 
gives the followuig (lewriptioii of a novel vehicle in u*« 
on (iiilveilon l*uch. nnd in Texas, viz: a conch propel- 
led liy the wind. Tlie vchiele is coii»triicii*d with four 
wh'-eli. tbe fmnt one/" heitig mucli wider fipnrt than thofe 
liehind, and on Ihem rests a liody like ihni of nn oinnil as. 
In front is the mast. 011 which the mainsail is plared, and 
where the tongue of an ordinary carnage is, \t a l owijinl 
for the Jib. It is steered liy «n apparRlitx wh ch directs 
Ihe hilhl wheels. The liencli on Galve«lon I«lmid is a* 
level Rf a floor, and Imrd almost as none, niid when there 
•* N fs-r wind tli^ ejtrrinj;^ rvn* ni RnJmad speed. When 
ine irndv wind* prevail, the wind blowing then from tli« 
S Jiiihcasl, il r.irifi from one end of the Island lo the oihor, 
and back with the uiuiost faciliiy. 



Prfrm t.'ie P*, 
The I^aborer'a Son 



Be cheerful, brethren ! We'll toil ti 

And as we labor on from dar to 
We will not murmur, thou'^h inrlc 

Should for awhile our onward p 

We will not prieve each other v 
Xor with rude j^ibings wake each . 

Bui rather strive to smother life' 
As on wo wancler. thirsting to aspire 

Towards those lovely ob ccL«! which awaken 
The noblest energies of human souls! 

Soon as our thoughts the proper jiath 
taken. 

Seeking that plcasumnce wtiich oft controh 
Life's stem realities — Heaven will fire 
mind 

Witli love for sacred Right — with Justice for 
mankind ! 

The least of or has an important part 

To act ujion the world's still chan^ring stage : 
Wc. in thf tasks assigned us, must rngngo 
With tireless energy — with honest heart! 
We will not writhe too wildly 'neath the smart 
Which stern oppression sometimes makes ua 
feel. 



havo 



each 



But work into each other's hands, lo heal 



• Diiriiiv Mr. Adami's Bdmiivsirjil'on, when treat.e* ■ 
wcT'' considered lo Imve ^me lutid ng force, fi'ov,TiK r ' 

;?;s::c^',^;r;fw«7';;r,eVlyt'r:n\f,^l;,i;:'lh:,',^.V^ cher', .„m.rins,, anJ cause dcpar. 

(1 an« woni.i be protected: " Vou will d'«i iicily under- i "e His which now perplex Us, On before 
fiiMid ihai t feel .1 TO he my duty to re-i«i m th;- uinio^t miv ■ There is a land of promise fair and brisht; 

ni.Iimry ntiiick wh ch 'h^ O'overnineiu of the Uii it-d Smu-o rp. ., ,^ ' . ^ , , , ^ 

^^ali^h.|ll^ proper to ii.i.kc on .he lerniory. the p.-opie. or ' Past can trouble us no more; 

Ihe Bo- erc smy of org a : ami nil inenBureB iifcei«*riry 1 he present wc must leani lo u.«c aright ! 
I.- li e pcrronnai.ee or th- duly, a.-enrdpiig lo our Lm-i.-d Onward ! Still oiiward, until wc reach the coal 
ni III*, arc III progrt'B*. 1- roin linr first decsive act ol hoa- f .1. j t 1 r ■» . •._ . 

x .i.y. you Will c M»i.d«r«d and trtmwd u a pubUc eue- \ Where Truth, and Love, and i.ib«rty, atUact 
my ." I the thiisting soul ! 



Latest from the Army. 

CaPTLKL Of .MoNTKHEV AITF.n A IJ\TTLIi Of 

Tit It sr. HA¥s I) in ATI OX, — Ghkat Lusa uk 
Livk!! 

The Btcainship James L. Djy. C i: ^ain Wood. 
4iriveJ ill Xew Orleans on tac -lih inst., from 
Brazos Santiago, bringing the gratifying news 
tliat MoJiierey has capiluiated after three duysdes* 



i and hi* command were relievetl aa Ihi* ftmrison 
' of ihc capnirvd foils liy tifn. Quitman wiih the 
' MissirisiiU'i Olid TcnneMro J/egmieiiU, and five 
I coinpanifB o( ilie Keniucky Regiineiit. 
! Early on the morning ul ihe 23d, Giml Quilnian, 
] from his po-tici-'n, ili-cuvt r^'d that the sicond and 
third to u «nd dwfencea east of ihe city had Iwm rn- 
tinly abandoiifd l-y tho enemy, who. apprL*hemliii(( 
anoihcr aswaiill on the night of the 22il, had retired 
from all In* defences lo ihu main plazj and iu im* 



peraie ft Afin r. The following account ii taken mediate vicrnily. A command ol iwo compunieH of 
- V " Mia8i*i'I'l'i »'id two of i'eiine»»ee troona were then 

from the Puayune. extra. | j/,,^ ^„ r.connoiter. and Koon be- 

Three very severe Ual'lcsv.erc fought on the ^j,„y very hotly engaged wnh the eneinv ; these 
21st. 32nd, and 23d of September, between the i weiu soon tfupporti-d by Col. VVo.kI's ret;nneiit of 
American arms- under General Taylor, and the I mounied lexan K;in;;tr5, dismounted; by Ur;.Btt'« 
Mexican arnu' under General Ampudi,. befo.e ! 'he 3d Ufai.iry ; the enemy'- fi.e 

Monterey. 



Captain Eaton, one of the aids of General 
Taylor, arrived in the Day. bearing despatches for 
W.t3hington. He Icf; Monterey on the 25ih ult- 
"'ol. Kinney, and one other gentleman, accom- 
anied him from Monterey. 

Gen. Worth, who led the attack upon the 
vresl aide of tlic city, has immortalized himself. 
The fighting was desperate on our side, the Mex- 



j was constant and uainti-rrupit-d Irum the iitreet?, 
h  ui « top«. bairtradi-9. &c.. in the vicnniy 4if the 
i plaza. 'J'he pieces of liiaiftt's battery were alnu used 
j with inUL-h etVect lar into the heart of the cily — this 
«ngag»nieiit lasted the best part uf the Oay, our 
Iroopa hJiving drivpci the scail^red parties of thj^ en- 
emy, and penetrated quite to the defences ol the 
mam plaza. Tne aJvaiitage thus K-inied, it wa« 
not considered nece: sary Id hold, as the i iiemy had 
permanently abniidoned the city nnd it«dffeiices ex- 
cept Ihe mHin plazq, its immediate vicitiiiy. and the 
Cathedral fort of the Citadel. Edrly in the after* 



leans outnumbering us by two to one, and being noon («anie daj ) Grn. Worth as^aulied from the 
protected by strong cntrenchraenU. Almost all Bishop's Palace ilie west *ide of the city, and sue- 

the account set down our lo*« over FI VE I ^''^'"8 ^ 

HQ-tuu.. „„„„„ „,-,r^T r,T^ I B shor I d ifttfl oce of Ihe mam plszn on that side of 

HUNDRED, of whom THREE HLNDRED , . ^^^^^^j, ^..^^m^ the mortar had al^o been 

WERE KILLED, showing pretty well the char- | pUnicd in the Cemetery encl.isurr, and during the 
acter of the fight. - I n'Kht did great execution in the circumccribed camp 

. , * , r .1. o- . * of  he enetiiv in the ptata — thus ended tho opera- 

The special correspondent of the I (^^n^ j|,e suj 

writing under date of the 25th ull., fays : — The | g^^j^ morning of the 24lh. a communica- 

Mexicans had seven thousand regular troops, and \ tion was sent to Gen. I'aylor. from Gen. Ampudia, 
Wetvvcen three and four thousanri rane'ieros. in | und. r a flag, making an ..Iter of capnul.iHun, to 
,.,.„, , , , „ I which the former refused lo accede, as it asked more 

the citv,— their killed and wounded were Rmall , . , , ■ i i 

- * I than the American commander would under any 

compared with ouni, their legs and walbt protect- ^ circumstances grant ;— at the same time a demand 
ing them. Capt- Bragg's battery was t'-rribly cut to surrender was m reply made upon Gen. Atnpu- 
up— he lost twenty horses. I am told he beliuv- jdia— 13 M. was the hour at which acceptance or 
, , . . . non-acceptance was to be communicated to the 

«d nAWv. Hia orderly sergeant, Waitman, was n i a.iiam.v u 

Aniencan General. At It \. M., the Mexican 
killed. Captain Ridgeley had Uircc fine horses General Rent, requesting a personal conference 
killed, — no men. The dragoons had no chance with (ienerai Taylor, which was granted, the prin- 
5o fight, but were very active scouts. Our cipal olHcera of rank on either side arcmipanying 
. , . . -.1 .1 r ' i- their (ieneraU. Alter several ollera in relation lo 

troops are almoit worn out wilh the fatigue of " , r i. i u i i 

' the rapitulntjon of the riiv made on either sioi} and 

Ihcir several d^ labors, but otherwise in high j refused, at half past \ P. M . Gen. I'aylor aroeeand 



•pints. 

Captain Eaton has reached AVashington. He 
left Monterey on the 25th September, and reached 
Washington in sixteen days. 

The army has covered itself with glory. It has 
driven the Mexicans from their strong entrench- 
inenls. on very precipitous heights, on both sides 



saying he would give Gen. Ampudia one h  ur to 
coiibider and accept or refuse, left the conference 
with his officers — at the expiration of the h  ur, 
the discharge o) llie*moriar wan to t e the si^jnat for 
the commencement of hostilities. Before the expi- 
ration of the hour, however, an otiicer was sent on 
tho pari of Gen. Ampudia, to inform the American 
fieneral, that to avoid the farther ell'usion ol blood, 
the national honor f eing satisfied by the rxeniona 



of the Rio del Tigre,— storming them in the face I Mexican irwtps, he had. after conHnhalnins 

of the enemy and their guns,— beating an army 
of double their own force, as has beeii estimated. 
— and after four days* fighing, and driving the en- 
emy from one entrenchment afWr another, and 



from street to street, compelling them to surren- i with their side anns. 



with his General olfaers, decided to capittflate, ac- 
cepting the oiler of the American General. 

'J'he terms of capitulation were in e0l*ct as fol- 
lowa : 

That the officer* should be allowed lo march out 



der Monterey, with all its supplies of ammunition, 
provisions, dec, and cannon, with a very small ex- 
ception. Neither army is to pass a spocified line 
— which is perhaps nearly half way between 
Monterey and Saltillo — under eight weeks. But 
Ihh armistice, in the first place, ditest not embrace 
our other lines of operaiiuiis , andy secondly, it is 

f\bjcct. in express terms, to the o'dirs and in 
: 



'I'hat the Cavalry and Infnntry Nhnuld be allowed 
to march out with their arms and accoutrenienta. 

That tho .Ariillery should !« allowed lo march 
out wiih one battery of six pieces and twenty rounds 
of ammunition. 

That all other, munitioni of war and supplies, 
shoulil be turned uver to a board of American olli* 
cars appointed to receive them. 

That the Mexican army should be allowed seven 
days to evacuate the city, and that the American 



actions of the two ^ovemmenls. The army is I iroop« should not occupy it until evacuated. 

■orthy of all praise for the gallantry and skill | '^^ V?'^^''m' ''"•"h* 

^ ,   I ? -r 1 evpcuattd at lU A. M.. next day. y2Dih) the Mex- 

which have been displayed by our oiricers and , ^1^,,,, 

U-0'5ps, both volunteers and regular.^. This is an- ; maiching in. The Mexicans allowed tosalulc their 
Iher brilliant military event in the onwila of our i flag when hauled down. 

. That there should be an armiaiice of eight weeks, 

' dutiii;* which linie. neither armv should pa«s a line 
But, in obtaining this victory- wc h»ve »09t , ^y,,,^,,,^ .^e Rinconada through Linai«s and 
l^ny a noble ofliccr and gallant soldier. The ' t^^n Fernando. 

li^rts of their countrymen arc filled with 'J'his leinen i olTer of the American General was 

de*,e8l gratitude for the heroic services of dite »ii«^t»t *d with the concurrence of his G- , erals, oruJ 
L . r i_ ■ ■ I . bv moiivea of good policy and con-idip tu m for the 

brav, raen who have thus r . .. hvcs lo t • defence of their city by the Mexican Army. 

•aii?t of "- country: ...lole natiOtt A'i//e//.— Capt, VV illmm-, Topoaritphical Engi. 

I'ieul. Terretr. isi Infiniry ; Capt. L. N. Mor- 
^rfa, 3«l do; Capt. Field, 3d du ; Lirut. HHZlitt.3d 
do; Lieut. HoskifiA. 4 do; Lieut. V\ o»d», 4ih do; 
Caf't Mt Kdveti. 8tli »to ; Col, V\'iiUon, Hattimure 
Battalion ; (-:«pt. Battlem. 1st Tennessee Ke^i'iienl; 
frczn ia of the operations of the Amer^ | Lteut. Pumam, 1st do do ; a Lieutenant in a Ger- 

b''f(/re Mufittrey, Mexico, from the , *-'"fn(»Biiy. 
• 2m ofSeptembtr. ''•—^H'^r 3J L.fantry. aevprely ; 



country ; ^ . ' .. .lole nation 
ripatbizcs wilh their bereaved famil- 

ng "memoranda" are from the pen j 
who was in the battles: 



, Captam Hainliridite. 3d d. 

Un the ly.h. Gen. Taylor arrived before Mon- | Graham. 4th d 

tcry. with a force of about 6.000 men, and alter .|,^,,Uy ; 



very ailt hily ; Lieulrii- 
severely ; I'apiain La- 
LieutetiHiit Uilwiirth, 1st 



re.-onnoilcrinj the cily at about loOO or 1600 I overtly ; M»jor Al.ercrombie.Ui do. sl„hlly ; 

' he .Li,,,,p,,n%-.i,;^H«h,.3.hdo.sbghtly; |,,eule,.: 



Was fired upon from iti was 
cucdtnptd at Walnut Sprin-^ , .;t of 

the cily. This was the ncareiit posiiion at wliich 
the army could obtain a supply of wster, and be 
T.d the reuch ol the enemy's batteries. The 

under of the l9ih was occupied by Uic en- i hjeutenanl .Allen, do. d^ 
^ in making rcconnnisances of the city* | d..; Lieutenant Nixon 



wri«ht. 

atit Poller, 7tU du. slighilv ; .\1wjor Mans iiel.l. En- 
p,y,'»rr ngTiiiy : TTerTTTsr' s j:tct. Tiirantrfr ZTivi- 
sioii. slightly ; Col-inel Mitchell. Ohii  Voluntepra, 
^lilIhTly ; Colonel McClung Mi««isf ippi Kegirnent, 
severely; .Vlsjor Alexander, 'IVntiejwee V- luiitfcis; 

LieulenMiit !:ii'uddrr. do 
do do; Captain D  w|er, 



bdiieriea. and commanding heights. On the 20tti, , Mississippi Re(timenl; Lieutenant I homas. IVxas 
Gen. Worth was ordered wilh his division tf move Regiment ; Lieutenant Armstrong. Ohiff Regiment, 
by a circuitous route to the right, to g^ir Hie 5*al. i p^vf-re v ; Cspiain Gillespie, Taias Rangers, mor 
tillo road beyond the west of the »^wn, and to , ^'..y^j^j j,j„ce died, 
ttortn the heights above the B^cibop's Palace, ' 



whi 'h vital point the enemy appear to have 
strangely neglected. Circumstances caused his 
hall, on the night of the :iOth, shor* of the intend- 
ed fiOBition. On the morning of the 2 let, he con- 
tinued his route, and after an encounter with a 
large body of the enemy's cavalry and infantry, 
supported by artillery-men from the lieiglils, he 
repulsed ihem wilh great lo^4, and finally en- 
eiunpcd, covering the parage of the SdltilJo road. 
It w,is here discovered liml. besides the fort at 
' i!i:ihop's Palace and tlie occupation of the 
iii;^f»hts abovr* it, two f )rf'», nn commanding em- 



incn -ea, on the opp 
had been fortified and 
ter liCiThts Were then 
guns of the ia-:t fort . 
turned, with a plungiii 



the Sun Juan, 
These two Ut- 
jI carried. — the 
• ■^ iiumidiilely 
the Bishop's 



Ca«p sbaii MoxTsnKT, Sept. 24, 1816. 
On the 21st, 22d and 23 l, there was some hard 
fighting here, and many po. r fellows have suffered 
by ii.— But ( think it may be sately said that the 
town is in (len. Tayloi's power. 

'J'he place was much more strtmgly fortified than 
Gen. Tavlor hiid any idea of. and the Mexicans 
defended their works with skill and determination. 

This morning Col. Moreno, the Adj. (ienerai 
of the Mexican Armv, came into camp w ith a pro- 
poftiiion from General Ampudia. to evacuate the 
town, he and his army to march out and to retire 
into the interior. This Gen. Tnylxr dt-elint d, and 
iiisi.^tett upon .Amp*idia and his otficers beco*niiig 
prisoners of war, the men lo be disbanded ami dis- 
persed with a stipulation not lo serve against us du* 
nnt; the war ; the General and officent lo remain in 



Palace. On this same morning (the 21st) ihe I *'ustoJy until disposed of by order of our Govern- 



ment. 



lat division of regular troop, under Gen. Twiggs, , 

and the volunteer troop% under Gen. Butler, i*^ 'h  y do noi agree there will be K» me 

division to ' fii^hiing. as the place eannot hold out long. At* 
though we gain the place and victory, it has cost us 
dear. 



The parties have been negotiating all djy, 
^ " ^ hard 

were ordcreil under arms, to make 
the left of the town, in favor of the important op- 
erations of Gen. Worlh. The 10 inch mortar, 
and two 24 poumler howitzers, had lH?en put in '^^9 carnage on our side Is great, and probably 
battery, on the night of the 20th. in a ravine ^ rnoresothan the Mexicans, as to that we do not 
14(10 yards distant from the Cathedral fort or ! know, as ihey fooght under rover ail ihe time. — 
citadel, and were supported by the 4th regiment of Gen. Worth has disiinKuished himself as a gallant 
Infantry. At 7 A. M., on the 21»t. the order so'dier and skillful commander. 



Gen. Taylor save him a fair chance, and he has 
nobtv availed himself of it. His division, with 
Hay's regiment of Texan Voliintrers. have coined 
more ground an I carried more points than ell the 
rest of the ariity, and with very litile lo^t- ; up to 
yes'crday. 6 P. M.. it is i»nly five killed and iwenly- 



was given for this battery lo open upon the cita- 
del and town, and immediately afHcr, the let di- 
vision, wilh the 3d and 4th Infantry in advance, 
under Col. Garland, were ordered to reconnoitre 
and skirmish with the enemy on the extreme lef  
of the city, and should a prospect of success offer, 

to carry the most advanced battery- This attack  ''ght wounde l. The loss (m onr side will not be 
was directed by Major Mansfield, Engineer. Capt, ' than five hundred killed, wounded and pria- 
WiUiams. Topographical Engineer, and Major oners. 

Kinney, Quartermaster of the Texas division. ' Brazos SA:fTiAuo, Sept. 29, 1846. 

A heavy fire from the first battery was immc- ' Gen. Taylor's Army arrivrd Iwfore Monterey on 
diately opened upon the advance, but the troops , the 19th, and found the enemy occupying the place 
•oon turned it, entering and engaging with ihe ! force. Our army commenced the att ick on the 
enemy in the streets of the city, having passed ! 21si and continued it three day*!. On the morning 
through an incessant cross-fire from the cil.idel I of the 24ih Gen. Ampudia oflered lo capitulate, 
and the first and second batteries and from the I whiirh was Rrmted by General Tavlor. 
Intan'.ry who lined the parapets, streets, and I Seven days were allowed |.» the Mexicans lo cva- 
houie-tops of the city. The rear of the first bat- i cnaie. and an armi- iice of ••;;ht weeks. 'i"he troops 
tery was soon turned, and the reverse fire of the ; "f neither army »nB to pwtn fmrTtrrnihri; (i^m ihe 
troops, through the gorge of the works, killed or | Kinronada through Linares and San Fernando, 
disloilged the artillerists and Infantry from it and G-n. Ampudia acknow| -dued 7000 as the num- 
the building occupied by Infantry imrncdialely in her of his Iroopa. but it piubjbly amoniiletl to fully 
■'3 rear. Thu 1st division was followed by the . II 000. Our loa-* is «;everc. 'J'he Isl. 3d and 4ih 
^ixfliftainDi. TenneFsee. and Ist Ohio, regiments,' infantry sulTeretl, wilh the Tennessee Volunteers, 
mcnts being the first to scale on the 2 Ut uinler the eye of Gen. Taylor. General 
t. The Buccefs of the day ■ Tavlor escuiM-d unhurt, but was greatly expired; 
Mississippi, Tennessee, and his horse wns wnunded. 

■^li Wrtrinly entr-i-red in the - **ur kilii-d and wounded will amount to .'iflO. 
ome lime after the capture j Gen. Wurih wi h his haiiidion aiid Hay's com- 
■■' adjoining drft-nces, were . main!, hail an action some distance I'lis side of 
and the loss they had Monterey with a considt rable .Mexican forr^, and 
idvaniTi-'r. A h^avy 
' t'  f rn ■ a suspension 
... • • of I ,0 day. 'phe 

9i], 4ili, and Irt, intani./. an! liie Bahimore 
b I'f -lion, remained as the garrison of the captured 
/ .'ion. unilcr Col. Garl.ind. assisted by Captain 
'R^ U-ely's battery. Two 12 pounders, one 4 



j oun'ler. and one howitzer, were captured in this 
fort, three ofli -ers and some twenty or thirty men 
taken prisoners. One of the 12 pounders was 
Sijrvpd a^Vin^it the second fort and defences, with 
eapinred a'n niinitioi. during the remainder of the 
diy by Cintiin Ri,i.rely. The storming parties 
of Gen. Worth's division, also, captured two 9 
pniindcrs. which were, also, immediately turned 
against their former owners. 

Il l Ihe m •riling of the fi^^ Worlh contin- 
ue,! hit o(*r..tl..oB. liiM div.8,..n a„d carried 
enece»^sively the h-i-hli. at..,ve ih,. Bi hop*« P«lncp. 
B » h were rarrietl by a eommnnd uiidf r Ca U Vin- 
ton. 3.1 A'till-TV, In ihesonppra if ni. ihp rompany 
t ii«iana troops under Capt. Ulaochnrd perf.irm- 



of I 



ed eflirien' and gallai.t service as pirt of t^upt 
Vinlon*«« couimaiid. P.iur pieces uf arrillery. vrith 
a tfitod siipptv of ammniiiMon. were eapiiirfd in the 
Binhop'^ Pnlace ihts (Uy. Some of which werr Im- 
mediately turned upon the enemv s defences in the 
city. Oo th« evening of the 32d» CoL Gailand 



[ but this was not the qnestiun wilh Gen. Taylor. — ' to cover the morlar battery. A closo coniesl then 
; lie diid ult his otliters knew peitt cily well, ol j ensued, wiiidi ri-»ulied in the capture uf one strong 
j course, that the town could soon l e t.iken, but he . bittrry of (our guns, which with some aitjacent 
I wanted no piis merN to take up his lime ami eat Ins defences our (ro.ij»s now occupy. A f urrls...i was 
' sHbstanci: ; but he did have an idyi ct in view, which left tu hold this position, and the reinuindL-r of the 
will l»e reachcil by the i^rnis ot this capitulation, | force retumeil lo camp. 



and that nlject will bad to a result most benefi- 
cial to our governmeni. under who *c advice or or- 
ders Gen Ta\ lor acted III agreeing to these terms. 
An I have a tew moineiits to spare befoie the ex- 
press K-M-s out this morning, (be was detained last 
nifhi by the slow progress of busines.s with Ampu- 
dia ) I will speak of tiie operations of (ien. Taylor 
on his siile of ibe town. 

Mnior Mansfield, uf the Engineers, reconnoilered 



In the mean time, General Worth had engaged 
the enemy early in the morning, and defeated him 
with coiifciderulile loss. Li ihe course of the day 
iwool the batteries in ri-ar of the town weie car- 
ried by Mtoiining p.iriles ol die 2 l division, and a 
third wuscarrit'd thin inorning at dawn uf duy.— 
I he Bishop's palace occupied the ordy rem.innng 
hi'ik^lil ill rear uf the town, and is completely com- 
manded tiy the \M rks already cirried. General 



ihe enemy's woiks on tho nijtht of the I9ih. but ; Worth's division occupieatlie SaUilloroad, and cuts 

otfall succor or suppuit from the interior. I must 
reserve a more minultf re|i«irl of the important oper- 
ations of yesterday until those of the ditftfreni i-um- 
manders ate rendert d, and also until a lopographical 
sketch of the country can l e prep ired. 

1 regret to report that our successes have not 
Iwen oblMined witbi.ut severe 1"SS, lo Ihj altri) utcd 



could ohtjin no very accurate information, all hough 
he approached very mar to some ot them on the 
heights. On the 20ih Lieut. K^canitl and Lieut 
Pope were sent out to reconnoilie the works. 
SScariilt on Ihe ririhi. and Pojie on the K ft of the 
town. 'J'he laiit r appioa' hed and disrovi-red the 
position of u bjttety on the extnme left, and was 



battery discovered by Lieut. Ptipe the day before, 
and to occupy, if posdihie, the lower p.iri of the ci- 
ty. Mnj'ir .Vlansfielil. Capt. Wi^iams and Lieut. 
Pope were ordered in advance to select the nio-tt 
available point of attaik, and to direct the move- 
rn-'ntsof the cotu iin upim it. Three companies 
w ^ thrown forward as skirmishers and advanc- 
ed rapidly towards the works, followed by the 
BriKsde in line of bittle, under a cross fire of ar- 
tillery from the citadel and fort, and a heavy fire uf 
musketry. The column charged into a street 
about 200 yards to the right of the battery, passed 
the works entirety, and elfecled an entrance into 
the town. After advancing rapidly about 400 
yards beyond the battery, they cume imtnedtalely 
in from of a mahked Itsilery of artillery and mus- 
ketry, which swept the atreei complelely by its 
range. 

Ttte barricadrji i*T4h« streets at 60 yards dis- 
tance from the head of the column, was lined wtih 

MexicHii troops, who tieiiiR entirely covered them- 
selves, opened a murderous discharge of grape and 
musketry upon the advancing column. Every 
house in the street was pierced for musketry and 
enfiladed the street in every diiection. Under this 
fire the following olfu'ers were killed or moriiilly 
wounded: Major Barber. 3rd Infantry, by grape 
shot in (he aUlomen ; ('apt. Williams. Topograph- 
ical Engineer, shot through the body by a inu&kel 
ball, fell into the street snd was dragged into the 
doorway of a house by Lieut. Pope, amidst « show- 
er of halls that covered hiin with dust. The fcat- 
Imlry of tins young otVicer, now in his first battle, 
is spoken of in admirntion liy the army. ('apt. 
Williams died the next day and was buried with tlie 
honrirs of war by the Mexican lioops, into wfiose 
hands he had I'allen. Lieut Merreit. Isi Infau'ry, 
shot through the tiotly. died the next day. 

W'/itniUd — Major Mansfield, ball through the 



IriMips were ihen ordered, by Gen. 'I'aylor. lo re- 
tile in goml order and gel umler cover from the 
enemy's fire, which order was handsomely execu- 
ted. 

The following ofRcera were killed or mnrially 
'wounded (since diett) in tlie second charge: Col. , 
i Watson, of the Babnnore Balialioii ; Capt. L. ^. , 
i .Nonis. 3d Intaniry ; Lit nt. I). Irwin. 3.1 Infantry . 
• l.ieut. K. H tz'itt. 4lh lufaiitry, [Three ofTieers 
; weic killed in ihe fir«i charge whl' h I did n  t in- 
' elude in that lisi. viz : Li*-ut. H- iikins. 3d Infiintrv ; 



It oHhd d. — Major General Butler, alighily 
through calf of the leg; Col. Miicliell.in the leu; 
Capt. I.amote, Isl lotiantry. slightly; Lieut. D I- 
worlh, 1st Infantry, teg shot 

During the engatiement in town, of Gar! 
Briaade, the forts ibal were passed, on the li 
enivi'mg inai iitwu. wt-Te Kaiiaiiny tarn. 0 i 
Tennessee and .Missi 'sippi regiment* — the first 
eommandrd liy Col.  "Bmpl»ell, a* d the second by 
Cd. Davi*. Lieut. Col. McClong. of the .Missis- 
sippi reKiment. was dangerously Moumhd 'I'hese 
regiments eustainfd s gresl hiss of killed and wound- 
ed, bui I cannot in ihe short time lefi me. ascrr- 
tnin the names *tr iiumln-r of those who fell. 
i 'apl. Biagg's tiattery of Light .\rti||eiy was brought 
iiilo action, but as it was impossible to use it eflrK-t- 
ivflv. It was withdrawn. 8everal pieces of anil 



ilerv were captured. The for.s that were uken i *»l*'«»7»'' ''"'^ ^'"y"- 

: - * I am air v^rv ri aiiprlliinv 



I arn.sir, verv respectfully, 
Z.TAVJ.OU. Msj. Gen. I'. S A. Com. 
The Adjltast Glm.hal or riifc .Ahmt, 

Waahtngton, U. C 

[No. 91.] 



,M out 

o'cl"K-k. the same morning, thetke two regiments ad- 
vanced oil the town, and a sharp engagement com- 
menceil. These Kangers weie supported by a 
body of Texas Ranaers, (dismounted for the occa- 
sion.) under lieneral Hemlerson. and by tlie .3il regi- 
ment of Infantry. The fi;:lil was kept up uiilll 4 



clock P. M.. during which time our troops drove ^.j,^,^ ^^^^^^^ principal plaza, and oc 

the enemy from bouse to house, almost to ttie , ^^^j^j ^.i,^ ^ij^j |,o.nt. The mortar had, 

mainplaza. The loss of life on our M.l^ ^ in the meantime, been placed in buttery in the 

cemetery, within goo*) range of the heart of the 



severe on this day. t^n the morning of the 24ih, 
a flag of truce WHS sent in, which resulted in the 
capitulation of the town. 

During the whole of the engagement on the 2 1 st. 
Col. Kiiniey was exceedincly UM-ful in C8rr  ing 
orders, and giving advice in matters with which 
his tliorough anjuBiniance wilh Mexican customs 
rendered him familiar. Ho was in the ibiekest of 



I indigence and want of means, find themselves now | pedi ion of Califonna. None of the Missouii vol- 
I in the theatre of war, and w ho would be UK'b-.ssly ' unteers were to be employe.! in this service. 

sacriliced, claim the rights, which in all times, and ; W'e further lenrn, that, after the departure n 
! all countries, humjiiity extends. As governor of Gen. Kearney, the remainder of the force was to bef 
\ the Suite, and a legitimate reprcsenlaiivc of the divi-ted. One half of it was to remain at Santa 
i people. I state their case to you, and hope from : Fe, including the baitaliou  )f aitillery under the 
i your civilization and refinement, that whatever command of M ijur Clark, and a company of dra- 
! may be the event of the present contest you will ; goons under Capt. Sumner. The remainder of 
■ issue orders that families shall be respected, or will | the force, under Col. Doniphan, w.is to march lo 

grant a reasonable time for them to leave the cap- , Chihuahua, there to be ailarlnd lo (ienerai Wool's 

ilal. I army. It was snpptwed that he would ni rive there 

I have the honor to salute you general-in-chief in October, bui it is not probable that he left .San 

of the army nf occupation of the United States, Antonio before the firsi ot ihe month. 

and lo as.sure you of my highest consideration. | We learn nothing of C-d Price's regiment, but 
God and libert'i*- I presume that he will ctmtinne bis march, without 

FRANCO DE P. MORALES. any unnececsary deJay, to California. Major Wal- 

Gf .xERAL-ix-ciiiEF of tho simy of Occupation of ! ker. who was wiih Col. Price, was anxiously biokeil 



j expose4l lo a fire of cannon and nitmkelry fr-.m i ni a go.nl measure to the ardor of the tri o| s in pilsh- 
I Lancers, from winch, after finishing hts "bs4-rva. | ,|,g tu,v^a,j j^^^ returns of kilbd and wounded 
; lioiiM, he retired i i safety. On the night of the | have yet b» en received, nor is it known what corps 
20ih the moiior snd h .wiizer liaileries were placed of Gen. Worth's division have suffered m.«t. In 
in a position to play on the airong-holds around | the other portions of the army, the Isl 3d and 4th 
Ihe citadel. The action commenced on the morn regiments of Infantry and regiment of Tennessee 
ing ol the 2lBt, liy the opening ot the *e two baiter- volunteers have sustained the greatest loss.— The 
: ie*. Col. GirUnd's brigade were ordered lo following is t)ehrved to be an accurate list of the 
i move to Ihe lell for the purpose ol storming the olficers killed and wounded. 



KILLED. 

Srf Infantry — Brevet 1st Lieutenant J. 8. Woods 
serving with Ist Infantry. 

3(/ tnfantrtj — Captain L. N. Morris. Captain G. 
r. Field. Brevet Major P. N. Bartiour. 1st Lieut, 
and .\dj t D. Irwui. 2d Lieut. R. HhzIiu. 

4M Infantry — Ut Lieuu and Adj t C. Hoskins. 

8/A hiftttitry — Cai't. H. .McKaveit. 

Muryfund and Wathing-ton Battalion Vo/uu- 
teertf l.icul. Col. VV. H. VV atsmi. 

VOLL'!ITIit:il IIIVMIO'S, 

Ohio Itfgimtnt — Ul Lieui. M. Hell. 
Ttunrssre Hegiment — Capt. W.B.Allen, Lieuu 
S. M. Putnam. 

WOUNDED. 

Curpa of Engincem. — Brevet Major J. K. T. 
.Mansfield, sliuhily. 

rr .-tfi of Topi^r.r/^/.ira! Enifint^r* — CapuW. 
G. Williams, (u) ti.inds of tho enemy.) 

lit /nfatitry—Urrvvi Major J. L. .^bercrombie, 
sltgtilty. Capl. J. H. J^amollt: severely ; Isl Lieut. 
J. C. Terrell, in hands uf the enemy ; 2d Lieut. K. 
Uitwonh. seveielv. 

3(/. Infiutry. — Major W. VV. Lear, severely ; 
Capt. H. Iliiinltrldge. sliuhtly. 

A h /'i/,ititi v. — Ist Liel K. II Graham. severely. 

Hlh Infnntry. — 1st Lieut. \. B. Kossell. *llghily. 

1th infatitvy. — 2d Lieut. J. H. Totier. severely. 

^th J nfunt I y.-^'^ii Lirul. (leorge V\ ainwiightt 
severely. 

TnLi;?fTBF.n nivisio?!. 
General StaJ' — .Major General Win. 0. Butler, 
slightly. 

Ohio Re^Sm^nt—iZ^A. A. M. Mitchell, slightly, 
('apt. James (leorge, slightly ; l«i Lieut, and Adju- 
tant A. W. Armstrong, very severely ; 1st LieuU 
N. Niles, severely ; Ul Lieut. L. .Mutter, slijhily. 

Mistttsiftfti /tetri$ttent-^\.Wut. Col. A. H. Mc- 
Clung severely; Cap'. R. N. Uownoig. slightly ; 
1st Lieut. H. F.Cook, slightly : 2d Lieut. K. K. 



calf of the leg. Tliis brave ofliccr would not leave 
on account of his wountl. but rode almut, behaving slighty 
in the most gallant mitiiner all day, Capt. Bain- ' 

liridge. 3d Inlrtntry. atigbily wounded in the hand, i . . „ ,„ . ,. 

Major Dear, dangerously wounded in the mouth.! ]" /^rerm.../.-Capt. R. A. tHllespie, morially. 
ilie ball pacing out at the back uf his head. Major 1   '""^"y f^**; "i"'"'"^' 

Al^rcro'rdue, Isl Infantry, severely . wounded in ''"^'^ ''•«"'»^* •"^ ^"'"'''"'^ the opera- 
both his leg«. and body; hopes are entertained of bis ''^'•'.V'^""^ culd l« desired.- 



niVISIO?* OF TEXAS MOC'STin VOtr JCTKKRS. 



The pari wtiii-h eich cor^rs contiiltuied to itie snc- 
ce :s of ihe day wdt appear more full  in the luiure 
reports. Tit Msjor Generals Uuiler aiitl Hendeisun, 
and Brigadier Generals J'wigifs and Woriti. cum* 
mandiiitt divitiious. I tnnsi express my obligntions loi 
of turni'ng '^^ "upl*"" wliicti iliey haxaVwideri d — par- 

tirularlv so lo lliigadier Genenil Worltt. whose ser- 



recovery. A greet numlter of men killed and 
wounded — nunilwr not known. 

It ttfing impossible in the opinion of ihe Engi- 
neer Ollicers, to etTect anything in attacking the 
barncndes in front, the column moved rapidly up a 
street to ihc rigl^t. wilh the intemin 

'hem. Being reinforced Iw the Otiio n-giment. _ , . . , , 

second charg*. wa. made, "under the direction of vice«. In.m bis deMehed posiIion. have been most 
(int. Builer. wh.ch. ..»vmg t.» ihe tremendous fire t*"«»i'iCUOU6. 

of muske.ry und grape from llie l arrie«ilrs. and, I am. sir. very respectiully. 

-tone houses, likewise proved iiielfe. lual. 'J-he V our ol.ed.ent - -rvant. 



the Mls is^lppi and Tennet-see reg ii:enls. an l the 
3d regi'neiii of Texas r;flemen. (dismount* d.) have 
been warridy engaged wiih the e'.#.,«^»  .i ih© town, 

■ . ■ ■ ■ 'riven hini w ith e^ : ■ ' ■ ' ■ ■ ' i ' 
vjcinitv, wlncli 

ilie town on thi* tiiilit. and hi-iiis p..^ iliete — 

The enemy still niHiniaiiis himself in (he plaza and 
citHtlrl. and MTCins determii.cd lo uiaka a slut'bwrn 
res:* la nee. 

I am [inriiciilsrlv grntiiieil lo report that our sue- 
ce is of yesterday and to tlay, ihouah disastrous lo 
ihe enemy, have been achieved without material 
loss. 

I cannot apeak in loo high term* of the gnllintry 
ami perseverance nf our troops throughout ttie ar- 



werif occupied liyRidgel/s Light Ailillery com- 
pany, who turned the captured pieces against the | 
Mexican works, and the cannonaile. was kept up 
the re:-t of the tlay.— There were many skirmishes \ 
and gullant deeds, etc., etc , which I will mention | 
at a future time. | 

On the night of the 23d the enemy abandoned 
the two work;* which proved so destructive to itje | 

3d and 4ih Infantry, and they were occupied ea ly ; weVe"clo^lv'en^gArin the" lower part orthe city', 
next mormng. by the 'I ennessee and M"'^"'s'Pl'  reportcd'in mv last despateh. I received, by a 
regiment* under Gen. guitman. About three p^„„^ governor of the 



State of Leon, which i"* herew ilh enclos*'d, (No. 1.) 
To this communication. I deemed it my duty to 
return an answer declining lo allow the inhabit- 
ants to leave tho city. By eleven o'cbwk. p. m., 
the 2d division, which hid entered the town from 
the direction of the Biatiop's Palace, hinl atlvaiiceJ 



the figbi. tm.vmg about Irom [...ini to tH.int.jind (^^f, „„,ii ./clock, which hour I appmnlcd tore 



biing good execution with his rifi.-. This gentle- 
man's service-: have be^n invalualile Ui Gen. Tay- 
lor, in ihe movemenla nt the armv from Maiammas 
to ihl* plice. He his been everv wh"re leconnott- 
eiing iht* country. an l procuring information — 
riding night and day, and exposing bis life in a 
thousand wavs. Ttie cobniel never fiinrhed from 
any duty re piireil of him. anil had (ten. Taylor 



: cientty. 

I P. S. Our killed and woundetl. in lakin^ Monte' 

liutv. AiuuuitUul la aImuiI huiidr« d. luailv lbre« 

hundred kiUed. Sonie liiiie will elapse before ihe 
nnml'er will be known aectiraiely. but it is well 
known lhat few prisoners weie taken by the Mexi- 
cans. 



dixfiersed them in a t.hort time, ('ol 'uel 'T.i*s kill- 
eil a Li-utenanl Colonel of the Mcxic.m Army sin- 
gle- tended. 

How may were killed and \vounded in this action 
I did not tesrn. 

Some Volunteers on their way fnm Mier toj.iin 
the army, were attacked by a large h-Miy of Met- 
ican Iniopa, and killed and shockingly mutilated. 

Special CorrespoTidenre of itie Pirnyuiie. 

MosTKRiiT. Mkxico. Sept, ■.;3, 1846. 
0 'ntlen en — The ri y has capilnlnted on the (oi- 
l-wing tenn.i : Tiie Mexican soldiern shall b.- per- 
mitted to ma'ch out of town w;th their arms and 
six small field pieces, leaving nil ih.-ir munitions of 
war behind, wish all their aniltery and public 
stores. They are lo retire to l.inares. sixty miles 
hence, sml about thirty mites norrh of Saliillo, and 
are not lo approach nearer iban that to this pi -ce 
wiihin sixty days, or until each party can bear 
'rom its respective government. Anipu'Ua kept 
Gen. Taylor unlit nearly midni.:ht. last ninht. pie- 
parins the terms, etc Many persons, panieu arly 
the Texan volunteers who foui.hi «,! luavetv. are 
d(sp1ea«ed at thew terms. Ttie |..wn whs bII l»ut 
in our h fnds. And coukl. tliey Mieved. have tv en 
taken in three hours. I lielieve that it would tiave 
te iutred ojuclt aora hard l'igh:ing to have taken il. 



iimler Urig. Gen. Worlh. on this service, at noon 
on the 2( ih. A len inch mortar anil two 24 pound- 
er howitzers were placed in battery dnrlng thi- 
niilhl. to play upon the citadel and t-iwn. At 7 
o'clock ihf-y were o[»ened and continued a deliberate 
fire, which was returned. To create a siill lurtlier 
iiiversion in favor of Gen. V\'orili's movement, the 
reinAinder of the force, except a camp guant. was 
di'phveil around the center snd lefi of ihe town. 
The infantry and 1 battery of ihe f^rst division 
tiiile strong demoTi traiiori on the left, ant) s-xip 



D. 



the United States. 

[No. 2.] 

Pedro Ampudia, general-in-chief to Major 
General Taylor. 



7.. TAVLOit. MhJ. Gen. U. W. A. Com. 
The ADJCTA.xr (ifcx tiiAL or tiis \mmt. 

Wusbingtoii, U. C 

TNo 90.] 

IlrAnarAnTKits Ahmt or Occrp»Tio\,^ 
Cs'opbelore .MonieM-y.lSept. '.iJ.I. 1840. $ 
Sir: I have the graiifiratioii to report ttial the 
Bii'linp's Pnlsre wa-* gatlantly cariied \esleiday by 
the troops ofilie 2«I division. In the eourae of the 
t\\j,\\\. the hHihnes t elitw the town were with mie 



Lieut. J S. Woods. 4th Inlanuy; Capt. Field, eiception. «ba..do,jed by ih^ ene.ny. and tins n.o- 

.% I 1 c . 1 niiig Were 'H-cupi»-d by our troops. i u tlnv I'le .Id 

dd Infantry j , r . ■ - 7 . r .i ■ 'i 

f* ,;_J_M.;«» n-nor.! n..ll.r (nfoitry. wnh the ludd B.tlMeiy of ihe Ut d|v;.| 



Hfuntir iiiTKas Armt or Occcpation.^ 
Camp before Monterey. Sept. 25, 1¥»46. 3 
Si R • .\X noon on the 23d insl.. while our Iroops 



crive the final ans%ver of Gen. An»pudia at Gen. 
Worth's head^piarter'*. Before the appointed time, 
however. General .\mpndia had signified to Gen. 
Worth his desire for a personal interview wilh mc, 
for the purjtose of making some definite arrnnge- 
ment. An interview was accordingly appointed 
for one o'clock, ami resulted in the naming ol a 
commit^sion to draw up articles of ngreem'*nt reg- 



named on the American side were General Worth, 
General Henderson, governor of Texas, ami Col. 

, finally settled npon the articles, of which I c 

a copy, C ^^' ■ 4.) tlic dupIic.Ttrs of which (inS^ ,1- 
! ish and English) have been duly signed. Agree- 
' ably to the provisions nf the 4th nrlirlc. our troops 
I haAC this morning occupied the citadel, 
j It will l-e seen that the terms granted the Mex- 
I ican garrison are less rigorous than those first iin- 
I pn-ed. Tlic gallant dcfenrc of the town, and the 
I tint of fi recent chanee of government in Mexico, 
J hclieveil to lie favoral'lf to the i-iTi-resis of peace, 

ission in these 



the govcrnm^HP "flTp Idttet con&ii!cnili"n jfclso 
prompted the conveniion for a iempor.u  ces«^on 
of hoBtiiitics. Though searcely warranted by rny 
instructions, yet the ch.inge of affairs since those 
instructions wore issued seemed to warrant this 
ronrse. I beg t.» t e advised, a* early us practica- 
ble, whether I have met the views of the govern- 
ment in those ]inrliruUrB. 



for at Santa Fc, by the volunteers, who warned their 
pay. 

^'ome of the traders had sold out iheir storks of 
goods at Santa Fe, at o smiill advance. O heis 
were waiting 10 hear of the entrance of Gen. V\ md 
into Chihuahua, to which place they intended to 
proceed in a few weeks. The overrunning of ttifl 
country, by the .American army, seems to be regar- 
dcil Bs n matter of courtie. 

The Lexington (Mo.) Express, of the 6th insl., 
■ays: 

Mr. Hill, of this county, who went out in the 
spring, returned yesterday, making the Irip in 28 



T ramiaud. ' 
HsAn QcAnTKHft at Mo^itemet, 5 ■ 
Sept- 23d. 1846. 9 o'clock, P. M- $ 

Senor General - — Having made the defence of 
which I iKrlievc this cily susceptible. I have ful- , 
filled iny duty, and have satisfied that military 
honor which, in n certain manner, is common to I 
•11 armies of the civilized world. 

To prosecute the defence, therefore, would only days. He sava lhat Gen. Kenmcy was prepsring 
result in distress lo the population, who have al- leave for Cahforma with 1.000 men; the rest of 
ready vuffercd enough fioin ihe misfortunes con- ihe army were 10 winter in Santa Fe. They had 
sequent upon war: and taking il tor granted that ; neailv completed the foit. AH was quiet. Trade 
the American government has manifested a dis- wbs very dull, ihe whole country being literally 
position to negotiate, I propose to you lo evacuate fl.Hidpd witti goods, which were selling at prices less 
the city and the fort, taking with me the person^ than in -.Missouri. Many ot ihe traders were going 
elle and matcrielle which ha^e remained, and uii- sonth. The troops were in goml health ami enjoy, 
der the assurance that no harm shall ensue itic imr ihemselvis finely. Ttie inhabitants had fled. 
inhal itants who have taken a part in the defence, nr as a Iriend remar s. ihe women tiad fled 10 the 

Be pleascil to accept the assurance of my most Americwns. and the men to ttie rrmnntaina ! An- 
distinguishcd consideration. other example of the genuine xbrewdness of the sex. 
PEDRO LE AMPUDIA. 



To Sioxon Do!v Z. TAf loii. 

General in Chief of the American Army. 



TIO?», 

, 184C. ^. 
k, A. M.3 



[No. 3.] 

Head Qi artrrs Armt op OrrrPATio?» 
Camp Iwfurc .Monterey, Sept. 24th 
7 o'clock. 

Sir : — Vour communication, bearing date at 
nine o'clock, P. .M., 23d insl., has ju^t 

been received by the hands of Col. Moreno. 

In answer to your proposition to evacuate tlie 
city and the fort with all lh * { ersoi.a' and mate- 
rial of war. I have to state that my duty compels 
me lo decline acceding to it. A complete surren- 
der of Itic town and garrison, the latter as prison- 
ers of wtir, is now demanded. But such surren- 
der will be upon terms, and the gallant defence 
of the place, creditable alike to the Mexican 
troops and nation, wilt prompt tne to make such 
terms as liberal as posmtde. The garrison will be 
allowed, at your option, after laying down its 
drn}B, to retire to the interior, on condition of not 
serving a'*aiii during the war. or until regularly 
exchanged. I need hardly say lhat th«-^ights of 
iioii-eomtiatants wilt be res)»ecied. 

An answer lo this communication is desired by 
12 o'clock. If you assent to an accommodation an 
officer will Ive despatched at once, under instiuc- 
lions lo arrange the conditions. 

I am, sir, very respeclfully, 

Vour obedient servant, 
Z. Tatloii, .Maj. Gen. U. S. A. Com. 

SevoR D- Pcuiio nE AMprniA, 
General in Chief, Monterey. 

Terms of '1 of the city of Monterey, the 
capitii ! .'.on. ogrced upon by tlse un- 

dcr-ii^-in . ^ ,. ^ ioncrs. to wit : Gen- Worth, 
of the I'niled Sl.iled army. Gon. HendeiLion. of 
the Texan volunteers, and CoL Daviu, of tho 
.Missi stppi riflemen, on the part of Maj. Gen. 
Taylor, communding hi chief of the United 
Slates forces; and Gen. I'rquena, iin:i G- n. 
Ortega, of the army of Mexico, and S-nor 
Manuel .M. Li.ino. Governor uf Nuevo L.-cn. 
on the part of Scnor General Don Pedro Atn- 
pudin. commanding in chief of tho army of the 
North ot Mexico. 

Art. I. As the legitimate result of llic opera- 
I lions before this plnce, und the present pat:ilJon of 
' the contending armies, it is egrced that the tily. 
'the fortifications, cannon, the "muni'ions ofwjr. 
i and alt otlicr prJjacrty. with the undcrmcntiuiicd 
\ exceptions, be surrendered to the comiuaiid iig 
general of the United States forces now at Mon- 
terey, 

Art. IL That the Mexican forces be allowed 
to retiin thp following arms, to wit : the commis- 
sioned ofBcers their aide arms, the infantry iMr 

aims and acconlremenls. the Cflvalr^ t''. r 'in-* 
and acc«Hilremcnti , the artitlcr)' one ; 
not to exceed six pieces, with iwent\- . ■ , .. i 
of ammunition. ^ 
Art. ri[. That the Merican armed for«T're- 



,\rl. IV. i'liJl tlic ciUdai ol A. 
evacuated hv tlic Mexican, u' d oee" 
American forces, to-morrow morning . c ^ 
\ .\rt. V. To avoid contusion, and for mutual 
I convenience, tliat the troops of the United Stjtes 
I will not occupy the city until the Mexican forces 
: have withdrawn, except for hospital and storage 
I purposes. 

.\rt. VI. That the forces of the United Slates 
will not advance beyond ihe line !^pecified in the 
I 2nd [3d] article before the expiration of eight 
' weeks, or until orders or insiruclions of the re- 
' speclive governments sliall be received. 

An. VH. 



Bt MAHT HOWITT4 

" Our six days' toil is over ; 

This is the day of rest ; 
The bee hums in ihc clover. 

The lark springs from her nert. 
All living things are cheery 

Upon this Sjbbath morn ; 
The bl\ckliird cannot weary 

Of singing on the tliorn ; 
The slieep within tlie meadow. 

Like driven snow they look; 
Tlir  cows stand in the shadow 

Within the willowy brook. 

" 'Tis like that famous picture 

\A*hich came from London down,— 
Yon must go and see that picture 

When next you're in the town! 
And then there's tlial engraving 

I told you of last spring — 
I've ticen tliese six months aaving 

To buy that lovely thing! 
Well, both of them resemble 

Tiiis view at early ilay. 
When diamond dew-drops tremble 

Upon the dog-rose spray ; 
In both there is the river. 

The church-spire and the mill ; 
Tho aspens seem lo shiver; 

The cloud floats o'er the hill ! 

"As soon as breakfast's over, 

We'll forth this merry morn, 
Among the fragrant clover 

And through the summer com ; 
In the great church of Nature, 

Wlicre God himself is priest. 
We ll join each joyful creature, 

Flower, insect, bird and bcasL 
The birdti praise God in sinking 

Among ihe leafy sprays. 
And a loving heart worship, 

A joyful soul is praise ! 
Come then, thi.^ day cf seven, 

God's gill lo toil, shill be 
A little bit uf heaven 

On earth to thcc and mc ! 
'Tis I the babe will carry — 

Mv youngest, darling boy— 
And Bess and little Hairy, 

They will be wild wilh joy ! 
For thi-m the wild rose inin,T'cB 

With woodbine on the bough, 
And liirds in lealy din ;les 

Shout welcomes lo ihcin now ! 
Sweet wife, make har^ic! down yonder, 

DtJwn by the inill( ' ^ i 1. 
Thvougb o" ■ 

Thy ha I 

" For Sun. 

The boo 
Thi; ve.y I 

Beneath 
They're b\ 

Who wi 
T^b 't cliarij- 

Voii 6;i« it 

id 'iiraih the lime-tree shady, 

Among the summer corn, 
I'll read of Burleigh's laJy — 

A village miiden bom, — 
Haste, haste, and get thee ready. 

The morn is wearing on ; 
The woodland Uiics arc shady ; 

The dew dries; let's be gone !" 



for ttit 7Vw» Amtrtcnn. 

Valhy, Pa., Oct. \2th, 184d. 
Mb. Editor: — By your lavor, I received very 
rtiat the public property to be de- ; recently copies of my letter to Rev. L. Blanchard, 



town, and was served thruughout the night with 
good effect. 

Early in the morning of the 24lh. I received a 
fl.-ig from the tow n. l»earing a communication from 
General Ampudia. which I enclose. (No. 2;) and 
to which I returned the answer. (No. 3.) I also 
arrangeil with the bearer of the flag a cessation of 



livered shall he turned over and received by ofil- 
ccrs appointed by the commanding generals of the 
two armies. 

Art. VflL That all doubts as lo the meaning 
of any of the preceding arltcles shall be solved by 
an eijuilable construction, and on principles of 
liberality to the retiring armv. 

Art. IX. Tliat ttie Mexican flag, when struck 
at the citadel, may he saluteil by its own battery. 

Done at Monterev. Sept. 21, 1816. 

W. J. WoBTII, 

Brigadier General U. S. A. 
J. Pivk: kt Hsniii.rsov. 
M-ij. Gen. Cuindg. the Texan volunteers. 
jKFFERSO'f Davis, 

Col. Mississippi riflemen. 
Marcel M. Llano, 
T. RKackYA, 

0rT£OA. 

Approved, 

PeURO .VmPCDIA. Z. 'pATtOR, 

Mai. Gen. U. S. A- Coradg. 



; ordere.l him to go and iuinc hini Ampudia's port- ui„ii„g the withdrawal of the Mexican forces, and 
: foiio. he would have undertaken it. I devote a « temporary- cessation of hosiiliiies. Thecommis- 
i paraeraph to ihe mention of this gentlemanV servj- | gjoncrs named bv the Mexican General-in-chicf 
' ces. because he deserves much from tlie public, for | ^^^re Generals Ortega and Requcna. and Don 
whom he has labored so arduously, and so effi- Manuel M. Lln'na. governor of New Leon. Those 



A most painful rumor prevailed in our city on 
Sunday last. Letters weie leceiveil from some of 
ilie volunteers in ('ot. Mar«ha|l*M retiiinent the ni^hl 
)H foie, statiog lhat Capt. M. ('lay had left the 
camp Ml company v% ith a man bv the name uf Ken- 
d.tlt. for the purp-)i(e ol laktnt; a Indf-ilo hunt in the 
('oinanche range," and ilnit he had not iH-en h^ard 



Ct^HUIsS 

■nBI^ approval of 



DESPATCHES from .Vajor GmrmlZ. Taylor, 
received a' tlie H'ur U£ice. 
[No. B9.] 

HKAnatTAnTRlIS All*tT OF OccuPATio«r. "5 
Camp befofP Monterey, Sept. 22, 1846.   
Sir, I have the honor lo report lhat the troops | induced inc lo concur with 
under my cimirnand. iiirludini; the ni*)Uiiied vidnn- ; terms, which L 
teeis from Texas, niafctied Inon Marin ttn the I8ih, 
aixl encamped bt fore Monterey on thu lOili insl. 
It was imnii-diaiely discovered that the cnenty occu- 
pied the town in (nice, and had added gieatly to lis 
forencihbv 'oiiif}iiie ihe approaches and cornma'-d 
ing liei^bts. A close reconnoissni.ce wsp* made 
the ^ame evening tiy ihe idli em nf fiif/ineers and 
fi.pourupbical enBineers. on b-.ih flanks ol ttie ti»wn. 

and II was deieiinined fioni the iiilormaiion pn.- [ I re-jrel lo report lhat Captain Williams, topo- 
cuied to occupy the Saltillo r-isil in rear.d tlie lt wn. ' graphical eneineer, and Lieut. Terrell. Ul intan- 
cnrrvinir, if practicalde, the several loriified euiin- ' try. have dicfl of the wounds received in the en- 
eiic. s in that direction. The scmnrl divi*i..n of   cngcment of ihe 2lFt- Capt. Gatlin. 7th infantry, 
regnlar trti-'p«» and a poiiion of (^ot. Hays' reijiment ; was wounded (not l adly) on the 2:M. 
tif mounied volunieeis was accordinaly iletactied I I am. sir. very respectfully 



of for iwrniy one d.iV8. The iolereme was that ; ««.v. »hal such is alpo the opinion of several min- 
they must havf been kilted liy the Indians, and lo 
Hircnclben this inference, it was staled lhat the 
ilead bodies of tw   men answering tn the de-iciiption 
of Clay and KeniLiH had l een f  und. The appre- 
hensions of Mr. ('Iny's relatives aial friends tiowev* 
er, were lehevcd dining the day by another letter 
received by the samt) mail font one of the volun- 
teers to his father, in which he stated in a p08t  cripl 
to this tetter lhat C)|pt. Clay had just arrivi d 
in cnmp, liriiiKing wilh him an order^roiQ Gen. 
\\'.uil^ Afti«- »to i.i fill. Mar.'lirtll, directing 
hiins Clay's and Peiiningt m*s companies to tie 
iiled trom Ilia re; imeiit, and under the command 
..t Miijor Jotiri P. (iaine^ to be marched to San .An- 
! lotiio. to tie united wilti his (Wool*'*) command.— 
! It is slaii'd that the two companies aI»ovc referred lo. 
] Will) two companies from Tennessee, and aimttier 
{ companv (peitmps Capt. William^' of Clarke.) are 
lo loirn a Baita'ion, lo |te undr-r the command of 
Mxjor (!iiines, lo be a tarhed to the dn i:(i. n under 
General Wool. This was ibe * Uulfjto hunt" of 
Captain Clay !—/.e.r/«jfft»M ihhievvtf, Ott. 12. 



Vour oliedienl servant, 
Z. TAYLOR. Maj. Gen. U. S. A. Com. 
Thk Anji TANT GssERA'. or mc armt. 

Washington, D. C- 

(No. 1.) 

D. Franco De P. Morales, Gnvemor nf Sew Leon, 
to Major General Taylor. 
[Translated.] 
.MotTtRET. Sept. 26.8 o'clock. A. M. 
As you ftrr re«oWod tooeenpy the place by force 



The Wlnnctonffoea. 

A treaty has at length been convludcd with this 
tribe of Indians, by which they cede their lands in 
Iowa to the t^niicd States. 

From Santa Fe. 

The St. T*outs Ke|iutilican of the 12th inst. says: 
We were disappoinie l yest'-rday in failing to re- 
ceive our correspondence tVom t^aniH Fe. alihouith 
a lar^e numi'er tff letters reached the p' «t office. — 
Kiom some of these lett'-rs, written at'out iIim 1st of 
September, we tram lhat Gen. Kearnev was sttlt at 
Santa Fe. He bail ijiven orders for the remove- 
inent ol the ir.tops on an expedition altout one 



isterial brethren who have conversed with me 
about it. Thus much in answer to Dr. Rice's 
enquiry of "men of common sense" to point out 
any remark of bis injurious to my reputation. 
Nor do I question that men of sense and integrity 
will view in the same lii;ht his subsequent insin- 
uation in his letter,— lhat my "conscience is my 
accuser." If he means anything whatever by 
such language, he of course must mean that I was 
unwilling tu it-afl*""* or prove what 1 tiad once 
written, or wisticd in Boine way to a\oid responsi- 
bility which I once assume*!. As rcsiK-cts tlie 
liypoibesis which he stales, whether I profess the 
spirit of Jesns, I would ask (white I stiall beg 
t'j be excused froift giving sentence in my own 
case), who appears to possess inoMt of lhat spirit, 
one who gives utterance to an injurious imputa- 
tion on ttie char.icter of his neighbor, and suffers 
it to lie scattered on the wingji of ihe wind to every 
quarter, such -ah is made by Dr. Rice in his 
speech, or he who simply states bis opinion on 
lhat fact, and endeavors to defend himself from 
what he thinks a public calumny 1 I am willing 
lo su'imit this matter, so far as Dr. Rice and my- 
self are concerned, lo thejudgiiKtit of the public, 
and of our ministerial brethren. I aduiit that in 
my letter lo brother Blanchanl I u^ed some sar- 
eitsm, and |K'rhaps it bit Dr. Rice a little, but his 
letter contain:^^ ncss of inc, and charges mc with 
mi.fdcmci.'ni.r. 

II. Now for Mr. Lindsay. — (1.) As regards 
any person of the nanifi of Lindsay, who ever re- 
sided here, who wa* a member of a church, of 
any church under the wide heaven, of w hich I 
was then pastor, I do again positively disclaim 
any knowledge. The certificate wtiicti Dr. Rico 
gives in your paper, makes a certain .Mr. Lindsay, 
by his own showing, leave Kishicoquillas valley, 



oecaote so closely eiiiiaijed lhat I moved forwani of nrn «. and the Mexican Geneml-in-chief rr^solv- 
ihe volunteer division under Maj tr General lJuilei. I ed lo defend it nl wptv cost, fls honor end duty 
to ita support, leaving one battalion ( I it Kentucky) I require him to do, tliousands of vLctims, who. from 



leave on the second of S 'ptem)ter. and would, ii 
was .lupposed, Ih* absent about two weeVs. Bv the 
• i.Tte ot their r  lum. it wis ex| ert d that the Mor- 
mon Batiabon of Infantry would have arrived at 
Santa Fe. and then the ex) edition ai^ainst Cahfor 
nia was to commence. In th-s exp -ciHiio(i they 
would be. however, disappoinipd. as letters f om t'ol 
SUmith. written on ihe route, say that be would not 
be aide to reach Santa Fo l»efore itie first of Oclo- 
l»er. It hail l»een dplermined thst itie two compa- 
nies of Di9/«»« ii» under the c 'mmand of Capts, 
Moore and Cook, and the batia'ion of Mormnn In- 
fantry, were to sccninpany Gen. Kearney on ihe ex- 



and of Dr. Rice's cominunicaljon to you in reply. 
For these I thank you, and as Dr. R's reply in 
your paper of the 30th ulL leaves certaiii ))oint9 
open for further inlorm.Uinn. I hope you wid not 
deetn me trespassing if I again osk rootn for a 
few lines in one of your columns. As regards the 
actual infiiciion of persotial chastisement, &c., I 
suppose there will be no more dispute ; — perhaps 
evfii Dr. Rice will tielieve it now ! I have no 
more to say about broltier Blanctiard's mistake ; — 
it was a mistake, and I always \iewed it as hucIi, 
and forgave it. I liopc, aUo, that tiy all it will be 
taken lor granted thai I nev* r represented myself 
as eye-witness to the facts given in the narrative 
which has occasioned this present dispute : hut 
also that I liave said more than once, nay often, 
if you choose, that it w as wiiiu-ssed by one wholly 
worthy of credit, und thcrelore that it was true. 
But— 

I- It appears in my letter of the 20th of Aug., 
that I said Dr. Rice was *■ anything but courteous" 
in treating the name of a brother niinii ter as he 
treated mine, and atlirmed lhat what he said was 
"a base insinuation-" Now. I cannot but repeal 
this : what Dr. Rice says — especlatlv considering 
the time and circumstances — connected wilh its 
utterance docs, in my judgment, contain such ; — 
it implies that I had originated scandal, ivhich I 
was unwilUn^ to own and defend. .\s ri-gards 
my putting this estiin.ite upon il, I am happy to 



will not dispute that a certain Mr. Lindsay may 
have lived in the Valley, lhat he may have been 
a churcli member, nor that he may have obtained 
a certificate of his mcml^crship from elders John 
I Bcalty. Sr.. and Thomas Reed, and then emigrat- 
' ed. But if this was before I was pastor, how 
could he be a member of a church while I was 
pastor; and if it could be lhat he was still a 
meniber afli-r 1 became pa-'ior. he obtained a cer- 
tificate without my Knowledge cither of him or of 
it. Nay. tlie very fact lhat he exhibits a certifi- 
cate wanting of my signature is. in the common 
nmterstanding of the rules of inlercoursc between 
Presbyterian churches, evidence that I was not 
pastor at the Uttif il was written- Who. there- 
fore, iliis -worthy christian brother" is. who had 
"heard the word at my mouth." is a mystery to 
me. Many have heard the word at my mouth 
who have been far from being " wortliy christian" 
brethren. .\ud as lo feeling myself " ashamed " 
of what I said concerning a ceilain Mr. Lindsay, 
I who once, ai I was informed, resided here, — and 
j having the "blush brought to my check," as Dr. 
' Rice gently speaks, you will perceive that is im- 
\ poBsibte; — for as my memory can't he '* refreshed" 
i alwut Mr. Lindsay, ns a meinlKT of the church, 
— the "blush" can't Ik: cotijured up.— (2.) But, 
Mr. Editor, yourself and your readers will care- 
fully obttcrve, that I did not accate (as Dr. Rice 
insinuates, nay. asserts) any Mr. Lindsay of say- 
I ing anything untrue concerning ine, — biit tun- 
cerning himself. He said he had been a member 
if a church {if whicii 1 was pastor, and as such, 
if I understand him, had heard me say, ^c. Thi«, 
I repeat, is untrue ; and if the foregoing sl.itement 
of iny former relatitn to the east Ki; hicoquillrts 
j church dtics not substantiate it, tlie following 
I facts will demonstrate it. I was not an anti-slavery 
I man till 1836; six years (or five) after Mr. L. 
I had. by hia own showing, emigrated to the West! 
In March, 1837, I wrote the communicution to 
the Anti-slavery Almanac which has been \|ie oc- 
casion of the present dispute. Nor did I know 
the circumstancea myself until shortly before that 
j date. The narrative was not published till late 
I that year. I received the facts from brolher 
! Moore, as I mentioned in mv former letter, and 
brolher Moore was not settled in this Valley until 
I 1835. Pray, then. U'Asrf and when did Mr. Lind- 
j »ay *ver hear me ppeak of the occurrence ? 
J while, by his own showing, he was residing in 
j f'incinnali !— Mercy on us! if all the words wo 
. litter here with our feebte voice should reverberate 
( u c( 'in. Allritbiinirs, and down nlon^; ttie rum- 
bling Ohio! "Truly, "VfJet rrrctwnbtie wrbum .'" 
Or have you some mighty mesmtriztr in the far 
West who can be-vision our emigrants, and. de- 
stroying the lap« s of time, punctuate many 
years one, and also make thc.ie tilings be, whi- h 
cannot ^e. Bui — (3.) — oliserve one thing more. 
Tlie records of the Gen. Ass^^mbly of Pr. ('h., 
i will show that in 1S34 the church of east Kishico- 
i quillas was xvitbout a pastor: and lhat in 18^r  I 
j was pallor, and ever since have been, of the Pcr- 
' ryville church. Therefore, as the narrative which 
• has furnish'^d occasion for this dit^pute was not 
written till 1837, if Mr. Lindsay ever heard me 
say anything about the atrocity referred to. it 
must have been while I was pastor of a church 
which was not organized while he lived in this 
; neighborhood. How then could he be a member 
[ of it. No person of his name ever was a member 
' of the church of Perryvillc. This can he proved 
, by the testimony, if ncces«ary, of a hundred w it- 
' nesses. And now, if Mr, Lindsay was not a mcm- 
I ber of the east Kishicoquillas church while I was 
' pastor, nor of the Perryville church of which I om 
j now panior, these being the only tw-o churches to 
I which I have ever sustained that relation.— can 
I you or any living soul divine how he could be a 

member of a church of which I was pastor, 
j To conclude: — Mr. Editor, you wiiHSperccive, 
I U will all your renders, that I said no^^ore of 
j a certain Mr. Lindsay than I had occasion to pay. 
^ And you will oldigc me by begging Dr. Rlr4  not 
, to be so ra»A in his statements. — il is unbecotr.- 
I ing in a "Donor of Divinity." Let him know aUo 
, how I "feci," since he expresses a wi.-h to hno 
! — namely, continued indignation at his twice re- 
I DRWcd discourlcpy ; and contempt for a public 
! falsehood. If any tiling more is to be said in this 
' contro^cr!":. I ho[je il will be saitl by Mr. Linilf^ay 
' himself. I have junt been favored with the peru- 
sal of a letter written by hiin lo Col. Wm. Reed, 
' of this place, the contents of which prove that 
he is 311' ■". r himself. I peek 
no con: — but if be contin- 
ue* it, he ■ r to cry '* enough." 

Vours, already obliged 

James Nopnsi. 

P R. T I rtl.l mi'eilf nnt viii» ro.-onn^ihli* for 



J iiR I z TniTiT. — 7*bc «ni0Tim of icc expor- 
ted from Boston during tho moi|g» of September, 
is 1,G27- The whole amount for the last lour 
months, is 14,331. The amount during the four 
months ending Sept. 30, 1845, was 9,993 tons. 

D  sT^c  TiTK Fire ix WAinnaoiio'.— We 
learn by Tetesraph from B «ton lhat the t-iwn of 
Waldoliro', Maine, was vi»iled by a verv destine- 
live fire on  ui dDy rnnrnins last, ^'pt('ut's einire 
block, and all (he Imildin^s fntn Samson's corner 
lo Castnei's store, and Dr. Ludwii^'s li'uis*-. entuely 
i consumrd. Most of the lumiture and gnosis in 
, these tniildings were save,! in u da-nasied utaie.— - 
; Ttie loss includes sixteen ston s. nine dwelling. 
■ Imuses. f.iur Lawyers' olfi.es. three Ph\*-icjunB* of- 
fices, snd the Bank and Post Ofhee tiuildingn; ibtt 
I Bank and Post Olfice property saved. No livea 
lost. 

('OC:fTFnrEiTKn# .Aan^sTrn. — The Nashville 
Whig meniions ibe arrest of five more counierfeiiera 
j in Itiat county. 'I'tteir names are fiiveu as James 
I Johnson, VV'dlium Boyd, Wrn. C. Spencer. W'm. 
j Brown, anil a young man named Terry. Thev had 
'in lb. ir posftesmun when taken, over $17,0U0 in 
, counterleil notes. 



T f I K St u ni o u r Po w ». it t . 



T.IK AMEniCAV 



hundieil and fifiy mtb r in the interior. They wen* | in the spring of 1830, if I understand his language. 



Now. I never was settlei) any where as pastor 
until June 8th. 1831. .\t that date I was insiaM- 
ed pastor of the church of E.ist Kiihicoquillas. 
Up to that date 1 could find no records of that 
church; not so much as a list of its members. I 
made out a list as soon as possible, but never 
knew nor heard that any Mr. Lind»ay was a mem- 
ber. The name does not appear on that record 
now.— nor does the oldest living person in the 
eldership here (a former elder of that church, 
noxT a member of Perryvillo church) recoiled 
snch a person as Mr. Lindsay. No wonder I 
should have no knowledge of him, therefore. I 



I Sci-LPTOH. — We find in i lie m an account of 
recent visit lo ihe »iudio of Powers at Florence, in 
• which some of ttie works of the great tculplor afe 
spoken of in term* of ihe hi^lu t eubipy. The Eve 
is prnn mnced i   Ite the emtiodiment of mutu'td 
loveliness. Il was the artist's inieniiim ti  represent 
her as sueh— a perfect woman in ttie maiuiiiy «)f tier 
(•races. Ttie figure rests sliuhily u\Hm one leg and 
exieiids the ap|jle m the rulit hand, unvt-ihng her 
chatms wiili bewncbini; uncirnfcinut-nefs. UnstU'iit d 
jTrace— the re-*ull of perfection of shaj»e and just aii- 
atoiny, dwells in every tine and swells in eveiy 
curve. She is uns|Kakably tieauliful — ihe t enuty 
of a summer dream — tml pas'iionately feminine — a 
gem. The Eve and itie f ireek Slavt*, which 
I inadf such a sensation in London last summer, cainu 
1 out of the same block nf marlite— the aim of iha 
I Eve over the shoulder of ihe Slave. Imagine the^o 
I beautiful creatures lying side by side in ihe cold mar- 
ttie I — and ihus they slept, from tlie creation till wak- 
ed bv the wand of genina. 
I Ttie Fisher Boy is another exqutslte piece. It 
represents a lioy of about sixteen, holding a shell to 
i his ear and listening there to tho mimic roar of the 
I waves. The heait inclines sightly, and a smile on 
' the fnco cjtprt k»t-» the delight witti wtiirh lie lislens 
to Ibe laint sounds of the shell. A net by his Hide 
' indoaies his t niployinent. The uiter uncons^us- 
ness of altitude — the exquisite syinmetrv ofsbape— 
I the lilooin of youth which seems li  hsunt the lilelesa 
] marldf— the fine adaptation of action lo the ide», 
evidence of true lasie, »tdmp this piece as one of 
I a hibfh oilier of me'tt. 

Proserpine, • female bust, peeping from a cluster 
; of rtowers, is a model of classic beauty. Of ihif 
I ball a itiizen are ordered. 

I The ehif'el nf Powers, though not altogether tdte 
for his own countrymen, has tx en chirflv emplo\ed 
; fiir the l»enefit of loreiuners, one of whom, an Pnsj- 
, lisliman. purchased l)i:« Greek Move fir nix hundred 
I )ionnils. and who Huce rcfuM.d fifteen hundred puuud* 
I lur hia purcliase. 

Think of It. 

I " All is vflnity. saiih the preacher:" nnd it ia 
I death which stamps this character on the affuii* of 
the world ; it throws a m jckcry upon all that is 
huin:in; it frustrates the wise ;i plans, and  »bso- 
lutely converts them into nothinfjness. All the 
ocslacies of pleasure, oil the splendors of fame, all 
the triumphs of ambition, all i lie joy -s of domchtic 
tenderness, oil that the eye can look upon, .or l!ie 
he:irt aspire alter, thifi. tfiis is their atlccting ter- 
mination — death aI sorb.s all. it annihilates all.— 
Our fathers, who strutted the little hour on this ve- 
ry theater, were ns active and noisy as xve : flie 
louil laugh ol festivity was heard in tlicir dwell- 
ings; and in the busv occupations of their call- 
in^s tliev had llieir days of labor, and their nights 
of'painful anxiety ; the world earned on it the same 
faceofaetiviiy d«iiow:and where are the m^n 
wha kejt it up in their successive generations? 
Thev are where we shall soon follow them ; they 
na*e eonc to sleep —liut it is the sleep of death; 
their bed is a eolBn. in which they arc moulder- 
ing; the garment which they have thrown 0 side 
is their body, which served' tlicm through lif«, 
hut is now lying in loose an I scattered fmgmenta 
iu the little earth that they dAitH.—C/uilmiTS. 



POETRY 



flong of the ArtlB«ii 

8T THOMAS DCKN KNGLISU: 

Sing, comrades, sing ! 
We are part of the Stale^ who labor, 
As well as our weullliy neighlior. 

And each in hi^i i phere. a king 
We laugh when the rich men meiilion 
Their woiitlfiful coiulescensioii. 
In taking our hands with dainty grips, 

Undaunted by labor's crime, 
And giving ua love, on their lying tips, 
About the election- lime. 

Sing, comrades, sins;, 
We are a part of the State, who labor, 
Af well as our wealthy neighl^or, 

And each in his sphere, a king. 

Sing, comrade*, sing! 
Hot alone in the workshop's clamor, 
When wielding the saw and hammer, 

Is each of ua here, a king. 
For as a part of our noble nation. 
We stand in a glorious station, 
And learn to think, at every clink, 

Whatever the fonU may say. 
We are bound to the State with a golden link, 
And force it on its way. 

Sing, comrades, sing. 
We are a part of the Stale, who labor, 
As well as our wealthy neighbor. 

And each, in his sphere, a king. 

Sing, comrades, fiinu ! 
W'e are lords of a mighty nation. 
Her glory is our crpation. 

And each is as high as a kinir. 
For WE set the State in motion, 
As kings do over the ocean ; 
And in never a deed may our rulers speed. 

Till we say how and when — 
For we feel in our power and purpoi^o stroDg, 
Aud we know that we are men. 

Sing, comrades, sing. 
We are a part of the Slate, who labor, 
Aa w«|| as our wealthy neighbor. 
And each, in his sphere, a king. 

The Coming Xfayu, 

BY W, J. LlNTO: . 

O, the days when we were freemen nil, whenever 

that shall be, 
Will surely be the worthiest that earth can ever see ; 
When man unto his fellow-man, whatever may befal, . 
Holds out the palm of fellowship, and Love is larA.. 

of all: 

When man and woman, hand in hand, along life's 
pathway go, 

And the days of youthful joy eclipse the sorrow 
long ago. 

O, the days when we are freemen all, when eijual 

rights and laws 
Shall rule the commonwealth of earth, amid a 

world's applause ; 
When equal rights and duties claim the equal care 

of all. 

And man, as man, beneath high heaven assumes 
his coronal ; 

When the day of Pentecost is come, when the poor 

man's hearth shall be 
An altar for the beacon-fire of Peace ami Liberty. 

O, the days when we are freemen all, the days when 
thoughts are free 

To travel as the winds of heaven toward their des- 
tiny ; 

When man is sovereign of himself and to himself 
the priest. 

And crowne l Wisdom's recognized the manhood of 
the least, 

Then God shall walk again with man, and fruitful 

converse grow. 
As in the noon of Paradise, a long, long time ago. 

But holier still shall be the day when human hearts 
shall dare 

To kneel before one common Hope, the common 
toil to share ; 

When love shall throw his armor ofl*, to wrestle 

with the fear — 
The $elji»hne»a which is the seal upon the sepnl* 

chre ; 

Hark to the Voices of the Years! the springtide of 
their glee — 

Love hath o'ercome the prophecy ; Humanity is 
free * 



A Dirge for the Beautiful. 

Softly, peacefully, 

Lay hei lo re^t ; 
Place the tuif ligluly 

On her young l.rtuM ; 
Gently, solemnly, 

Hf nd oVr the lied 
Where ye have pilluwcd 

Thus early her head. 

Plant a young willow ^ 
Close by her grave ; 

Let its long branches 
Soothingly wave ; 

Twineaswei'l ruse tree 

Spruce buds there — 
.riVaty and glouni. 

Let a bright fountain, 

Limpid and clear. 
Murmur its music — 

Smile through a tear — 
Scatter its diamonds 

Where the loved lies— 
Brilliant and tfiarry, 

Like angels' eyes. 

Then shall iho bright birds 

On goldeti wing, 
Lingeruig ever, 

Murmuring sing ; 
Then shall the soft breezo 

Pensively sigh — 
Bearing ricti fragrance 

And melody by. 

Lay the sod lightly 

Over her breast ; 
Calm be her sluihbcrH , 

Peaceful her rest. 
Beautiful, lovely, 

She was but given, 
A fair bud to earth. 

To blossom in heaven. 



Use of a Nose. 

A good story Ib told of Mozurt al the 
time he was a pn|)il of ILiydn. The lat- 
ter challenged Iiis pupil lo compose a piece 
of music which he rouUl phiy al sight. 
Mozart accepted the banter, and a supper 
and champagne were lo be ihe forfeit. — 
Everything being arranged between the Iwo 
composers, Mozart look his pen and a 
sheet of paper, and in five minutes dashed 
off a piece of music, and much to the sur- 
prise of Haydn, handed it to him, saying-, 

"There is a piece of niuaic, sir, which 
you cannot play, and I can — you are lo 
give it the first trial." 

Haydn smiled contempluously at the vis- 
ionary presump!ioM of his pupil, and placing 
the notes before him, struck tfie keys of 
the instrument. Surprised at its simplici- 
ty, he dashed away until lie reached the 
middle of the piece, when, stopping all 
once, lie exclaimed — " How's tliis, Mo- 
zart? ^ow*s this ? Here my hands ace 
stretched out to both ends of the piano, and 
ye^^ere's a middle key lo be touched. — 
No^jKly can play such music, not even the 
composer himself.'* i 

Mozart smiled at ihe half excited indig- ' 
nation and perplexity of ihe great master, 
and taking the scat he had quilted, slruclt 
the instrument with an air of self-assurance, 
that Haydn began to think himself duped. 
Running along through the simple passa- 
ges, he came to that part which his leather 
had pronounced impossible lo be played. 
Mozart, as everybody is aware, was favored, 
or at least, endowed, with an exireniely 
long nose, which in modern dialed »* stuck 
out about a feet." Keaching ihe diiriculi 
passage, he stretched both hands to ilie ex- 
treme ends of the piano, and leaning for- 
ward bobbed his nose against the middle 
key. " which nobody could plav !*' 

Haydn burst into an immoderate fit of 
laughter; and after acknowledging Uie 
**corn," declared that nature had endowed 
Mozart with a capacity for music which he 
had never before discovered. 

War. — Justice is as strictly due be- 
tween neighbor nations as between neigh- 
bor citizens. A hishwayman is as much a 
robber when he plunders in a gang, as 
•when single; and a nation thai makes an 
unjust war is only a great gang." — Frank- 
tin. 



Tli« Scholar, the Jurist, the Artist, aud 
the Philosopher* 

We make the following eloquent extracts 
from the late oration of Charles Sumner, 
Esq., of Boston, before the Phi licta Kap- 
pa Society of Cambridge University, as 
reported for the Boston Daily Adveriiser. 
Lei lliem be carefully read and studied by 
all, both old and young, the professional 
nun, and the farmer, and ihe mechanic, the 
educated and the humble, and unscliooled ; 
for nothing is more impulsive to goodness 
than the lives of those who liave exempli- 
fied it. 

The orator llien alluded to the fact tliat 
the Society had this year published its cat- 
ah»gue, with liie corrections which four 
years had made necessary, aud among the 



Mansfield, D'Aigusseau, Thibault, Siving- 
ny, Uomaguosi, and in our own country, 
James Kent, " now," he said happily 
present here by his son," and whom he 
described as the living head of jurispru- 
dence. Such men as these were no more 
lo be confounded with those who were on- 
ly lawyers, like Dunning, in England, and 
Pinckney, the acknowledged leader of the 
American bar, than Washington was to be 
compared lo the Swi?s who sells ihe pow- 
er of his arm lo the highest bidder. The 
name of ihe jurist became a pari of the law, 
and the hourglass of lime refused to meas- 
ure the extent of its duration. 

ALLSTOX THE ARTIST. 

He then passed to a rapid, but finely 



asterisks which marked the progress of touched and delicately siiggestive sketch of 
death among its mend ers, four new ones 
now stood against lite names of Pickering 



the scholar. Story the Jurist, Allston ihe ar 
list, and Channing the Phiianlliropist. Il 
was a custom of tlie ancient Komatis upon 
their solemn festivals lo bring forward the 
images of ilieir honored dead, while some 
recalled in words ihe recollection of llieir 
deeds. So mighi he now bring up the 
images of their departed brothers, not in 
the costume of oHice or the robes of cere- 
mony', but in the native honors of their 
perstmal and truthful characters, and dwell 



ihe life and progress, the genius and the 
works of Mr. AlUion, intermingled wiili 
much accurate analysis of the results of his 
labors and illustrative views of art, its ob- 
jects and elfecls. He painted in warm and 
allraclive coloring the devotion of Allston to 
that which was ennobling and purifying in 
art, and his aversion lo making il the means 
of exciting or encouraging the evil passions 
of men. Allston, he said, was consulted 
with the view to his painting a picture for 
one of the pannels in tlie Rotund,^ of the 
Capilol at Washington. He replied that 



crowned with laurel! And these men, 
who left no equal iiiiheircountry in letters, 
law, art, and humanity, labored in these 
walks, not selfisiily, but for the instruction 
and improvement of others. They were 
rjl pbilanthropisls, working in the cause of 
knowledge, justice, beauty, and love. 
Tliese, and not brief and local interests, 
were the realities of life. After the per- 
turbations of life, all must be resigned ex- 
cept what had boon devoted to God, and to 
mankind. What had bect» devoted lo self 
must perish, that which had been done for 
others would live forever. Worms might 
destroy the body, but nothing could con- 
sume such fame as was acquired under the 
grand fundamental law, in seeking the good 
of the whole human family. Whenever, 
in ibis cause, all concur, they will exert 
an influence more puissant than the sword, 
to relieve men from the bondage of error, 
and lead them into llial service which is 
perfect freedom. 



on this occasion upon those, whose names he would paint but one picture, and that up- 
alone were able to awaken a response in | on a subject of his own choosing, and add- 
every bosom, which like the echo of Dodo- 1 ed — " 1 will piint no battle piece, no bal- 
na, would prolong itself to the end of the '^tlepieceT Lucretius had said that there 
livelong day. j was something pleasant when one is out of 

He did not intend to speak of their tndi- danger in contemplating the struggles of 
victual lives in the manner of a detailed hi- ! men, life for life. But this was a heathen 
ography, but to present tlie picture of«seniimenl which humanity disowned. — 
knowledge, justice, beauty anrf love, as they ' 'I'liere ought to be no real pleasure in the 
were embodied in the lives of ihe scholar, ■ torture, the suffering, or the danger of a fel- 
jurist, artist, and philanthropist. He pro- low man, or in ihe representation of it.— 



eeeded to sketch rapidly tlie life, character 
and genius of each of the illustrious men 



to whose deaths he had alluded, reve rsing. JUlilaglofigg- 14* fmr smTPsmen and poets 



hts remartis the oriTeTor iTitnr death. 

riCKERING THE SCHOLAR. 

John Pickering the scholar, died in the 
month of i\Iay, 1846, aged 69, having at- 
tained within a few months the allotted 
limit of human life. He was a man of 
learning, not of those who are called edu- 
cated men, because at some lime they con- 
siiler that iheir education is finished; he 



Were ihis universally acknowleflsred, were 
this seniitnent general, war would be shorn 



and orators would join in saying — we will 
paint " no battle pieces," — ii" ihe scenes of 
war were only describetl in tones of pain 
and reprobation, war would soon cease 
among men. It was true that man had 
slain his fellow man, armies had rushed 
against armies, and the blood of brothers 
had been shed by brothers, but these were 
not fit subjects for the pen of ihe poel or the 
pencil of the artist. Let history tearfully 



studied always. The world knows and record such events, since it is her duty 
reveres his learning, but only those who but let hecnot perpetuate human passions 



were intimate witli his daily life, knew his 
modesty, which led him the more he ac- 
quired to feel the more ihal he **knew 
nothing." The modest merit that with- 
drew liim into ihe obscurity of private life, 
now recommends him to our recollection, 
and his learning and modesiy, were among 
the first of his high qualities. 

He had called Mr. Pickering a scholar, 
but his triumphs of scholarship were en- 
hanced by the variety of their subjects. 
He was a lawyer, attentive lo the interests 
of his clients — each day witnessing bis 
devotion lo scenes of labor which had lit- 
tle attraction for him — but preferring the 
science to the practice ol his profession, 



or invest them with any altraciions by 
means borrowed from art. Let good anil 
worthy deeds be commended and represen- 
ted in glowing colors al the hands ol histo- 
ry, but let lis liave no hatlle, piece — 
'J'he progress of our civilization had shut 
out from among the sulijects of art many of 
those exciting passions which had once 
been ihouglit the finest for il. Lust and in- 
temperance had been banished from public 
display, and no longer intruded upon the 
province of poetry and the arts — Lais and 
Phryne had fled, Bacchus and Silenus had 
been banished reeling from the stage, and 
we might hope that Mars woidd soon fol- 
low, howling as if from the wound receiv- 



being rather a seeker after truth ihan defcn- ed, according lo ihe Grecian eiory, in the 
der after wrong, to whom a well filled ; battle before Troy, 
docket was like ihe dish of thistle, once es- i 

teemed a luxury. He was accomplished | channing the philanthropist. 
in both the law as a trade, and the great I The orator passed from his tnbule to All- 
science of jurisprudence. He was devo- ^*''" ^'^^ memory of the last of the illus- 

I itious dead whom he had named. Wii.- 



teil to classical suidies and general philolo 
gy, feeling that a true American scholar is 
a living recommendation of the institutions 
of his country. But he was not exclusive 
in his devotion lo classical studies, but ful 
filled the true duty of a Christian scholar 



UAM Ei.LERY CANNING died in October, 
1842, at the age of 62 years;' The trans- 
ition was easy from the artist to the pliilan- 
thropist. The montimental stone of the 
alter was designed by Allsion; — both had 



who will draw from the past all that will i tbc same remarkable gendeness, trulh, and 

feeling, while the coloritig of Allston found 
a striking parallel in the mellow ricl^fiess 
of the style of Channing. It wa« not a? a 



lend to the progress and happiness of man, 
hut will shun and disclaim all that is perni- 
cious and demoralizing which is uiingled 

with its liieraiurc. He went furiher, and I divine that be could speak of him, but he 
made himself acquainted with the Sanscrit, | n»'i:ht^ ay liiat no single mind in our age 
the hieroglyphics of Egypt, the dialects of: bad^uch a strong elfecl in forming ihe- 
(he North American aborigines and of the | '^'offiy^Opiuions as liad his; rmd that he 
sandal groves of the Pacific, a^l composea i li--*i*-n* «'''^ . b.iur — hr-ttrc -^xmn^r-^ 
an Indian Alphabet, now used in iho l»»r!v- annihpr— for which Christ suffered, which 
nesian Islands. He devoied himself 'to ibe Apostles taught, the fathers disseminat- 
eomparative philoloay, a science which martyrs confirmed ; a belief ac 

more than rivals thai of comparative anal- knowledged by alt Christians 



oiny, wide as are the useful effects of that, 
and which may one day produce results 
more woudeiful than the infinite calculus, 
under wliieh the highest conceptions may 
be expressed in a language, based upon an 
alpliabet of human thoughts. 

story the jurist. 



whether 

their creed be of Rome, or Geneva, or 
Canterbury, or Boston. To a wide extent, 
and in all countries, many hearts were 
reached by the meek and eloquent writings 
of this earnest divine. 

Aflduciiig striking instances of ihe repu- 
tation which Dr. Channing had attained in 
distant parly of the world, Mr. Sumner said 
The orator ihen passed lo ihe name of i tbat the power which had attained this was 
another of ihc great deceased. Joseph I an influence on character. That influence 
Smry died in the month of December, ■ had breathed into man a new life, and from 
1845, at the age of66 years. He held, at the | his quiel study a voice had gone forth 
lime of his death, a high station as a judge ! which, in the cause of gentleness, righteous- 
and a higlier as a jurist, while iiis kind- ness, and peace, had touched souls whom 
ness and good feeling for all, and especially the written or spoken word had never he- 
lo ihe young, was such as lo make all that fore reached. Thus, leading those whom 
knew him rise up and call him blessed, so ! he impressed, he distinguished himself as 
that from among those who have been nur- \ foremost in ihe new era of the peaceful con- 
lured under his care, and liad been permit- : quests of the world, in which the sword 
led lo share his intercourse, how readily j should yield to ihe pen. He was the 
would many — if such an Alcestis-like sac- ! champion of humanity ! — ** Follow the 
rihce could have been permitted, '* Simiiis ' L'ighC' — more resplendent than white 



si perinuiatio detur" — have given up their 
own lives that ihey might prolong his! 
'J'he whole country mourned his death, 
aud the funeral torch passed across the sea. 

Literature was his early passion. The 
stern call of duty alone summoned him 
fro Ti its culture, of which to the last he was 
fond, and in the midst of his varied labors 
he often turned from the austere counten- 
ance of Themis, lo the more genial greeting 
of the muses. In this he only resembled 
those master spirits of his profession, Sel- 
dcn, Somers and Blackstone ; I)*Aigusseau 
and L'iJopiial. Al the early age of 32, he 
was called lo a seat upon the bench of ihe 
Supreme Court of the United Siate.« by the 
side of Marshall. Tliis was the same age 
at which ihe celebrated Btiller wa« called 
to a seat on the bench by the side of Lord 
Mansfield, m a conn over which he was 
not destined to preside. History recorded 
that it was the fondest wish of Lr/rd Mans- 
field, llial his friend and associate should 1)6 
his successor, but this was disregarded by 
Pitt. Ottr brother, like Buller, was the 
friend and associate of his chief, nor was 
it staling more than deserved a place in his- 
tory, to say that it was a warm wish of 
Chief Justice Marshall, that he might be 
succeeded by Story. But it was orilered 
oitierwise; and he remained on the bench 
fi)r 34 years, ihe same length of time as did 
Bidlcr, without presiding in the Court. 

Bill the duties of the Court did not ex- 
haust his energies, and he sotight in oiher 
ways employment for his mind.*. He had 
an instinct for work, and occupation was 
his truest repose. His was one of those 
minds whose normal stale is activity. Ilji 
became the head of the Law School of this 
Institution, which so flourisheil under his 
care, lhat the sickly branch became ihe 
golden mistletoe of the University. He 
brought to ibe task all his learning, good- 
ness, benevolence and willingness to teach, 
each of which is required lo make a true 
teacher, and all of wliich be had. As an 
author and jurist, he took siiH a higherstand. 
riicjurisi and lawgiver (the orator eloquent- 
ly argued) was far greater than merely the 
judge and the lawyer, and he illustrated 
ifiis view, by suggestive allusions to the 
old lawgivers, and then of the modern ju- 
rist.s Cujas, Hugo Grolius, Pothier, Coke, 



plume or oriflamme — was his motto 

Mr. Sumner went on to speak of Dr. 
Channing*s Essay on Slavery, Ids letter to 
Mr. Clay, and his paper on **lho Duties of 
the Free Stales," the arguments of which 
rest on ihe general question of right and 
wrong, without allusion to the questions of 
economy or expediency, — and without a 
word of harshness towards those who by 
birih had been involved in the crime of 
which be spoke. He was implacable to- 
wards the wrong, but used soft words t^* 
w.irds the wrong doer, — in the hope, which 
he always enteriained, lhat they would one 
day themselves undo this wrong. The 
"Duly of the Free Slates." however, was 
an uncompromising refusal to assist in sus- 
taining the institution of which he spoke. 
No son of the pilgrims could hold a slave. 
And the sons of the pilgrfms had not failed 
in thai duly. Wuul^l lUcy not always fol- 
low the example of tlie brother of tiiis so- 
cieiy, who knew bow to do, as well as to 
will'; — who could surfender that which ihe 
law calletl his own; — who could free the 
bondsman who had fallen lo him by inher- 
itance; — would they not, like Palfrey, 
thus show their sense of the system which 
they deplored ? 

Mr. Sumner then briefly alluded to Dr. 
Channing's arguments in behalf of univer- 
sal peace, and then passed to a beautiful 
description of him as an orator, attributing 
the eliecl of his eloquence to the moral 
weitrht and high aims of what he said. 

The orator closed by saying that he had 
thus tried to hold up the images of those 
servants of knowledge, justice, beauty, and 
irtiih, who ha\e ascended lo the Grand 
Source of knowledge, justice, beauty, and 
truth. They are each dead, but each, 
though dead, yet speakelh, refining, enlarg- 
ing, developing, and advancing, those who 
remain. The body had died, but their pu- 
rity and beneficence could not die. He had 
dwelt upon the recollection of them, not so 
miudi in grief for their loss, as in gratitude 
for that which we had so long possessed, 
and do now possess. In pride, the Univer- 1 
sity might also say, that she would not 
give her dead sons for any living sons in 
('hrislendoni. Pickerintr. Story, Allston, 
Clianning! Of each of ihein she might 
say. throuirh him the counlry had been ' 



Pollshlns Diamonds. 

In one of our exchanges, ihe other day, 
we found a letter from Amsterdam, part of 
which we copy, describing the process of 
making diamonds to glitter on the neck of 
beauty. — Boston Transcript. 

Amsterdam is much engaged in manufac- 
tures, and someof ibem are peculiar lo the 
counlry. The one of these which I was 
most curious to sec. is dial for the polishing 
or culling of diamonds. 'J'here are several in 
the city, and they are exclusively the prop- 
erty of the Jews, who are quile numerous. 
In the lower story of a large building were 
six or eight horses, driven round and round 
by a number of boys, and turning a large 
wheel. From this I ascended a narrow 
and steep stairway, lined with dusl, smut ! 
and cobwebs, to ihe second floor. Here 
were about forty workujen, seated at their 
benches round the sides of the room. 'J'he 
large wheel below turned four small cylin- 
ders in the middle of the room, and from 
these bands run to all the benches and kept 
in motion a number of circular iiou plates, 
horizontal and just even with the surftce of 
the table. The superintendent sat in ihe 
centre, busy at his work, and overb oking 
the room. He spoke English, and look 
much pains to explain and show me the 
whole process, 

'I'he flat plate of soft iron is about ten 
inches in diameter, and burnished with a 
file or piece of coarse sandstone, so as to 
be full of fine lines radiating from ihe cen- 
tre. This lasts a workman one or two 
days, and must then be prepared once 
again. The rough diamonds are small, ir- 
regular, round pebbles, just about the size 
of the shot a sportsman is accustomed lo 
use, from the smallest size lo buckshot. 
Ttie workman takes a small copper cup 
one inch in diameter, which is fastened to 
a strong wire, and fills it wiih acomposiion 
of zinc and quicksilver. This composition, 
when hot, has the consistency of wax, and 
is easily moulded inlo any shape. The 
workman filled a cup and rouniled it off 
wilh a flat piece of iron aiul his hand — an 
experiment which, he told me, would be 
dinicult for an unexperienced person lo try 
without burning his fingers, but upon Ins 
horny hand the red hot metal made no im- 
pression. When finished it looked just 
like an acorn upon its stem, wiih the dia- 
mond partially buried in the apex. 

The whole was then plunged into cold 
water, and the stone was firmly held in iis 
place by the solid zinc, and ready fi)r pol- 
ishing. This acorn of zinc and diamond 
is then fastened firndy in an iron clamp, 
and the point put down upon the metal 
plaie, which is whiiling round, and grinds 
it off. Sometimes a weight of lead '\s put 
on to press it down and grind ilaway faster. 
Each workman attends two at the same 
lime, and -tuke^ them up every minute, to 
apply with a Gamel hair pencil ihe smallest 

quantity of diamoiid dusl, which is the only 
iTTTtTsiaiicti illT\i will aci up»»ii ttirtii, miu is 
more precious than gold : or to bend the 
Mifl' win: with iho thumb and form a new 
face. His first step is to ** make a table," 
as it is called, that is, to grind down a con- 
siderable furface on one side, around which 
the other facets are arranged. Every dia- 
mond is here finished with sixty fourfacet^, 
and done entirely by the eye. 

The workmen are employed twelve hours 
and finish three or four a day. 'I'lie diamond 
merchants of Amsterdam pay from two lo 
four dollars each for i)olishing. 'I'he best 
place for buying the rough stones is France, 
and the best market for selling the p(dish- 
ed jewels is England. Any color injures 
ihe value of the stone. The clear, limped 
diamond is the most valued. A workman 
showed me three of the same size, just fin- 
ished, weighing about three carats each, 
half as large as a pea, ami said they were 
worth, six hundred florins, tbat is about 
$90, each. Doubtless tfiey will soon spar- 
kle in ** marble halls," and in happy unison 
wilh splendor and beauty ; but I dotdu if 
they ever sparkle in more striking and bril- 
liant contrast lhan when I saw them in the 
smulty hands of die workmen. 

The place was covered wilh smut, dusl 
and oil, the wheels rattled and the work- 
men shouted rough jokes al each other 
above ihe noise, and grinned and dashed 
about their different duties as merrily as ev- 
er the Cyclops could have wrought when 
ihey made ihe precious shield of Eneas. 
And now and then, the tortured diamonds 
sent fiirlh a shriek, llie like of what comes 
from filing a saw, but to which lhat is a 
mere whisper. 

Important Discovery. — Instantaneous 
stopping of a liailway Train. — The ex- 
periment look place in the Rue Chaussee 
d'Antin, on a model railway conslrticled for 
the purpose. The inventor is an engineer, 
named Alexandre. A model train was let 
offal different rates of speed, from fifteen 
to twenty leagiies an hour, down a very in- 
clined plane, antl yet. notwlilisianding 
these circumstances, the train was checked 
without the slightest commotion. The 
break is worked by the conductor of the 
last carriage, by which means the whole of 
the carriages, instead of striking each other, 
have a tendency lo retreat. As soon as ihe 
breaks of the last carriage have taken their 
position, ihose of every other carriage in 
the train act ^^^^^ously, and by an- 
other ^mirabT^^ffii^^nc4||^h||^omolive 
can, ^En al the greatest rate (^^^)eed, be 
detached from the train. Tbis is not all. 
The very act of separating the locomotive 
provides a[;ainst accident by its running too 
far forwatd; fi)r as 1^^** reachf^d 

a suflieient disHince frotWlhe train, say 50 
to 100 yards. iV^ops. ™e inventor esti- 
mates lh« expense of adojjlmig his apparatus ! 
at a thousand francs for, each carriage. A 
commission, appointed by ih*e government, 
have witnessed, and, it i*said, approved of 
the experiments. — Gatig^nfff ^hssenger. 



farthing; this produces an ounce of steel 
worth 4 l-4d., which is drawn inlo 2250 
yards of steel wire, and represenls in the 
market jtlS 4s.; bul still another process of 
hardening this original farthing's worth of 
iron, renders it workable into 7050 balance 
springs, which will realize, at the com- 
mon price of 2s 5d. each, to £^846 5s., the 
effect of labor alone. Thus it may be seen 
that the mere labor bestowed upon one far- 
thing's worth of iron gives it the vabie of 
£951) 5s., or $4550, which is 75,930 times 
its original value. 

A Ijessoik lu Tenderness. 

I once asked John W. Edmonds, one of 
the inspecloi-s of Sing Sing I'rison, how 
it was that a Wall-street lawyer, brought 
into sharp collision wiih the woild, had 
preserved so much tenderness of heart. 
'*My moilier was a quakeress," said he, 
'* and a serious conversation she had with 
mc when I was four years old has affected 
my whole life. 1 had joined some boys 
who were tormentinga kitten. Wechased 
her, and threw stones at her till we killed 
her. When I came inlo the house 1 told 
my mother what we had done. She look 
me on her lap and talked to me in such a 
moving style about my cruelty lo the poor 
helpless little animal, that I sobbed as if 
my heart would brtiak. Aflervvards, if I were 
tempted lo do any thing unkind, she^wouid 
tell me to remember how sorry 1 was for 
having hurl the little kitten. For a long 
time after I could not think of it widiout 
tears. It impressed me so deeply when I 
became a man, 1 could never see a forlorn 
suflering wretch run down by his fellow 
beings wiihout ifiinking of lhat hunted and 
pelled little beast. Even now the ghost 
of that kitten, and the reeolleciion of my 
dear mother's gentle lessons, come between 
me and the prisoners at Sing Sing, and for- 
ever admonish me lo be humane and for- 
bearing." — Mrs, Child's Letters from N. 
iork. 

The White Clover. — A few day since, 
cities seemed to me such hateful places, 
that I deemed it the greatest of hardships 
lo be pent up therein. 

A friend found me thus, and having faith 
in nature's healing power, he said, * Let us 
seek green fields and Iloweiy nooks.* So 
we walked abroad ; and wliile yet amid the 
rattle and glare of the city, close by the 
iron railway, I saw a very little, ragged child 
stooping over a small patch of slimed dus- 
ty grass. She rose up with a broad smile 
over her hot face, for she had found a white 
clover! 'i'he tears were in my eyes. — 
'God bless thee, poor child !* said I ; thou 
hast taught my soul a lesson wliich it will 
not soon forget. 'INiou, poor neglected 
one, canst find blossoms by the wayside, 
and rejoice in thy liard path, as if il were 
a mossy bank strewed wilh violets.' 1 felt 
humbled before tliat ragged, gladsome child. 
Tiien saw I plainly, lhat walls of brick and 
mortar did not, and could not, hem mc in. 
I thought of those who loved me, and ev- 
ery remembered kindness was a Ilower in 
my path; I thought of inlellcclual gardens, 
where this child percliance might never en- 
ter, but where 1 could wander at will over 
acres broad as the world ; and if even 
there, the lestless spirit felt a limit, lo ! po- 
etry had but lo throw a ray thereon, and the 
fair gardens of earth arc reflected in ihe heav- 
ens, like ilie fata morgana of Italian skies, 
in a drapery of rainbows. Because I was 
poor in spirit, straightway there was none 
so rich as I. Then was it revealed lo me 
that only the soul which gathers flowers by 
the dusty wayside can truly love the fresh 
anemone by the running brook, or the trail- 
ing arbutus hilling its sweet face among the 
fallen leaves. I returned home a better 
and a wiser woman, thanks to the ministry 
of lhat little one. I saw that 1 was not ill- 
used and unfortunate, but blessed be- 
yond others ; one of nature's favorites, 
whom she ever took lo her kindly heart, 
and coifci for led in all s:easoiis of_disll'cas_and 
waywardness, J'liougb lite sunset was shut 
out. there still remained the roseate flush of 
twilight, as if the sun, in answer to mv 
love, had written to me a farewell message 
on the sky. The red piazza slond there, 
blushing for him who painted it ; but it no 
longer pained my eye-sighl ; I thought 
what a friendly warmth it would have been, 
througii the wintry snows. l h, blessed 
iudeeil are little ehililren ! Mortals do not 
understand half they owe them ; for the 
good they do us is a spiritual gift, and few 
perceive how it inierlwines the mystery of 
life. 'J'hey fi rm a ladder of garlantis on 
which the angels descend lo our souls ; and 
wiihout them, such communication would 
be utterly lost. Let us strive lo be like lit- 
tle children. — Mrs. Child. 



What SLAViiiiOLnKRS think of Slateht. — 
Mr. Uaac E. Morse, of Louisiana, in a speech in 
Coii£rres i, Jdn. II, 1843. t aitl : 

" He denied the principle which spemcd to be 
assumed here as a tliiiif^ conceded, namely, that 
slavery was an evil. He insi! tcd lhat it was so 
Lvi L : on the contrary. (V wu.t ifte •greatest btcssing 
which (J Mi Alnii^hiy himst lf rould hate vrdaiiud 
for tlic protection and safe-keeping of a large mass 
ol liiiman Iwiiigs who were incapable of maintain- 
ing and preserving llicmselves." — Ap.Couf^.Gtobe. 

We find the nhovc Hoatin!; in the newspapers. 
It is calculated to create or confirm false impres- 
sions. .Sr/»ie slaveholders think as Mr. Morse 

d. K s; more, we believe, of those who think at all, 
consider ulavory a ifrcal evil, but one not to be 

e. isily abolished. Il is wrong, therefore, to say 
that 'sluvehnlders* think this or that of a topic 
whereon their opinions are divided. Mr. Morse is 
a New England Yankee, who has chosen to hve 
in Louisiana, and to become an extensive siave- 
iiolJer there; and such are apt to glorify slavery 
more lhan those Imrn to it — in part, to drown aelf- 
reproucbes; but, more probably, to dissipate the 
suspicions wilh which they arc apt to Itc regarded 
by those born slaveholders, who naturally ihinkall 
Northern men arc anti-slavery, or ought to be. 

N. Y. Tribune. 

Webstcr^s Ha.bH of Reading, 

Daniel Webster is a great and rapid 
reader. While iravelling in stages, unless 
his atiention is aiiracied by the company, 
lie will devour as many books as a horse 
will quarts of oais, and generally provides 
himself at starting wilh a slock for the pur- 
pose. A correspondent of the New York 
Commercial Adveriiser, who lately had 
a sta(;e lide wilh him in Massachusetts, 
speaks of him as follows: 

"He read the books through wilh gceat 
rapidity, catching at a glance what each 
page unffdded, and mastering iheir con- 
tents within a quarter of the lime which I 
should consume. He lid not, however, like 
the Emperor, tear out the pages as fast as 
he had perused them, and from the win- 
dows of his carriage scatter them on the 
winds. To me it was insirnctive lo see 
him read a book. He first went over the 
index, and apparendy fixed the frame of it in 
his mind ; then he studied wilh equal earn- 
estness the synopsis of each chapter. Then 
be looked at the length of the chapter. 
'I'hus, before he began to read it, he took 
ail accurate survey of its parts. Then he 
read it; passing rapidly over whatever 
was common-place, and dwelling only on 
whatever was worthy of note. 

At one time, while conversing on the 
subject of reading, and topics worth the 
aiieniton of men. he said he wished be 
could live three lives w iiile living tbis. 
One he would devote to ihe sludy of geol- 
ogy, or to use his own words, *to reading 
the earlh's history of itself.' Another life he 
would devote to astronomy ; he said he 
bad lately been reading the history of that 
science, written so clearly lhat he, although 
no mathematician, could understand it, and 
be was astonished at seeing to what heights 
it had been pushed by modern intellects. 
The odier life be would devote to the clas- 
sics. He spoke in the highest terms of 
coirimendalioii of the acquirements in this 
respect of Mr. Choate, who. by ihc daily 
habit of reading them, has become as famil- 
iar wilh those languages as they who 
wrote them. 

While at school, he (Mr. W.) had never 
read much Greek or Latin. He had, how- 
ever, read the latter considerably while in 
the study and practice of the law. The 
best of bis life has been devoted to law and 
politics, and he mentioned what great au- 
thors he had studied, on bolh subjects, 
with great atiention. For his light rcatliin^ 
and fur his amusement, he had cliosen t 
travels and biographies of men more or 
less eminent in various respects. But for 
the last ten years, he Jiad studied natural 
subjects, and from ihese only could he de- 
rive anv adequate salisfaclion. As years 
crept uptui him be felt his mind ini'oluntar- 
ily drawn more to-tbc sludy and contem- 
plation of sober realities, — lo llie book of 
nature itself, rather than to the fancies and 
speculations which belong lo youlh and 



TiABOR TO MAKE A W^ATCH. Mr. Dcnt, 

in a lecture delivered before the London 
Royal insiiiute. made an allusion to the for- 
mation of a watch, and slated lhat a watch 
consists of 992 pieces ; and stated lhat 4:J 
tra les, and probabIv2ir  persons are eiuploy- 
ed in makiiitr one of these little machines. 
The iron, of which the balance spring is 
formed, is valued at something less than a 



From llitf PiUsbury Spirit or Liberty. 
Gro4lii« ou Nallonnl Keform. 

Mr. Editor. — In tlie course of my read- 
ing, the other day, I accidentally met with 
the following passage, showing the opinion 
of Grolius (whose name is its own pane- 
gyric) on the land question, now agitated 
by the iNalional Reformers. The voice of 
ihe past often utters valuable truths, lo 
which we would do well to listen. Hear, 
then, the opinion of the greatest jurist of 
the seveutecnlh century. S^peaking of the 
duties of humanity owed by nations to for- 
eign exiles, he says: 

"And if there be within the territories of 
any pA'iuce or people any land lhat is desert 
and uncultivated^ that also is lo be granted 
lo strangers if they request it, or ihey may 
lawfully possess it, because that which is 
not culiivaied is repuled as (/fscr/, unless it 
be in respect lo the sovereignly, which re- 
mains, notwithstanding, with the people or 
prince, within whose territories il lies. 
t ervius notes that seven hundred furlongs 
of land, being barren and hard, was by the 
old Latins granted to ihe 'IVojans. And we 
read in Dionysius Prusaensis, that nihil 
peccant tjui partem terrx incultam colunt. 
They do no wrong who inhabit desert and j 

uniultivuicd pluci'^. Thv Aiisiuaiai \jf uld 
(in Tactius) cry out against the Romans ; 
for denying them some grounds that, as 4 
llicy conceived, lay waste. 'J'hus' as the | 
goils have reserved heaven to themselves, 
so have they given the earth to mankind, 
every part whereof that lies uncultivated 
is common. And then, looking up lo tlie 
sun and the stars, he thus demands of them : 
J'lllent ne intueri inane solum ? Whether 
they are willing to hf.hold the earth lie des- 
olate, and not rather that the sea shotdd over- 
flow it, lhan to sulTt r such destroyers of 
the earth lo engross it, and to make no use 
of it. Hut these general sayings, though 
true, yet were ill applied to the matter then 
in question. For these lands did not at al! 
lie waste, but served for tlie depasturing of 
all manner of catlle belonging to the S(d- 
diers. and miglil therefore justly be denied 
ihem." — Evat^s Grotius on the /lights of 
War and Peace, Hook 2, ch. 2, § 17, 
85, 80. 

If such are the rights of foreign exiles, 
and such the duties of nations with Iheir 
wild and uncultivated land in reference lo 
them, how much strons^er is the claim of 
their own citizens or subjects to the free I 
occupation and enjoyment of them ? , | 
J. A. WiLi.is. ; 



C. POSTER & CO. » 

WESTERN I»Rl\Tl\€i PUEss Maw 
FACTORY AM  PKINTKii-s deh? V 

Ct.'ccivnati.— Th^ nttriUftm of l'rm'.-r. j.,,,! p„| j^i^ " 

WKkwSvAo^ HAND PRKSSKS. Ji^ll? |; ' 
provi-mcnw made iii Uic West within llif iflsfitur 
nil of which we will warrant equal to uniTEftiuVai'nf 
Khsi or West. 

All piirchnwrs of our prrssos can have- tVir nnm   
eiipravfil on the t-xira polished work wiUioul churct i 
giving iwemy-foiir hour?" notice. ' o» - 

C. FOSTKR, late ror ?umii of thi» Cincinnati Tyi .- 
Fonndry. lh« inventor nnd llUIUI^r of the pre** ca' « 1 
Foster's Poweb Prf.w, now - \ t v I'v rinr ,,■ ■ 
Allns. tliP rnquin-r. Kpn-lntl ,V ' i 
rbrt C'oininor '.valih. the Iinli 
(Jlininherl.n, forme riy Si.Tit- 1 

1'."' 

trr. 
rbii 

!c 1. 0 . Ill tilt- L'.: 
lory of Power i' 

mniiiif T.M-. ) M:': 

Frr 

Si.  
Eiii 

of n,i k - U . \\ .,. lHMi..-:i I'r ^ Ink. ■ ii ■- 

Rdl. s. Kant-y Joh 'I'ype. Also, Types lor Newspapers 
Uuolc nnd JuIj Tvpe. 

All ordurB directed lo C. FOSTRR A Co - ^ !, 
and Smith sis., lo J. Bicvas &. Co . of li 
Foundry, cor. Vine tind Cenlre sm., or !o I 
Co.. No. 11, Columbia, cast of Waiii BireLi. .. . , 
prompt atiention. 

P. S.—CiMiuifjs of all descriptions of mnchinefy in 
gene m l. furnished 10 order. IX-c 2?*. — If, 

n-^HE WE.STP.RN I.A " -d lo ■ 

X luul Wiirfiir.il Scinico. i ,[. I.AU'S(j\ 

M. n., Prof.-ss^,r of (Jen-nil ^..-al Aiia^o., 

an.l Phy«iotog -, in Trojisylvaii.a Univ«r*iiy, LeX'n"i..,i 
Kentucky. " 

The WeMern Lnnret U piddi^hed mofUl;ly. m Thtr.- 
Oollnrs a year, in ndvnnre. Two coniea s^nr ir, , „ . 
addr. «. for Kiv,:-rV.llarU„advn,Ke ^ 



TOCOUNTIt \ Ti: 
SHALL. ^Uri 
•'Thk Kkhtl'i k 

our Lord. 1840. i , . jt , - 

Lrxiiigion. by ^a.uli.l U M.^Cllu.ugji. A. Ai'. ' anthi,r oi . 

Fa.X;.'' " c!''''"*' ""^ "'^ : 

C. .Marshall lias titwav^ on Imnd an cT-j nsive A«Knrt ' 
ment of SCHOOL BtXJKS, including all Ih^« i^^ge^e.a 
use throughout the State. ° 

ANo. Cap a,vt U,ur Pnprr, Pern, Ink, Blnnk JJooi., 
Ac. \c., which h.! can wliokfaie very 1o\t to Coiuitr/ 
Mi rchanls. Sehnol T'-n.-her?, and oUier«. 

Aupiisi 3. H5, — lO-lf. \ 



WILLIAM GITNNIKOIV, Grnernl CommU- 
Kloit illercliniil, Ao. lUl.SoulU S r. ■ r ^ *, 
\\'harf. iiALTiMoBi:. Mo. 1j 



TLEWINSKI, Archlt«ct.«OiL, 
• «tory of Ihe County ClerkV Olfioe. 
LEXix iT«s, July W. Ifiij. S-lf. 



Taking a Hint. — It is very surprising 
to see how slow some men are to lake a 
hint. 'I'he frost destroys about one half 
the bloom on fruit irecs ; every body pro^r- 
nosticatcs the loss of fruil; instead of lhat, 
the half that remain are larger, fairer, and 
hi-;hcr fl:iVored than usual: and the iroes, 
instead of being exhausted, are ready for 
aiioiher crop the next year. Why don't 
be take the bint, and thin out his fruit every 
bearing year? I5ut no; the next season 
sees bis orchard overloaded, fruit small, 
and not well formed ; yet he always boasts 
of lhat first mentioned crop, wiihout prolit- 
ing by the lesson which il teaches. 

We heard a man saying, *Mhe best crop 
of celery I ever saw, was raised by old 

John , on a spot of ground wheie the 

wash from the barn-yard ran into it after 
every hard shower.'* Did be take the 
hiniriud apply liquid manure to his celery 
trctiches ? Not at all. 

We knew a case where a farmer subsoil- 
ed a field, and raised crops in consequence 
which were the admiraiion of the whole 
ncigliborhood ; and for years the field 
slMuvcd the advantages of deep handling. 
I»ni we could not learn lhat a single farmer 
in the neighborhood look tlie him. The 
man who acted thus wisely sold his farm, 
and his successor pursued the old way of 
surface scratching. 

A staunch farmer complained to us of 
his soil as too loose nnd light: we men- 
tioned ashes as worth trying: *'WeIl, now 
you ' mention il, 1 believe it will do good. 
I bought a part of my farm from a man 
who was a wonderful fellow lo save up 
ashes, and around bis cabin it lay in heaps. 
I took away the house, and to this day I 
notice lhat when the plow runs along lhat 
spot, the soil turns up moist and close- 
grained." It is strange lhat he never 
look ihe bint. 

A farmer gets a splendid crop of corn or 
other grain fruni oO a grass or clover ley. 
riofff hp i.it o ihp hint 7 Do(?« he adoj»t 
the system which shall allow him every 
year a sward to put bis grain on ? No, he 
hales book farming, and scienlilic farming, 
aud "this notion of rotation;" and plods 
on in the old way. — Essex Transcript. 

Invention of the Drama. — According 
to l*olybius, the drama was an invention 
of the Arcadians, for ihe purpose of civil- 
izing the rude manners of the inhabitants. 



BRWA.RK OF col;^'i•KUFl3:^T«. »ti- 
found nt last I A cure for ^MBiiiuptloii ; 

S-'veral ihoufnnfl cn! cs orob«l iiata puliflPhry eomplatiii" 
cured in one year ! 1 1 

^^^^^^^^ 

WISTARS BALSAM OF WILD CIlKimY, 
T}ie great Arriffi'-un rrniftij for Lung Complaints and n 
ajfrriions nf it.r flr-^jjirnro'-tt Orpins. 
AVc do not wish to ir - ■ !; , . .,r health of llie 

afflicted. an l we 8:111 s to innke no 

us»eruons as lo the v:i' ;„id to hold oul 

no hope to »tulferiiig Im.., , , ■ ls w.U iiol war 

rant. 

Wc ask Uie aitcntion of ihc candid to a few considera  
lions. 

N:i;ure, in evcr ' part of lier work*, has left indclliblo 
miirk. v oi ndiipiui:on and ile'^iun. 

'I"' Ii con»tiluiion of ihe ninmals nnd Tegclables of ihe 
lorriil. IS Buch lliai ihey could not endure ihe cold of llus 
friiriil zone, nnd %'iee versa. 

In rtpard lo disease and iia cure, the adapiatton it no 
less Rtrikinf^. 

'I'he Mots of Trfland, the Wilit Cft^v. nnd Tm/. of:.:' 
northern Inuiudes, (and Dr. \Vistar\4 liaWntn is acoi.. 
pound chemical extract from lhe»p.) have In.ij,- been c  ; - 
bniied for complaints prevalent only in cold t lnnairi. In- 
(lee l. the most elipli ngiiished medical men luive averr. d 
lhai nature furnishes, in every counir -. aniidotci for 
own pe4'uliar djseujes. 

Consumption, in iin confirmpJ and incipient Ftagi-s, 
ruutihi*. A liiina. Croup and Liver Complaint, form by lar 
the nioit t'miil cIhsa of di»eR»  a known 10 our land. \   • 
evi-n ihc«.- niny l.e cured by mean* of the sitnple yet pnu 
en'ul rcniedien (named above) uiiil which are scattered, 1. 
a lirneficrnl providence, wherever lhe« maladies prevn 

The caseofTlioma^i v?o/.eii». of llnddoiifield, N J., if tcIjk 
ted by myself; and that all may know its entire iruiii. Oia 
statement is swum 10 before a .lusiiec of the Pence. 

llAUDo.NnKLD, X. J., April 10, 

On or near the Hlh day of D  ceinher, isll. I wis luken 
with a vt(,I.-nt pain in the tide near Oie liver, wh r 
ti" ' 1 ■'' ■ 11 five days, and was followed l-y li,. 

'•r Fomrihing inwardly, which r- l 
I' l 1 cau^fd me to throw up a eri':i; 

Ol ...1. , - w iiiatser and also much UIcxkI. Uein:,- 
nhiniicil ui Hiif, i applied lo n phyj^ician. bul It. 
llioui;lil he could do but little for me except (fiv.- 1 
rm-n ury pills, which I refused to lake, fceliiii: - 
tbat they could do me no cood; many other renie 1 
Ihen procured by my wife and friends, 8n4l iioii* 
any f£ood. and Uie discharge of blooil and corru,. 
conunoed every few daj s, and at last became ^^ 
1 coold •carcely breathe. I was also »ei/.ed wiili 
coogh. which at times caii!ii-d nie to rais^ in 
blow Iban I had done betbre. and my diKcase en, . 
in tw way, still growm^r wor^ e. until Febrtiary. wh.-ii *' 
hOfffof my recovery w;is pivi ri up. and nil mv frii i ' • 
fhoHL-ir I would die \vr I, ;■. i ...j c,,. . 

' lit. vvht-n t' 
• aril of Dr. \^ 
■ ,i which rrl I . ,. .1 

Use 01 iinly Ihrce bonier of lins lueilnMie, ali ni  \ .i 
were removed, my coughand spitting of uIooJ and cori^;' 
lion entirely stopped, and in a few werka my In- a 1 1)1 - v:!- 
I'itr restored as lo enable me to go to work at tn' 

h'i-)i iii a carpenter,) and up lo ihts (im ; I hnv  
go «l health. THOMAS CO/. 

\\'iTXF.ss- — T am acriuainted with Mr. Thorn a ■* lo.-ii*. 
and having 9een him d'Jnn:; his illness, I lliink ihe above 
slulement entitled to f:iir or'- i:T 

Glolxestijr Cocxr v 
ihe subscriber, one 01 
said county. Th9ma« ' ' 
cording lo law. sanh ihe al4 vc .~: 
true. AlTiniied beiurw mc on (be W- 

WISTARS riALPAM'OF W 1 1 . 1 M . 1 1 .ii ; : . \ 
U'i7( ttthafki nei-fr eenurl Mart tn-lmot of its sujtritii k 
JItiilth K'^tarntivt Virlua. ' 

Proiw Dr. Uakcr, Springfield. Wa«liin|D;ion County, Kv. 

Sprinujitld, ky.. May 1 1. 

' ■ Miniity of informing you of t\ 



I . 



iied ujion lue by the use 1 
rr -. 



the i.OWi.is, \\ ,1 

graduidly rrc« 1 

With a severe . . 

lor the space ol -An. 

If ed all kinds of mc-' 

aid without bein fii - 

iNll. When I h. 

My triends 
givi 11 up all ]i- 
lor ihe change n, . i 
lions 1 was induced l» iiiii ^ 
BaUam of Wild Chtrni. 1 
ing. Afler five i/tars 01" afll 
Bi'ler having spent four or 
t'osf, and the best and mo- 
proveil uiia\Bilin^, I was sj,  , 
the blessin^jsof God, and in .- yi-c oi Ih. W 1.-1. u 
of Wild Cherry. 

I nm now cjijov-n^ r«0'! h. rtltt;. and sneh is i i 

it - .u-wii when 1 iiL I 



id mv fle ih is firm an-l 

iting thtt 

I t n-'PPa- 
. B 10 iha 

•V will' re 

. Mnv 



ROO!C FARM SCHOOL.- Tb- T  r ■ !f.r« of 

■•••d with the lirook ! ji- 

iiu nts for   ninrgi.i ii- 

l ared to receive un . m- 

comprises instruction in iho vari- 
laiicht in the High Schools and 
1.1 I ' ■■ i'} particulnr ailentioii to 
I '! lileraiiire. 

I ■ Il sexes are received ; 



T3f the 

t'on bav 
iiinii. at 



}t- I'liiiHTM Kurujii ii 

l'ii|i:l!« of dilTi-reni 



. r iti- 



(■..■1,1.1. i. .11 ; (it i-.n I- 1 u i-, i.i tn- 

^inu'Uon. 11 the higher branches usually taught in ihc 



]" I . IK I'll i -;u 
I V pupil of icii 
f.V n !r.,iv ..r ■ 



Ih. 



ling, and 

Mr. nnd 

I by ex. 
.itid eve- 
I iir can- 
of his 



appear;! 
former :i' 
1 bav- - 

*Ol!d. I . . . , 

M-eiiiS lo UKiee Willi . 
last SIX months than I ' 

Considering my e;i- 
sary for the  tootl of t. 
proprietors and my !■ 
relief is lo be had) i^' 
the blessma of Cjo | re-t . , i .n,- |,i 
B med-eine a* WiMar's l a:^al^of 

Yours, rcsj eeifully. . ; 

Dr-;w ' ■ • 

Thow who   pnrpnso 
of ndibiig a fi-v. ... ihaii 

the iiiaiitifactur' 1 ■ ■ r 

rtit  IIS oi our prt.per:  

nnd liie away. Dr. \', , 
uilniitled, by ihousaiKl- . . - . , , 

ellVcied the most exiraoitlmary euits ;ii easi. sol puimona* 
ry Hiiil aishmatie character, ever hvfaxe recorded in lbs 
hislory of medicine. 

'I'he young, Ihc bcauliful. the good, all speak ibrth 'n its 
praise. It is now the favorite medicine in tiic nio^l in elli- 
gent famitics of  uir cfun'ry, 

Such a high -i ' 
ed l:y lis own n 
puhlic are cat' 1 

ry. and refuse, w 1 1 ,,■ i 

title prolfered 10 lin-in a.* u »ul.r-iituit — so iuiig wdl ct ; 
—Pi^iTiVE— cheer the fireside of many a despairing 1. 
ily.' 

[Tr'Thc true and genuine '"Wislnr's Halsiim of \\ 
Clierry'' is sold al established agencies in all paru ol 1. ' 
United States. 

SANFORD A PARK, Cincinnati. Ohio. 
Corner of Walnut ami Fourth Strrtti , Proprir" ■ 
to whom all oriters mu*l ht fH-. 
80LD IX KPNTrrnT by ritK FOLr-» wixo A'^- 
A. T. Mays, I.e\uigloii; tV'Uton A- Sliarp. .M»  
D. Crulcher, Fraiikiurii J. L. Sine lle, Ilur, 
rhandW A: IMiiUip!*, Lebanon; II. T. Snnih. (Jr- 
J.J. Vduriiflove, Uowliiii; (ireen; Hopper A i' 
llopWiii viH.-; \V- A. Ilickutuii U.  *o.. iiardslowii 

. 'I II. WHd»r A Co;,I.ouisv.. . , , 

iblishcd nt all Ihe impcriant IO'-mi - 

ilii 

i 1 'l.LOWIXO AgRXTS TN ISDtAXA. 

Toinliii-on A. l ioiii.-r. only ap'-nts in lndiai;a|»ol.*; Iii-n 
A Co., Terre Haute; C. F. Wilsiack. Laffyrlte; Win 
Hughes A Co.. Mnd.wn; Windstaiidlcy A N^wkirk. N-- .-. 
AMiany; Jesfe Stephens, Cenlerviile; John Tiirk,C...^v 
fordsville; Dr. L. Heerhi-r. Fort Wayne, John (ionloii.   1 
lem; Wm. M. Woolsey, Kvansvil!'-: J Somers, Viim 
nes: niul by regular agcms established in aJl imporin: 
towns Uiroughout the state. 

Si'i.T) IV Onto 

v.-  ■^^v^'■^ .«,- I'"- ■ I r.. . :'■■- • ' rr - \ 

i.-A 
1: 

\\ , 

Me. 1, 11;. I I. .N'Mu:.i. 

A- Haw AshiubulaL I '. 

P. Shur^ I-.r...,vJt. I 

L. St. j..hii, T.i..!i. ••mi.ii 
RalMOuA Co.. Toledo; Wh 'i 
Pall, Zaiicsvillc; Kramer. 1' 

.Ml. Vernon; C. F. Heimnii ' . ■■ 1 -   
Frnr.ier. Steultenvill.-; K- U. Perkins. .Maneliu. f. I,, t n 
rinr. Aihen*; L. P.Megn -l. (iatbi^ol s; J. L.McVey. I'oi 
moulh; A. D. Sprout. Chillicothe; Van Cleve A \eu . 
Daylong and by appointed Agenls in every lowii m i.,- 
stale. 

Sold in Dciroil, Mich , by J. Owen A Co. 

Sold ill Pillsburgb, Pa., by S. Wilrox. Jr. Oct. 1^4.^;. 



A ' 



IVKW AND CHKAP LAW ROOK — Jt 



wilh rei'-M. ii. I   ill !■ 
ii. pp. H5^, f*vo. Pric' 

viti- :iIt' Ml 'in 'I'' 1 



C. W. woubi I 



1 ^outl paper, lu large type, and well Ifouiid \\\ 



War is an instrument eniirely inefHcienl 
towards retiressiuir wron^, and mnliiplies 
instead of indemuifving h)sses. — Jefferson. 



^ ^ . iiur boani, washing 

i..Lryi,lx H..I ■■-■'■ '"'-he*- 

AppTicationmay be made by -n"^^-^^,^. ^^^^ ^^ 

IJbook Fahm. West Roxbirv. M a -! t 



the I'nit' : 
Real Pn,; 

Loina\ nti 11, - i;..'. 
•leiifrally in use in 1!. 
particularly to the pm. 
\.*x ii;.;!on..JuIy 'J9, 1 : 



, Lomnx'g D'gesi of the /,bwi 
mlly adopted »ii l In use 
iNoro'esiwomlly Ihe Law ■ 

- and Ai'm'nislr:Mo 
and nd»pir(*.4 
.:;t. £ vols 



True American (Lexington, Ky. : 1845), 1846-10-21

4 pages, edition 01

 Persistent Link: https://kentuckynewspapers.org/catalog/xt7v6w967q2g
 Local Identifier: tru1846102101
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Location
  Published in Lexington, Kentucky by William L. Neale
   Fayette County (The Bluegrass Region)